Who were Moses Pharaohs?
THE PHARAOHS IN THE TIME OF ISRAEL'S ENSLAVEMENT
The real Chronology of the 15th, 16th and 17th Dynasty according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (leading egyptologists' highly speculative estimations in brackets):
according to Ryholt 1997
tables 42/45 pages 202/024
1729-1606 BC: ('1649-1531 BC')
'Hyksos' Invasion & Enslavement of Israel.
EPHRAIM's Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret's 13th Dynasty Clan flees from Avaris to his brother MANASSE and his ruling family clan in Thebes evidenced in Papyrus Boulaq 18 and Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 (c. Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78).
Enslavement of Israel in Avaris RAAMEZES, Lahun PHYTOM, LeONtopolis ON, and the complete Nile Delta. According to historian Manetho "Salitis had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt."
Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs of the
15th Dynasty over complete Egypt:
- Sharek/SakirHar/Salitis 1729-1710 BC
- Bnon/BinAnu 1710-1697 BC
- Apakhnas 1697-1686 BC
- Khayan 1686-1658 BC
- Ippi/Apepi/Apophis 1658-1617 BC
- Khamudi 1617-1606 BC
Vizierkingships: EPHRHAIM > SHUTELAH > BERIAH
1750-1729 BC: Parallel 13th & 16th Dynasty
HEPHER Senebhenef son of MANASSE Co-Vizier of Thebes announces himself additionally as Thebes' Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII before his family clan returns from the North.
1729-1698 BC: ('1649-1582 BC')
The 13th Dynasty of Egypt flees to Thebes & takes over in battles with the 'Hyksos' the 16th Dynasty of Thebes -identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by ancient Egyptian historian Manetho according to Africanus and Syncellus.
Around 1725: Death of EPHRAIM Ankhu Senwosret and his brother MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw
SHUTELAH 1Chr7:20 Vizier Resseneb son of EPHRAIM Ankhu Senwosret becomes the new King of the 16th Dynasty. His brother BERIAH Vizier Iyumeru Aya will become his successor and archeologically evidenced King. His son REFA 1Chr7,25 Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II becomes Vizierprince.
Identification of Pharaohs according to:
A Relationships (Ryholt 1997)
B 13th Dynasty enthronement traditions
C Biblical orders & relationships:
1. # JOSEPH's last grandsons
2. # SHUTELAH's sons & grandson
3. # BERIAH's son & grandson
4. + MANASSE's family clan
15 Pharaohs of the 16th Dynasty of Thebes
+ name lost (2)
+ Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti (3)
(wife: Monthotep) son in law of Vizier
Senebhenef MANASSE's son HEPHER
+ Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep
VIII (16) = Senebhenef HEPHER Jos17:2
# Pharaoh Djedneferre Dedumose (1)
former northern thronename Djethotepre
or the son of killed Djethotepre
# Pharaoh Sekhemre Sankhtawi
Neferhotep 'III' (1) inscriptions like
„adorned with the Kephresh (blue war
crown)“ „saving from famine“ "my city …
victorious Thebes" „having been sunk
through strife with foreigners“ speaks
for having defended a Northern ‚Hyksos‘
# Pharaoh Seankhenre Monthotepi (1) as
"King within Thebes ... my city" was
„driving back the foreign lands“
= the Northern Canaanite ‚Hyksos‘
# Pharaoh Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I (10)
Seals of him in Northern Lisht speak for
an established diplomatic relationship
with the Canaanite Northern ‚Hyksos‘.
He is SHUTELAH's son BERED 1Chron7,20
and father of
# Pharaoh Nebiryraw II (1)
BERED's son TAHATH 1Chron7,20
# Pharaoh Semenre (1)
BERED's brother ERAN Numb26,36
# Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh (12)
BERIAH's "Kingson"! RESEPH 1Chron7,25
# Pharaoh Sekhemre Shedwaset (1)
RESEPH's son THELAH 1Chron7,25
# Pharaoh Djedankhre Montemsaf (1)
# Pharaoh Merankhre Monthotep VI (1)
# Pharaoh Seneferibre Senusret IV (1)
According to Ryholt time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (1997 p.201)
1698-1677 BC ('1582' BC):
BERIAH Vizier King Iyumeru Aya does not appoint his brother's widow Senebtisi's son PERESH Haankhef but his own son REFACH Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru Ayameru II as successor & next Vizier King:
EPHRAIM's King's lineage stands again in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage. JOSEPH's great-grandson REFACH's power as announced Vizier King Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II decreases in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage.
In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is clearly identified as Hyksos Dynasty. According to Africanus Manetho identifies them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings.
1686 BC: MOSES is born.
7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes MANASSE's legitimate lineage 1Chron7:20.25
+ Pharaoh Neebmaatre (position unknown)
+ Pharaoh SekhemreWahkhaw Rahotep (4)
is ZELOPHEAD son of HEPHER Senebhenef
+ Pharaoh SekhemreShedtawy Sobekemsaf I (3)
is HEPHER's brother SHEMIDA Num26:32,
and father of
+ Pharaoh SekhemreWepmaat Antef VI (2)
SHECHEM 1Chron7:19, is the brother of
+ Pharaoh Nubkheperre Antef VII (5)
+ Pharaoh SekhemreHerhermaat Antef VIII (0)
is the brother-in-law of Antef VI/SHECHEM
+ Pharaoh SekhemreWadjkaw Sobekemsaf II (7)
ANIAM 1Chron7:19 the third son of SHEMIDA
Latest switch back from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty. MANASSE's lineage's attempts to achieve the King's throne finally come to its successful end latest with Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV, stepfather of MOSES.
1666-1646 BC: MOSES is Prince of Egypt >
Egyptologists confirm evidence for friendly relations to the 15th Dynasty. These "false Kingsons" on the right were erroneously set after a true Kingson of Joseph called Sobkehotep III: Disproven recently by excavated evidence for Sobekhotep's IV & Khayan's co-rulership over complete Egypt at the same time. (Leading Egyptology is reconsidering the entire chronology of the 15th Dynasty instead of the 13th & 16th Dynasty and cannot reach a consensus.) The Canaanite-Hebrew Co-Rulership leads to the end of the Egyptian distinction between Hebrew Shepherd Kings and Canaanite Foreign Oppressors into common antisemitism against both Semites and into the common definition of HekaShasut as Foreign Rulers and into the Hyksos Controversy Confusion up until today.
Self-acclaimed 3 "Kingsons" of PERESH (1Chron7:16) Haankhef, the son of
MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy:
+ REKEM Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
1677-1666 BC father of
crown prince without reign time
which speaks for a sudden death
+ ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
1666-1634 BC ('1732-1720'BC)
becomes son in law of 'Hyksos' Pharaoh
Khayan and so achieves the co-rulership
as King over complete Egypt,
he is the husband of Pharaoh's daughter
Meris/Tjan, the adoptive mother of MOSES
Sobekhotep's IV sons become Pharaohs:
+ BEDAN Pharaoh Sobekhotep V 1634-1631 BC
(Hebrew mother Nubhotepi)
+ Pharaoh Sobkhotep VI 1632-1627 BC
(Canaanite mother Meris/Tjan)
Egyptian Ahmosides Dynasty of Thebes
Switchback from a Hebrew Dynasty into an Egyptian Dynasty through Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew Dynasty
Pharaohs Sequenre Tao & Kamose loose their battles with Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis
1606 BC ('1531 BC'):
Ten Plagues & Exodus of Israel out of Egypt & 'Hyksos' Expulsion
4 Pharaohs of the Egyptian counter
17th Dynasty of Thebes:
- Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose 1627 BC
Canaanite mother in law Meris/Tjan
Canaanite-Hebrew wife Tetisheri
- Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao 1626-1621 BC
Hebrew wife Satibu/ Sadjehuti
- Pharaoh Kamose 1621-1616 BC
first son of Sequenre Tao
- Pharaoh Ahmose I. 1616-1581 BC
second son of Sequenre Tao
Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks "the Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" Exodus1,13 One of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC ('1553 BC') the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Page chronology) until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire. He was Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC who ruled his first 22 years together with his stepmother Hatshepsut.
To better understand the background of this chapter watch the movie "Moses" of 1995 starring Ben Kingsley or listen to the biblical story of Moses on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1NB_p4qM0Q in english or in german on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ho3tSnW5SVQ&list=PLr_U4dE6BCIAvRw-qq6wP6XfZw4hIC3p-&index=2. Or read the Bible's Second Book of Moses Chapter 1 to 14. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as subtitle. To make life easier for all readers in this work Wikipedia sometimes is the referred source if no special source is mentioned also when citing in quotation marks without a source to make it easier for all readers to roughly check things; In the relating Wikipedia articles, You then find the professional sources they refer on.
Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written, consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions and in two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes and letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables sometimes which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh S(j)n Wrt/ Senuseret can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; Thus one person very easily disperses into many different persons. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is Joseph's Master Potiphar, his father-in-law Potiphera, and his Chief-of-Prison; In Egyptology, examples are Potiphar's/ Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath/ Henut and most important the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of Joseph and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson; They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were as Rulers famous enough to own several different names. Joseph Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthotep with his early names Senowsret Ankh, Amenemhet Ankh and his most early and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea, his sons Manasse Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw and Ephraim Vizier Ankhu Senwosret, his grandson Beriah Vizier Iyumeru Aya, and his great-grandson Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru Ayameru II are evidenced enlightenment examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two Centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the complete riddles of the officially so-called "dark period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You are discovering and learning in this work time after time.
THE TIME OF THE ISRAEL'S EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT
IS THE TIME OF THE CANAANITE HYKSOS EXPULSION
According to ancient Africanus, the Egyptian historian Manetho wrote "The 18th Dynasty consisted of 16 Kings ... The first of these was Amôs (Ahmose I), in whose reign Moses went forth from Egypt." According to ancient Josephus Manetho also wrote that after the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' Ahmosis lived another 25 years and 4 months.
The name Ahmose is explicitly also confirmed in connection with the Exodus by the ancient historians Tatian, Clemens of Alexandria, and Eusebius of Caesarea. Archeologist Kenneth Doig and other modern Archeologists even nowadays defend an Exodus under Ahmose I ('1552'BC).
In Dr. Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation and work "The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers" he examined all ancient Jewish writers, ancient secular writers, ancient Christian early church fathers, and the Tanakh/OT and New Testament/NT regarding the date of the Exodus. His result is:
Most ancient writings date the Exodus of Israel
into the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos.
(They are written in Bold letters)
Examined Jewish ancient writers were:
Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah, Book of Jubilees, Pseudo-Philo, Demetrius, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Testament Of Moses, Targum Neofiti I, Babylonian Talmud, Genesis Rabbah, 1Qumran Genesis Apocryphon, 4Qumran559 Biblical Chronology and Midrash Abkhir.
Examined Secular ancient writers were:
Apion, Chaeremo, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Lysimachus, Manetho, Ptolemy of Medes and Tacitus.
Tacitus was a Senator in Rome and the most famous historian of the first century. He acknowledges that there was a plague in Egypt, the Jews were expelled out of Egypt, Moses was their leader, and they conquered a new country. Tacitus gives us the contemporary secular viewpoint on Jewish origins.
Examined Church Fathers' writings were:
Africanus, Eusebius, Hippolytus, Clement, Tatian, and Theophilus.
Meyer does not include Eusebius but Eusebius clearly identifies Ahmose I as the correct Pharaoh of the Exodus: "Now this Ptolemaeus ... says that the departure of the Jews out of Egypt under Moses as their leader took place inthe time of Amosis king of Egypt".
Examined 3rd century Bible canonical books were:
The Old Testament/ The Tanakh & The New Testament.
The key verses in the Old Testament are Genesis 15:13, Exodus 12:40, and I Kings 6:1. The key verses for the New Testament are Acts 13:20 and Galatians 3:17.
"One of the major stumbling blocks for the conservative is their understanding of the 480 years from the founding of the temple to the Exodus. This number does not include the one hundred and eleven years of oppression in the book of Judges that ancient writers included in their totals." This is a deciding result of Meyer's work already explained more precisely by Dr. Roger Liebi in the introduction of Chapter Chronology. Meyer also writes:
"This paper has shown that most of the ancient writers equated the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt... Most ancient writers put the Jews in Egypt for 215 years or less. According to most ancient writers, the 430 years in Egypt were taken to start with the promise to Abraham, and the 400 years from the birth of Isaac. Others begin these years with Abraham's entry into Canaan. All of the ancient Jewish and Christian writers considered in this paper took this 430 or 400 years to cover the time in Egypt as well as Canaan. Biblical writers also agree with these ancient traditions, and the archaeological evidence reinforces these views."
He writes also:
"All took the 400 or 430 years to cover the time in Egypt AND Canaan. Most counted the 400 years from the birth of Isaac, or Abraham's entry into the land of Canaan. NONE of the ancient writers including the apostle Paul said the Jews were in Egypt for 430 years."
You can explore the findings confirming the ancient writers on https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/exodusdate.htm#BIBICAL%20WRITERS
The complete amount of the Canaanite self-called 'Hyksos' Pharaohs
are the Pharaohs in the Book of Exodus
from the first Pharaoh to the last Pharaoh mentioned.
According to Hayes at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris the royal court had moved south to Thebes (Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78). The time between Joseph and Moses was the time of doom for the people of Israel and a tough challenging time for EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu and his sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH as Viziers Resseneb and Iymeru Aya trying to save who and what can be saved while fleeing with their 13th Dynasty royal court 1729 BC to EPHRAIM's brother MANASSE Senebefni Vizier and Mayor of Thebes and initiating the 16th Dynasty.
ISRAEL'S DIFFERENT PHASES OF ENSLAVEMENT
1729 BC - 1686 BC - 1658 BC - 1625 BC - 1606 BC
1729 BC: Israel was forced under hard labor by the Canaanite Hyksos King Sharek/SakirHar/Salitis and the Egyptian elite. They had to build up the by war destroyed cities of biblical Ra-amezes/Avaris the first settlement place of Israel, Pythom/Lahun and On/Heliopolis (the hometown of Israel's tribefathers since father Jacob's death) as fortified cities of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' to avoid further invasions of other eastern peoples. Pythom is identified by millenia old oral tradition in Judaism as Faiyum the village Lahun is situated in, the tradition is scripturaly evidenced since the middle ages. Lahun was a Semitic slave workers' town excavated and identified by the Father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie. He found archeological evidence of the first alphabet with today identified Hebrew words and biblical names and he already identified the slave workers as possible Hebrews. Lahun is located near the today's Bar Yusuf, a millenia old name which translated means Joseph's Canal. Joseph's Canal was already identified in Chapter Joseph as the Canal built by JOSEPH - at the canal and evidenced called Vizier Chety/Kethi - to regulate the Nile Floods and thus the years of plenty and the years of famine. JOSEPH's sons obviously helped him in his main project, archeologically evidenced by his son (Ankhu) Senowsret and grandson Resseneb as Mayors of Lahun at the Canal (see Chapter Joseph). The Hebrew workers town Lahun later archeologically evidenced turned into a slave workers town, many buried few months old infants were found beneath the floors of many houses - a strong indicator for the biblical child murder and the town was abandoned all of a "sudden and unpremeditated" (Rosalie David, Pyramide Builders of Ancient Egypt p.199) in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
Archeological Evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeOntopolis match enslaved Israel building the fortified city of On/Heliopolis evidenced in the 5th century Latin Jubilees46,14 (compare Exodus1,11).
1886 BC: After 'Hyksos' King Aphaknas' sudden death new 'Hyksos' King Khayan stopped the murder of Hebrew male newborns. He was the adoptive grandfather of MOSES and father in law of ULAM the Hebrew King Sobekhotep IV. There is an archeologically evidenced increasing exchange with and influence on Southern Egypt in this time. His Hebrew interconnections speak for a phase of easing the oppression of the People of Israel in Northern Egypt between 1686 and 1658 BC.
1658 BC: The essential re-worsening of Israel's situation after 1658 BC is indicated by Moses biblical visit 1646 BC of his 'brethren' to inspect their "struggling of forced Labour" in Exodus2,11 after Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Apophis in 1658 BC usurped the throne.
Khayan's and his son and originally planned follower Yanassi's sudden disappearance with Apophis throne usurpation leads to the question if they died a natural death and if the reasons are only a successful coup of Apophis or also a previous failed coup of Sobekhotep IV to achieve the sole power over complete Egypt.
Semitic Slaves under Pharaoh
Ahmose Founder of the New Kingdom
Pharaoh Ahmose I
slaying a Semitic Slave
(same slave haircut/suncap)
1625: When southern Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaoh Kamose waged war against 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis, he managed to conquer a part of northern Egypt whcih could have been a used opportunity of the Ahmosides to become the owner of an essential part of the Hebrew slave workers of the Hyksos. His brother and successor Pharaoh Ahmose I possibly additionally enslaved all Hebrews who had fled from the Canaanite 'Hyksos' ruled Northern Egypt to Southern Egypt. But the most plausible probability is most Hebrew slaves were simply rented by Ahmose I from the Canaanite 'Hyksos' ruler Khamudi because he had no urgent need for them. In any case, a huge amount of slave workforce was needed for the necessary mud brick production to make Pharaoh Ahmose's I huge archeologically evidenced mud-brick building projects all over his empire possible (Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs, London 2009, page 11) including the last Egyptian Pharaoh's Pyramide of history. The necessary biblical evidenced Hebrew slave work mud brick production is mainly archeologically evidenced in Lahun near the sea of Fayum identified as Phytom by rabbinical Judaism until the middle ages as already mentioned. Furthermost plausible mud brick production locations were Heliopolis/On, also called Iunu-Monthu, and Avaris. All southern-Egyptian huge building projects - mostly built of mud-bricks - archeologically evidenced abruptly had to be canceled (Grimal 1988, p.200) in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, the biblical year 1606 BC of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. The locations of these huge building projects were Karnak/Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis/On, Buhen; And in Abydos the Ahmose I. Pyramide which had to be filled with sand and soil with no inner structure of mud bricks because of the suddenly collapsed mud brick production 1606 BC (c.'1530 BC'). Beforehand Ahmose also reopened the Tura limestone quarries to provide stone for monuments and evidenced used Semitic cattle from Canaan to haul the stone, according to his quarrt inscriptions (Quark Inauguration Archived 2010.06.05 at the Wayback Machine, accessed July 28, 2006) which is a former indication for additional Hebrew slave work.
In addition to the Rehkmire tomb painting, a leather scroll in the Louvre which dates to the time of Rameses II mentions forty stablemasters (junior officers) who each had a quota of 2000 bricks to be made by the men under them.22 Two further Egyptian papyri (Anastasi IV and V) record that “there are no men to make bricks and no straw in the district,”23which highlights the importance of straw as a binder in brickmaking, and the dismay the Israelites felt when Pharaoh stopped supplying it, but still required the same number of bricks to be made (Ex 5:18-21). Egyptian records affirm the biblical description of the process of making bricks (Bryan Windle, Top Ten Discoveries related to Moses and the Exodus in: Bible Archeology Report Sept24 2021).
The Last Page of the Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446
listing Hebrew and Biblical names of domestic slaves working for a Theban Palace
(David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth of History? Page 772)
THE LAST PAGE OF THE BROOKLYN PAPYRUS 35.1446
- JOSEPH'S GRANDSON'S RESCUE LIST OF ISRAELITES -
SHIPRA THE MIDWIFE G'D GAVE A PALACE - RESCUED BY THE SON OF EPHRAIM
The Torah/ Bible mentions Shiphra and Pua, Hebrew midwives who at least one generation earlier than the successful mass murder of newborns had not obeyed Pharaoh Salitis' command to kill the male Israelite newborns. It is written that "G'D did well to them afterward by providing Palaces for them" (Exodus1,21 literal old Hebrew translation).
The famous Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 from Thebes of escaped slaves in Egypt owns an extra list from exactly this time on the back page with 37 Hebrew names, at least nine are even biblical Hebrew names of 95 names in total. So that attests that there were actually people with Hebrew names living in Egypt before the Exodus. The "Lady of the House Senebtisi in Thebes" tries to establish them officially as her "Palace" houshold servants. This means salvation from otherwise hard escape-related punishment, hard slave work, or even death in that time. According to R.B. Parkinson (Reading Ancient Egyptian Poetry, page 155) these slaves were being given (or arranged) to Senebtisi by her husband Vizier Resseneb SHUTELAH, son of Vizier Ankhu EPHRAIM, son of Vizier Zamonth JOSEPH (see Chapter Joseph's Pharaohs). Paleontologists estimate the back page handwriting around the year 1743 BC. The year estimation is embedded in the already mentioned "uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation in the dark period". The Brooklyn Papyrus is one of the major objections against the claim of Leading Egyptology that there would be no evidence at all that Israelites or Hebrew were in Egypt before the time of the Exodus. Leading Egyptology rejects this on the fundament of their self-disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm of an Exodus, which never took place and simultaneously must have taken place in the 13th Dynasty rejecting the biblical correct time 1606 BC.
The sudden Enslavement of Israel started in the biblical year 1729 BC Jubilees46:12 initiated by the first Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Sharek/SakirHar/Salitis and the successful killing of all male newborns took place in the biblical year 1686 BC ordered by Pharaoh Apakhnas to the Canaanites and Egyptians. Exodus1:20 observes a tremendous population growth between Pharaoh Salitis' failed male newborn killing command to the Hebrew midwives and the same later successful command by Pharaoh Apakhnas to his own people and the Egyptians, thus at least a time of one complete generation must have passed in between for this observation which makes the command to the Hebrew midwives in 1729 BC or shortly thereafter most plausible; This is 14(!) years near to the rough Papyrus time estimation.
Thus it is not just easily possible but even strikingly plausible that the Hebrew biblical name Shiphra evidenced in the Brooklyn List is in fact the biblical midwife Shiphra, "G'D provided a Palace for" in Exodus1:21 - SHUTELAH's Vizierking's Palace in southern Thebes, safe and far away from Pharaoh Salitis in northern Avaris, who's command she had not obeyed. This rescue was lead by JOSEPH's grandson and EPHRAIM's son SHUTELAH as Vizierking of Southern Egypt fulfilling once again Father JACOB's prophecy and special blessings on EPHRAIM's lineage. It is the first but not the last rescue list prepared by an Israelite to save his brothers and sisters from oppression, cruelty, and death in history as the famous Schindler's List confirms.
The Brooklyn Papyrus is contemporary written evidence
of Hebrew slaves with biblical names in the time
when the Bible says the Enslavement of Israel took place.
Shipra is archeologically and biblically evidenced
a Hebrew slave maid being through JOSEPH's grandson SHUTELAH Vizier Resseneb saved by receiving contemporary best working conditions in the Royal biblical evidemced Palace of Thebes
in the time of Israel's Enslavement.
THE MURDER OF MALE NEWBORNS
IN HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS OF THE 17TH CENTURY BC IN EGYPT
Sinai 349 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert
Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey
In the beginning of Chapter JOSEPH we learned already about the first Alphabet coming up in the biblical time of Israel's arrival Egypt. In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 found as Hebrew identified inscriptions of ancient Egypt. One of them called Sinai 349 says:
"He (the King of Egypt) sought occasion to cut away to barrenness
our great number, our swelling without measure.
They yearned for Hathor (Mother goddess & Turquoise Mine goddess),
but the quiver of our brothers was thoroughly despised.
He performed terror against their quiver & brought about a cry of wailing."
Hathor was the Egyptian female deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and promiscuity.
One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it after the murder of all Hebrew male newborns Exodus1:22 in 1686 BC. This is archeological evidence confirming, and strongly indicating the sojourn of Israel in Egypt, the idolatry of Israel in Egypt, the enslavement of Israel in Egypt, and the command of the King of Egypt on the mass murder of all male Hebrew firstborn and its execution.
THE BRIGHTEST RAY OF HOPE IN THE DARKEST HOUR OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
- MOSES IS BORN -
MOSES was born 1686 BC, 64 years after Joseph's death and 43 years after the 'Invasion of the Hyksos' and the Enslavement of Israel under Pharaoh Sharek/SakirHar/Salitis. The Canaanite Pharaos and Kings of Egypt in the North in the time of MOSES were Sheshi/Beon, Apachnas, Khayan/Yannas, Ippi/Apophis, and finally the last Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khamudi/Archeles. They were all Canaanites and self-appointed 'Hyksos', ruling as an occupation force from the North over Egypt, suppressing the Egyptians, and holding the people of Israel under enslavement by Egyptian slave drivers. Moses was born into the 4th generation of Israel as the son of AMRAN, the son of KAHAT, the son of LEVI, the son of JACOB called ISRAEL. He was born 3 years after his father AMRAN returned from Hebron in Canaan, where AMRAN had buried together with his 'brethren' his 11 forefathers while the second war against the Canaanites 1729 BC in Jubilees46:9 was running. He most likely returned a second time from Egypt to Canaan in the time of MOSES' birth to prevent being tortured and being forced to throw his own son into the Nile according to the Book of the Yasher Chapter 65 or Jubilees47,2 or Acts7,18 when 1000 Hebrew male newborns were murdered. Only Moses' mother Jocabeth and Moses' sister Miriam are biblically present at the time of his birth. Moses' birth took place in the time of the seventh month of murder on all male newborn Israelites commanded by Canaanite Pharaoh Apaknas Exodus1:16-22, Acts7:23.30.36, Jubilees47. It was the biblical year 1686 BC ('1605' BC) when Hyksos Pharaoh Apaknas initiates 7 months of murdering 1000 male newborn Israelites Exodus1:16-22 Jubilees 47;48:14. Manfred Bietak confirms extremely high mortality of male newborns in Avaris in the time of the 15th Dynasty evidenced by a tremendous increase of newborn skeletons; The excavated contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40%.
Moses is born Exodus2:2 after seven months of male newborn mass-murdering. He is hidden for 3 months at home, then for a week at the Nile, until
He was hidden at home for three months and then had to be hidden in a basket at the River Nile for seven days until according to Yasher66 a great heat came over Egypt and all the royal and noble were refreshing in the Nile as like also Pharaoh's daughter. MOSES is found by the future Pharaoh's daughter Meris. Pharaoh Apaknas dies. The new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan, Meris' father, reigns 28 years.
Exodus2:9 In MOSES' first 20 years his real mother Jocabet had been paid by his adoptive mother, Pharaoh Khayan's Daughter Meris, for raising up Moses. ".. when the child was grown up, Jocabet brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and Moses did become her son. And she "called out his name" is literally a legal act to be the entitled owner of the child. And she "called out his name Moses, saying 'for I have pulled him out of water." Thus the literal old Hebrew translation of the Bible reveals Moses as being primarily Egyptian name-calling. As we learn later Moses' popularity as Prince of Egypt increased so much that his name became one of the most popular fashion names in Southern Egypt. In Thebes in the later Dynasty of the Ahmosides family clan, over 10 male and female members were called Moses (Ahmoses, Kamoses, Priest Moses, etc.). Moses in Egyptian means "child of" or "born out of", in Hebrew it means "pulled out of" which reflects to have been pulled out of the water and made Moshe from then on a most popular Hebrew name. For twenty years, from 1666 BC to 1646 BC Moses lived a Prince's life at the Palace of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV in Southern Egypt Thebes and was educated as to the Queen's son according to ancient historian Georgios Kedrenos. Holy Stephanus in the New Testaments says Moses was taught in all wisdom of the Egyptians Acts7,22.
Avaris Northern Egypt - "late Hyksos period"
Exodus2:5 Pharaoh's Daughter/ Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan's Daughter Meris depicted with princess diadem finds Moses in the River Nile - she was a Canaanite princess with Hebrew maidservants and became the wife of a Hebrew Pharaoh and loving adoptive mother of a Hebrew slaves‘ son making him Prince of Egypt
Avaris Northern Egypt - "late Hyksos period"
Canaanite Hyksos Princess Diadem - Joseph’s wife Asenath was worshipped as Zeneneth/ Inuit/ Henut, wife of Month/Khnum, mother of Ra/Horus, and was depicted as antelope or with antelope horns. She was also merged with Isis, wife of Osiris (Chapter Joseph headline JOSEPH & ASENATH WORSHIPPED IN EGYPTIAN IDOLATRY)
PRINCE MOSES' ROYAL ADOPTIVE FAMILY
WAS NOT EGYPTIAN BUT CANAANITE AND HEBREW
The Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apakhnas died directly after Moses' birth and the 7 months of murder on one thousand male newborn Israelites ended. The new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan reigned from 1686 until 1658 BC before Pharaoh Ippi/Apophis usurped the throne and reigned for 40 years. The Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV was originally a 'Hyksos' tributary Pharaoh of Thebes but achieved the co-reign role over complete reunited Egypt c. 1666-1658 BC ('1690-1682 BC') together with his father in law the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan after he had married his princess daughter.
The balance of power between both is revealed by Sobekhotep's IV titles and the contemporary Temple of Amun donation inscription in Thebes regarding his stepfather: "the Ruler of the North has come to Thebes". 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location are confirmed by egyptologists Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers as archeological proof of the simultaneous rulership of Khayan and Sobekhotep IV. They also confirm Sobekhotep IV is also called Khanephere. Sobekhotep IV was always placed with his two brothers behind Sobekhotep III because the brother Quatro and Trio have in common to call themselves Kingsons according to Leading Egyptology "without being sons of a King". Thus the placement of the reign time of Khayan is debated in Egyptology naturally without any success. Only Robert Porter who still thinks that Khayan ruled much later than Sobkehotep IV proposes a second option "that Sobekhotep IV reigned much later than previously thought." (Robert M. Porter: The Second Intermediate Period according to Edfu, Goettinger Mizsellen 239, 2013, p. 75-80).
Khayan was the last Canaanite king calling himself simply 'Hyksos', he changed this as soon as he reunited and ruled over complete Egypt and used from then on Egyptian Pronomen and Nomen like the Southern Pharaohs (Kim Ryholt 1997, 124). Egyptologists mostly call this time the 15th Dynasty domination of Thebes or the time when Thebes was "sacked by the 'Hyksos'" in the time of Khayan and Apophis sometimes nevertheless reducing this time only to 2 years to make helpless guesswork work somehow not realizing that this is also the time of Sobekhotep IV co-ruling over complete reunited Egypt (compare Kim Ryholt 1997 186/189/190). The reason preventing a revision and correction of the order of Pharaohs is a staying stuck in traditionally fixed not yet realized incorrect orderings, reign lengths, lacunae, and fictitious kings in the Turin King List (compare Ryholt 1997 10,12,13,17)
20 years after the mass murdering of the Hebrew newborns and Moses' birth Moses enters Pharaoh's palace in Thebes 1666 BC as the Queen's son and so with King Sobekhotep's IV stepson and King Kayan's "grandson" and Prince of Egypt. According to ancient historian Artapanus the adoptive mother of Moses was Pharaoh's daughter Meris (Tjan acc. to Ryholt 1997, Tab56) the later wife of Pharaoh Khanephere already identified as Sobekhotep IV in the time of the northern Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan who is here called 'Palmanothes'.
Artapanus additionally confirms the 16th and parallel 15th Dynasty as the time Egypt had the highest number of changing and parallel Pharaohs: "... for at that time there were many kings of Egypt ...". Sobekhotep IV is identified as Southern Egyptian Pharaoh "Chenephres who was King over the regions beyond Memphis" (Charlesworth 1985, p. 898).
Other name forms of Moses' adoptive mother's name Meris in ancient sources are Mouthidis, Thermouthis (Josephus), Thermuthi, Ra'usa, Thermouth, or Termot (Jubilees). Her body maids, who carried infant Moses out of the water, were identified as "female Hebrews" in the Ethiopian translation of the book of jubilees.
According to David Rohl's book "The Exodus" the first of Pharaoh Sobekhotep's IV sons is called Sobekhotep Miw spoken as 'meow' which would also be a pet name for a cat. David Rohl thinks this is a potential hypocoristic for the fuller name Moses. Kim Ryholt identifies Mio with Prince Sobekhotep on the Wadi el-Hudi stela. The ancient historian Josephus cites Queen Meris saying to her husband King Sobekhotep IV "I have brought up a child who is of a divine form... I thought proper to adopt him for my son, and the heir to thy kingdom." The marriage between Egypt's King 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan's daughter Meris/Tjan and Southern Pharoh Sobekhotep IV seems to be connected with the deal of a more power-seeking Vassall Pharaoh promising the inheritance of his kingdom to his career enabling wife's adoptive son (Moses) by presenting him as his first and eldest Kingson and successor: Miw is confirmed as eldest Kingson and successor by the Wadi Hammamat stela according to Kim Ryholt (Ryholt 1997, p. 230).
THE 16TH AND 17TH DYNASTY
THE 3RD AND 4TH GENERATION OF ISRAEL'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY
THE SHEPHERD KINGS OF SOUTHERN EGYPT
The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs
at the beginning of Chapters Moses and Joseph
as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.
We have to jump back now to the beginning of Israel's enslavement 1729 BC:
According to Hayes at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris the royal court had moved south to Thebes (Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78): After the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion 1729 BC Vizierking Ankhu EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's son, is inscribed as palace official name of Thebes Palace in the Papyrus Boulaq 18 ('1750 BC'); In the already mentioned Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 ('1743 BC') there is also a letter and a royal decree addressed to "Ankhu, the office of the reporter of the Southern City Thebes". EPHRAIM Ankhu probably died in the decade after the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion. SHUTELAH called Vizier Resseneb and later his brother BERIAH called Vizier Iymeru Aya are his successors as Vizierkings. Much later in 1666-1646 BC in the time of MOSES as Egyptian Prince MOSES' stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep's IV Vizier was called Neferkare Iymeru or Ayameru II - his Hebrew name was REFACH 1Chr7:25. He was the son of Iymeru Aya BERIAH who is an archeologically evidenced King: his son RESEPH 1Chron7,25 Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh is inscribed as "Kingson". And he was the grandson of archeologically evidenced Vizierking Ankhu Senowsret EPHRAIM and thus the great-grandson of archeologically evidenced Vizierking Zamonth Khnumhotep JOSEPH (see Chapter Joseph). According to Genesis50:23 JOSEPH's great-grandson REFACH as a child still belonged to the children who were sitting on JOSEPH's knees. Growing up he still fulfilled in line with his forefathers the prophecy of Father JACOB on EPHRAIM and his seed in Genesis48:19. Thus JOSEPH's Vizierking's 13th Dynasty Line of Shepherd Kings did not end with the Invasion of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' and the 15th Dynasty but went on as Thebes parallel counter later even cooperative Dynasty of Southern Pharaohs. Finally, REFACH Neferkare Iymeru or Ayameru II was the last Hebrew Vizierking and later only Vizier of JOSEPH's line in Egypt. His lifetime latest ended with the time of Moses fleeing to Midian.
Regarding the different Vizier names of EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH and BERIAH's son REFACH Egyptologists have not yet realized that like already explained for JOSEPH names in the last Chapter, that the Viziers in these times were the real lifelong Rulers and thus seen as the real Kings of now Southern Egypt and not the yearly rotating Hebrew Pharaohs of JOSEPH's family clan. So they naturally like every real King of Egypt in the past owned several different names, most plausibly recognizable in BERIAH's two Viziernames Iymerew and Aya which melted together into the Viziername Aya-merew which became also his son's REFACH's second name Neferkare Iymerew: He was also called Ayameru II. The same thing had happened with JOSEPH's names ZaMonth KhnumHotep which melted together into Month(u)Hotep. Also, long single names like Amenemhet could melt down into Ameny, so EPHRAIM's from his father inherited Viziernames Senwosret Ankhu and Ameny Ankhu in the 12th Dynasty most plausibly had melted down into one of his archeologically evidenced contemporary Viziernames Ameny. (compare with the start of Chapter Joseph).
In the same way identifying MANASSE's second Viziername Ibiaw led to the identification of two further Pharaohs of his lineage in the 13th Dynasty; Pharaoh Khendjer's HELEQ's successor was called Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw. He was MANASSE's Vizier Ibiaw's third biblical son ASRIEL.
According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's son's are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7; Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes primarily Joshua17 corrected a bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son; This understanding of all three biblical sources is mostly confirmed by the archeological evidence. Dr. Roger Liebi will be able to solve the yet open riddles about the names of MANASSE's sons when the time has come. In order to prove things check https://www.thetorah.com/article/manassehs-genealogies-why-they-change-between-numbers-joshua-and-chronicles.
The two last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 16th Dynasty
are most probably grandsons belonging to EPHRAIM
Pharaoh Monthotep VI
Without the King's beard as
the token for lifelong highest rulership
Pharaoh Senwosret IV
Is the King's beard a sign of
rivalry with the Vizierking?
THE 16TH DYNASTY
The second Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty according to Kim Ryholt was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti; His wife was called Montuhotep thus shows indications belonging to JOSEPH's northern lineage, EPHRAIM, and his not biblical named brothers counted as belonging to Ephraim according to Father Jacob's blessings. Djehuti seems to be the second Pharaoh of Thebes or Southern Egpyt because the first one's name did get lost. In that time, after JOSEPH's death and before the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion, Thebes was no longer ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier: MANASSE's successor was his fourth biblical son HEPHER called Vizier Senebhenef while MANASSE and his further sons settled after JOSEPH's death for 8 years in Avaris in order to transform his original birthrights into Pharaoh reign times of his sons and in order to try to take over the rulership above Egypt (see Chapter JOSEPH headline JOSEPH'S DEATH AND MANASSE'S BIRTHRIGHT CLAIMS - MANASSE'S SONS BECOME PHARAOS UNDER EPHRAIM VIZIERKING ANKHU). The first known Pharaoh of Thebes was Djehuti the son-in-law of Thebes' Mayor and Vizier Senebhenef HEPHER. When the time came that HEPHER could realize, that his brothers in the North seemed not to become successful in trying to take over the rulership over complete Egypt in order to fight back the birthrights of their father, HEPHER decided as Mayor and Vizier of Thebes to additionally announce himself as the Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt Sobekhotep (VIII).
The year 1729 BC: The year of the Hyksos Invasion was also the year of EPHRAIM's flight with his 13th Dynasty Family Clan over to Thebes to his brother MANASSE. There the last northern Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty Pharaoh Djethotepre Dedumose was enthroned by EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankuh with a new name as Djedneferre Dedumose Pharaoh of Thebes. Another option would be Pharaoh Djethotepre had been killed by the Canaanite new Hyksos King and his son Djedneferre became his follower in the 16th Dynasty of Thebes.
The next two Pharaohs were Neferhotep (III) and Monthotepi. Neferhotep (III) archeologically evidenced claimed: "Thebes is my city". Monthotepi even claimed inscribed "I am the KING within Thebes" which is a clear indication of rivalry between the Vizierking's and the Pharaoh's position. MANASSE's son HEPHER obviously meanwhile had lost his power as ruler of the town Thebes in the battles against the Canaanites - most likely simply because of his death, he was over 100 years old. It takes 24 further years for MANASSE's lineage to get back on the throne of Thebes ...
In the timetable at the start of this Chapter, You can see the biblical identification of the Pharaohs of the 16th and 17th Dynasty according to
A) Archeological evidenced relationships according to Kim Ryholt
(1997 Second Intermediate Period tables 42/45 pages 202/024)
B) Established enthronement order traditions of the 13th Dynasty
according to Chapter Joseph
C) Biblical orders & relationships.
This leads into the rough order:
1) Further grandsons of JOSEPH
2) SHUTELAH's sons & grandson
3) BERIAH's son & grandson
4) MANASSE's sons & grandsons
Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kinga of the first third of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes:
MANASSE's legitimate lineage of his Egyptian wife 1Chron7:20.25
MANASSE‘s 5th son SHEMIDA Num26:32
Is the King's beard a sign of rivalry with the Vizierking?
Son of Sobekemsaf
Son of Sobekemsaf
Brother-in-law of Antef VI
THE FIRST THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
Archeologically excavated destroyed Temples of that time in and around Thebes are declared by leading egyptologists as prove for 'Hyksos' attacks on the 17th Dynasty and the 17th Dynasty being "sacked by the Hyksos" without delivering any proving evidence. Instead in fact, it is later in this Chapter proved as evidence for the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Biblical Plagues confirmed by the Ahmose Storm Stele and the Ypuwer Papyrus.
MANASSE's grandsons of his fourth son HEPHER Vizier Senebhenef later Pharaoh Sobekhotep (VIII) and of his fifth son SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I were dominating the first half of the 17th Dynasty as Pharaohs; They were the first 7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes and represented MANASSE's legitimate lineage according to 1Chron7:20.25. They had a much stronger Egyptian female lineage than EPHRAIM's lineage and were much more physically, religiously, and culturally "egyptianised". They showed ambitions for power by their marriages into the royal lineage of MANASSE's brother EPHRAIM and by archeologically evidenced cooperation with the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs and their Northern Kingdom always seeking for the Kingship over complete Egypt which finally resulted in success in the time of MANASSE's great-grandson ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV. This second phase of the 17th Dynasty was the phase of the downfall of the Vizierkingship of Ephraim's lineage and thus finally the Downfall of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings of Egypt:
The last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty:
MANASSE's illegitimate lineage of his Aramean concubine 1Chron7:16
REKEM & ULAM the Pharaohs Neferhotep I & Sobekhotep IV are self-acclaimed "Kingsons" of PERESH Haankhef, the son of MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy. BEDAN Pharaoh Sobekhotep V and Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI are Kingsons of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV.
Brother of: >
Father of both: >
Sobekhotep V Hebrew mother Nubhotepi
Sobkhotep VI Canaanite mother Meris/Tjan
THE SECOND THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
MANSSE'S ILLEGITIMATE LINEAGE
The Bible mentions in 1Chr7:14 also an Aramean concubine as the second wife of MANASSE: Her illegitimate son is called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons were PERESH and SHERESH. Their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, the region, their tribes later lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM and ULAM had a son called BEDAN. All three will be identified as the later Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty. ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV, son of PERESH Haankhef was a grandson of Nehy who according to all explained archeologically evidenced strong indications in Chapter Joseph most plausibly is the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE called MACHIR. This lineage will show strong ambitions for and explicit claim to the King's power as the original birthright of MANASSE as we will see later ...
ULAM the Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV made sure that an inscription attests that BERIAH's son REFACH - not Vizierking anymore but now his King's Vizier Neferkare Iymeru or Ayameru II - "sacrificed before him as his King". This might be the latest evidence for the intrafamilial old rivalry between EPHRAIM and MANASSE and their lineages; Following in the footsteps of JOSEPH Vizier Ankhu EPHRAIM appointed both of his sons as Viziers. Thus biblical BERIAH Vizier Iymeru Aya succeded his brother biblical SHUTELAH Vizier Resseneb. They were partly even archeologically evidenced Vizierkings of Thebes. Iymeru Aya BERIAH logically did appoint his own son REFACH Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II as succeeding Vizier and not the son of his brother Vizierking Resseneb's widow Senebtisy and the illegitimate son of MANASSE's son MACHIR called Nehy who is biblically called PERESH and in Egyptian Haankhef. Haankhef's strong ambitions towards the King's throne can be deduced from his son's attempts to honor him by their reclamations calling themselves 'Kingsons'. Haankhef's mother can be identified as the Lady of the House Senebtisy in the already mentioned Brooklyn Papyrus (c. Ryholt 1997, p. 226) and Haankhef's ambitions are additionally indicated by his marriage deeper into JOSEPH's Dynasty Clan Elite because his wife is called Kema the "King's daughter" and "member of the elite" (Flinders Petrie, Scarabs and Cylinders with names 1917). These are further strong indications of the rivalry between EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's lineage, this time evidenced between PERESH's Haankhef's son ULAM Sobekhotep IV and BERIAH's Iymeru Aya's son REFACH Neferkare-Iymerew.
Resolution attempts of REFACH Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II let all sons of PERESH Haankhef become Pharaohs which lead to long-term Vizierking Dynasty weakening power struggles and to the shift of power from the Vizierking back to the Pharaohking latest with PERESH's Haankhef's son ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV. Haankhef was obviously seen by his sons as the successor of grandfather MANASSE as the real birthright lifelong ruler or King over Egypt because they called themselves "Kingsons". Father Haankhef was also called "Royal Sealer" by his sons which means the only evidenced Royal Sealer of Thebes since MANASSE Senebefni who inherited this title from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II; MANASSE and PERESH both owned the title Royal Sealer in combination with the title Highpriest. Thus PERESH Haankhef must be the grandson of MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw. Haankhef's title "Father of Gods" (it-ntr) is known from JOSEPH Monthhotep as the adored Ruler over Egypt in inscriptions of his son Wepwauthotep later Pharaoh Sobekhoteph III and from EPHRAIM Ankhu as "Father of Gods" in his biographical inscriptions (Blumenthal ZAS 114, 35, Nachträge A). So JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw was seen by his illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy and his great-grandson PERESH Haankhef as the only legitimate heir of Joseph's title "Father of God's" in contrast to JOSEPH's second-born son EPHRAIM Ankhu who in fact archeologically evidenced announced this title for himself; And indeed, EPHRAIM did not become a direct blood father of any 'godlike' Pharaos because his two further sons ESER and ELEAD died early in a fight against GAD's lineage 1Chr7:21. But according to Father JACOB'S blessing though all other sons of JOSEPH should be counted as belonging to EPHRAIM and these and their sons indeed became from Egyptian perspective "godlike" Pharaohs. But PERESH Haankhef obviously claimed the title "Father of God's" for his grandfather MANASSE and thus also for himself. Because of MANASSE having been the first son of JOSEPH, he would always have claimed to be the real legal heir of JOSEPH's Kingship and this claim obviously went on through all generations of MANASSE's family clan; The sons of PERESH Haankhef managed to transform their traditional claim to the King's throne into a switch from a Vizierking Dynasty back into a Pharaohking Dynasty latest when his son ULAM Sobekhotep IV managed to marry MOSES' Canaanite stepmother Meris or Tjan, the daughter of 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan; Thus he arose as co-ruling Pharaoh over complete Egypt; The beforehand already also self-called "Kingsons" are named Pharaoh Neferhotep I as Pharaoh Sobekhotep's IV brother and Pharaoh Sihathor as Pharaoh Neferhotep I's son. Their title "Kingsons" claims MANASSE's lineage to be due to the original birthright of the firstborn the only true legal lineage of King JOSEPH's throne.
Latest when Sobekhotep IV became Khayan's co-ruling Pharaoh over complete Egypt and EPHRAIM's grandson REFACH Vizier Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II remained only Southern Egypt's Vizier the balance of power had fully switched: Now the Hebrew Vizier had archeologically evidenced to sacrifice before the Hebrew Pharaoh, the self-acclaimed "godlike" Pharaoh, and King, which owned the bitter taste of humiliation and forced idolatry for REFACH. According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226) archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's Sobkehotep's IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun; One of his sons is named Amun-hotep. MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw was the leader of the cult of Amun as Highpriest of Thebes (Chapter Joseph) so there are enough strong indications leading to the conclusion that Haankhef's father Nehy must be the biblical illegitimate son of Manasse MACHIR, which explains his ambitious successful attempt to get married into the Dynasty clan of EPHRAIM.
The switchback from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty latest happened in the time of MOSES as Prince of Egypt between 1866 and 1846 BC. It weakened Israel's 17th Dynasty so much that after the new Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis had broken up the Canaanite-Hebrew Co-Rulership of Khayan and Sobekhotep IV - in order to avoid a Hebrew takeover of power - two Pharaohs later the Egyptian Ahmosides used this Southern Dynasty weakness to reestablish an Egyptian Southern Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs dreaming of the reestablishment of the old Middle Kingdom of Egyptian Pharaoh Power over complete Egypt and over ALL the Semitic foreigners they hated strongly after all. After the Semitic Co-Rulership of the Canaanite and Israelite Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep, the Egyptians latest made no distinction anymore between the two different Semitic peoples are all hated foreigners and the term 'Hyksos' latest have changed into the meanwhile solely negatively connoted term 'Foreign Rulers'. The Egyptians had become overall antisemites now, archeologically confirmed by nearly no 15th, 16th or 17th Dynasty burials having survived as non destroyed graves but only the Egyptian Ahmoside graves (Ryholt 1997, p. 167).
c. 1690-1650 BC:
REFACH Vizier Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II WITHOUT the King's beard.
He was the grandson of EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret, the son of JOSEPH Vizierking Zamonth, brother of LEVI, great-grandfather of MOSES
('1732-1720'BC) 1666-1644 BC:
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
WITH the King's beard as token
for lifelong highest rulership.
He was a great-grandson of MANASSE Senebefni and the stepfather of MOSES Crownprince Sobekhotep Mio
REFACH Vizier Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II
in the biblical Egyptian standard Vizier outfit since Joseph
MOSES VISITS HIS SUFFERING 'BROTHERS' IN PHYTOM/LAHUN
Lahun/Fayum is identified by old rabbinical scriptures as the biblical Hebrew slaveworker's town Phytom. Lahun in Fayum owns an archeologically evidenced Semitic workers' ghetto separated by walls from the wealthy part of the town and many male newborn sceletons were found burried under the house floors of the ghetto confirming Pharaoh Apakhnas commanded biblical kiling of all Hebrew male newborns. Lahun was near the border between Northern Egypt - ruled by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis when Moses was 40 years old - and Southern Egypt - ruled by Prince Sobekhotep Miw's/ MOSES's stepfather Hebrew Shepherd King Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV/ biblical ULAM. Thus Lahun was the most easily accessible Hebrew slave work place reachable for MOSES living in Southern Egypt and thus it is the most plausible place where MOSES visited his "suffering 'brothers'" to inspect their working conditions.
In Exodus2:11 and Jubilees47:10 MOSES was 40/41 years old when he went out to the 'ah' the belonging of his people, in most cases biblically translated as 'brothers' in foreign languages like greek but this can by no means be taken as proving evidence for Moses having several different blood brothers, because Aaron is his only brother - a fact which no one is discarding up until today; In other biblical cases the potentially misleading translation into 'his brothers' instead of into 'his belonging ones' in fact lead into falling away from essential parts of 2000 years old christian faith what makes this knowledge critically relevant: Even the greek translation of the Aramaic/Hebrew original "his belonging ones' into his 'adelphos' does not lead into the unequivocal identification of anyone's blood brother like it does in english or german, in this case it is still primarily used as a short term for any relatives. The englisch word 'brother' primarily meaning blood brother never existed as a word in old Hebrew or Aramaic, which was the mother language of the biblical authors; the Hebrew word 'ah' has to be translated depending on the case as "belonging one" or close one, close or distant relative, family member or familiar one, cohabitation member or close neighbour, tribesman or national comrad or close friend or allied comrad. Even familiar foreigners or believe community members were called 'ah'. A unequivocal brother in the english/german word sense has to be confirmed by the term "Son of" and the name of the common father. The mother's name clarifies different mothers and the same father or different unexpected fathers but then usually the different fathers' names follow (compare Mishle/Pro30:4 Tehillim/Psalm110:1 and 109:1,3 and Mathew22:41-46;1:16;27:56) An exception can be a hereditary adoptive son in law who married a father's only child and daughter like eg. in Luke3:24. According to jewish law a widow with sons could be adopted by no one else to accomodate her and care for her than only by her blood sons who have the exclusive duty and right to accomodate and care for her (compare John19:26-27). Only a widow without children could be adopted by relatives or close ones for shelter and care.
The jewish expected Messiah is rabbinically also called the Son of Joseph/ Moshiach Ben Yoseph; Joseph is rabbinically seen as Foreshadow of the Messiah's waging war against the evil forces and his suffering, dying and arising in Psalm 89 and 22. Benjamin is the only full blood brother of Joseph. Genesis46:22 identifies them as two of twelve brothers as sons of Jacob. But on the other hand they are also identified as their mother Rachel's two only sons and thus as two full blood brothers. Mother Rachel is from her time up until today adored and praised as the matriarchal spiritual Mother of Israel and the most influential advocate for g'dfearing jews called for intercession towards the Almighty for example in case of a mother's strong desire to have children (compare Luke1:48). King Solomon is the Son of David and the son of his Queenmother Basheeba. Solomon's brother is called "Adonia, the son of Haggit" in 1Kings2:13 to indicate their different mothers. Adonia makes an intercession to his King's Queenmother as the most influential advocat of the empire, because he is knowing that the King will not refuse the advocacy of his Queenmother as the Word of G'd says in 1Kings2:16,20. The King's mother always is - in contrast to the King's wife - the Queen on the Throne on the right hand of the King in all times of godfearing Kingship in Israel thereafter. Thus like the King the Queen has also always to be adored and praised according to the Word, thus g'dfearing Israel always also knelt down in front of the Queenmother of their King. The Messiah is the Son of David and also his LORD according to Psalm110:1. He is the King of Kings according to Psalm2:6 and he is the highest Prophet. MOSES prophesized about him in Deutoronomy18:19 (compare John1:45 and 5:46). The true subservients of the King, the Messiah, are fullfilling the Word's prophecies obediently throughout (see Luke1:48) all generations - in greek genea - and the true subservients of their King, the Messiah, will fulfill the Word's prophecies on the last day when he comes (see Zechariah12:10-14).
MOSES AND JOSEPH
ARE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED FAMOUS HEROES OF EGYPT
IN THE SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
Moses was 41 years old when he went out to his 'brothers' to watch them struggling at forced labor, the Bible says in Exodus2,11 it happened "when Moses was grown up"; the literal translation is "when Moses was grown mighty or grand" and the King James Bible Acts7,22 says Moses was then already "mighty in words and in deeds". Exodus11,3 documents, that Moses, as Man of the one G'D in the time of the environmental Egypt shocking disasters of the ten plagues "was regarded by Pharaoh's servants and the people as a very great man in the land of Egypt"(CompleteJewishBible). Several ancient writings confirm that already in his youth Moses was a well-known great leader of his time all over Egypt. He was not only a popular Prince but also famous Commander and savior from invasion as we will learn in this passage. Moses' popularity as Prince of Egypt increased so much that his name became one of the most popular fashion names in Southern Egypt. In Thebes in the later Dynasty of the Ahmosides family clan, over 10 male and female members were called Moses(Ahmoses, Kamoses, Priest Moses, etc.).
Egyptian artifacts of the Second Intermediate Period and the famous Brooklyn Papyrus deliver sufficient archeological evidence to show that also the savior of Egypt and Israel out of famine King JOSEPH's and his son King EPHRAIM's Egyptian name Ankh was one the most popular names to give to a son in Egypt that time for Egyptians as well as for Israelites. And similar evidence is given for the Egyptian names of Ephraim's sons Resseneb and Iyumeru/Ayamerew. 30 Hebrew male slave names of the Brooklyn Papyrus show four times the name Ankhu and even five times the name Resseneb, who was also the one who rescued these slaves from the North into his Southern Dynasty and further eight names are relating compound names like Ankhuemhesut, Ankhuseneb or Senebresseneb. David Rohl identified these names as evidence for Joseph's and his King's lineage's names being hero names for the Israelites. Joseph's name Ankh clearly also delivers sufficient archeological evidence for having been a hero's name to the Egyptians, Egyptologists know Ankh as one of the most popular names of the Second Intermediate Period. (c. David Rohl, The Exodus - Myth or History 2015 p.334 and S. Quirke: The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom - Whitstable 1990 - p.148)
The second evidence for JOSEPH's King names having become cult figure names is the prevalence of variations of the name Monthotep in the Second Intermediate Period.
- ANCIENT GOSSIP -
MOSES WAS ALREADY MARRIAGED WITH A KUSHITIAN WOMEN
Moses was not only a popular Prince but also famous Commander and savior from invasion: Ancient historians Artapanos and Josephus identify Moses as a successful popular Commander of war against the Kushites/ Ethiopians, where "Tharbis was the daughter of the King of the Ethiopians" and saw Moses fighting with great courage. She "fell deeply in love with him .. and Moses consummated his marriage with her". Josephus' description of the invasion into Southern Egypt was confirmed by deciphered inscriptions evidence of Vivian Davies in the tombs at El-Kab in 2003. In Numbers12,1 over 50 years later in the desert his sister Mirjam accuses Moses of his marriage with a kushitian woman from a foreign people with foreign idols. Rashbam Rabbi Shmuel ben Meir calls her the Kushitian Queen Adonia, widow of King Kokinus, and states Moses did not consummate his marriage with her biblically confirmed by the missing evidence of any children together.
MOSES FLEES TO MIDIAN IN ARABIA
The slave workers' town Lahun in Fayum is the most plausible place where Moses, who had been grown tremendously in popularity visited his 'brothers' and had to flee afterward. Lahun in Fayum is near the border between North and South, here you can easily inspect how bad the situation for the Hebrews in the Canaanite north in fact is and you can quickly withdraw back into the Southern Vassall Pharaoh's terrain. From Lahun Moses had to flee (Exodus2:15) to Midian evidenced in Arabia beyond the Gulf of Acaba called Yam Suf. He had to flee from Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh and King of Egypt Apophis; Apophis death sentence was "death by manslaughter" after Moses had man slaughtered an Egyptian who mistreated an Israelite slave. Literal old Hebrew reveals this as a juridically easy to justify reaction on his deed not only according to the law of Egypt but as well as even to the Torah Exodus22:20,21:12,21:23-25.
In this time Sobekhotep IV already had been reduced to being only the Southern Vasall Pharaoh of Thebes again like his predecessors. Biblical ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV was now paying Vasall tribute to the Canaanite throne usurpator Pharaoh Ippi/Apophis (Almunecar Vase, Marie d'Almunecar-Molina, Fs Domas II, 517-524). According to Kim Ryholt Apophis ousted not only Sobekhotep V from his overall Egyptian throne but he also would have ousted Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan's eldest Kingson Yanassi (Ryholt p. 256). Instead, the author proposes an alternative probability: ULAM's Sobekhotep's enormous power hunger and tactical behaviors evidenced by his marriage and his ancient scriptures evidenced attempt to send his stepson and throne heir MOSES into death by an ordered military campaign against the Kushites brings him under the suspicion to be the (eg. poison) murderer of his brother Pharaoh Neferhotep I's son and throne successor Sihathor who is evidenced as Pharaoh without any reign time; This speaks for a sudden death breaking the heart of his father Neferhotep I and leading into the Enthronement of Sobekhotep IV. This kind of power-seeking murder could have been repeated a second time by ULAM Sobekhotep IV against his father-in-law Khayan's beloved son Yanassi who - as well as Sihathor - suddenly disappears regarding his historical evidence. This attempt to take over the sole rulership over Egypt the way he took over the southern rulership would explain as a reaction the sudden usurpation of the throne by the Canaanite military commander and later Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis who took advantage of this sudden opportunity against the Plans of ULAM Sobekhotep IV.
Because of MOSES' huge fame especially in Southern Egypt, he had become an even more dangerous rival for his stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV and thus could not expect any shelter from him but had to fear him too. Historian Artapanus in the 3rd century BC writes Chenephres = Chaneferre = Sobekhotep IV envied Moses' virtues and was looking for an opportunity to destroy him so he had sent Moses against the Ethiopians but this had lead to even bigger fame of Moses after his victory. Thus now a flight to Midian beyond the Egyptian-controlled Sinai Peninsula would have been the only option to survive for him. Now Sobekhotep IV was finally able to break easily his promise to his wife Meris/Tjan to make MOSES/Prince Miw Sobekhotep heir to the reunited kingdom; MOSES/Miw is archeologically confirmed as originally first listed son of Sobekhotep IV on the Wadi Hammamat stela. Instead, Sobekhotep IV could now announce his own first blood son of his first Hebrew wife - in Egyptian called Nubhotepi - as new Pharaoh: His first blood son was named Pharaoh Sobekhotep V. According to the biblical genealogy at the end of each Chapter this means in biblical terms ULAM, the great-grandson of MANASSE made his first blood son BEDAN Pharaoh who must have been a lifelong strong throne inheritance rival of MOSES.
MOSES fled to Midian in Northern Arabia at the Gulf of Aqaba and married Zipporah the Midianite daughter of Reguel the Priest of Midian. She gave birth to his son Gersom. MOSES lived a 40-year long life as a shepherd and family father in Midian near Mount Horeb.
In 1606 BC when G'd told him according to Exodus4:19 "ALL" who wanted to kill MOSES had died (Apophis had died 12 years ago 1618 BC, Sobekhotep IV had died 1644 BC and his sons as rivals to MOSES had died 1641 and 1636 BC) he returned from the Holy Mountain in Midian in Northern Arabia to Avaris in Egypt to initiate Israel's Exodus from Egypt back to Mount Horeb in Midian beyond the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically always called "Yam Suph" 1Kings9:26.
Pharaoh Kamose First Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao
The third Egyptian Pharaoh and the second last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty
THE THIRD THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
THE AHMOSIDES - THE EGYPTIANS ARE BACK ON THE THRONE
CANAANITES AND ISRAELITES
ARE NO LONGER DISTINGUISHED SEMITES
IN EGYPTIAN ANTISEMITISM
The 17th Dynasty turns out to be in fact two totally different and on the same side very similar Dynasties: First the Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage fighting successfully step by step for MANASSE's original claim to the throne as the firstborn son of JOSEPH. And second, the Dynasty of the Egyptian royal lineage fighting successfully step by step for their original claim to the throne as descendants of the Egyptian noble families of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.
Sobekhotep IV was only Southern Pharaoh of Thebes again after his father-in-law Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan died because military Canaanite Apophis usurped the throne as Hyksos Pharaoh of Egypt. After Sobekhotep IV's death, he was succeeded by his sons Merhotepre Sobekhotep V (mother Nubhotepi) and Kahotepre Sobkhotep VI, who's evidenced "King's Mother" Meris/Tjan, the stepmother of MOSES on this way finally achieved that if not her beloved stepson MOSES then at least her blood son of ULAM/ Sobekhotep IV became King.
Thus in the time of the last three generations, the Egyptian Nobility was able to observe how marriages into the Dynasty Family Clan successively could lead to the takeover of the throne; MANASSE's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR called Nehy managed to marry into the family by becoming the husband of Senebtisy, the widow of Shutelah/ Vizierking Resseneb. MACHIR's/ Nehy's biblical son PERESH called Haankhef managed to marry the evidenced "King's Daughter" Kemi. And PERESH's biblical son ULAM called Sobekhotep IV managed to marry the daughter of the northern Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan and became co-ruling Pharaoh of a reunited Egypt.
In the latest phase of the so-called 17th Dynasty 1636 BC, the Egyptian Ahmoside's Clan Dynasty arose. The First Ahmoside Pharaoh of Thebes was Senakhtenre under 'Hyksos' Pharao Ippi/Apophis as King of Egypt. His son Sequenre Tao had a wife called Sadjehuti. Her second name Satibu (Daniel Polz, Der Beginn des Neuen Reiches: Zur Vorgeschichte einer Zeitenwende, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, p.350) was Hebrew, which indicates the way how the change from a Hebrew to an Egyptian Dynasty evolved. Two marriages of the Egyptian Ahmosides in two generations with Hebrew Dynasty daughters into the Hebrew Dynasty Family Clan enabled the Egyptian takeover of rulership in Thebes:
The mother of Pharaoh Senakhtenre's wife Tetisheri is identified by egyptologists Neferu. Her additional inscribed name - read as Tjenna/Tjanna - was interpreted by them as her father's name. But if it is read as Tjan, then he is a she, and Tetisheri is the probable daughter of Moses' stepmother Meris or Tjan, Sobekhotep's IV second wife. As already explained in Chapter Joseph Neferu is the most used additional name for the Great Royal Wifes or Queen Mothers from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful and refers to the heart. The name itiNeferu inscribed in the Wpwauthotep Stele examined in Chapter Joseph was used as prename for JOSEPH's wife ASENAT tAhenut as Great Royal Wife of King Khnumhotep and Queenmother of his four generations Vizier Dynasty. Thus Senakhtenre's mother-in-law is more likely called the beautiful Neferu Tjan, King Kayhan's daughter, Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV, Queenmother of Sobekhotep VI, and stepmother of MOSES.
The first Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs did reach their throne by marrying into the Hebrew Dynasty which had become already a Canaanite Patchwork Family.
Senakhtenre's son Sequenre Tao already started the first open fight against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, followed by his firstborn son Kamose, who both ended up killed in a battle against 'Hyksos' Apophis. At last Kamose's brother, Ahmose became the Pharaoh of the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' in 1606 BC ('1535 BC') and initiated the New Kingdom as the next Egyptian historical period. Egyptologists still reck their brains if Kamose was Ahmose's elder brother or uncle and if Sapair was Ahmose's son or much younger brother: Kamose has to be the firstborn son of Sequenre Tao and Sapair has to be the firstborn son of Ahmose because Sapair dies young in the tenth plague of the death of all firstborn and Ahmose does not as we will see later, thus Ahmose cannot be the firstborn son thus Kamose has to be his elder brother.
Pharaoh Ahmose I Second Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao
The fourth Egyptian Pharaoh, the last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty,
and the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom
Up until today, there is no evidence PROVING
the members of Thebes' 16th and 17th Dynasty before the Ahmosides
being Egyptians or Canaanites.
And up until today, there is no evidence DISPROVING the members of Thebes' 16th and first half 17th Dynasty being Israelites.
The opposite is the case.
THE NAME OF MOSES
IN HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS OF THE 17TH CENTURY BC IN EGYPT
Sinai 361 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert
Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey
This second inscription (Sinai 361) of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert (1666-1646 BC) shows besides several Hebrew words unequivocally the Hebrew name of Moses: "Moshe" (see yellow alphabetical Hebrew letters M and Sh in the first picture above). It says:
"Our bound servitude had lingered.
MOSES provoked astonishment.
It is a year of astonishment because of Baalath."
Baalath was the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind, and lightning. Baal was depicted as a bull or as a ram like the Egyptian deity Amun and melted in Egypt together with Amun and Month.
One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it in the midst of the Ten Plagues. This is archeological evidence confirming the historical existence of MOSES in Egypt, the ongoing slavery of Israel in Egypt until MOSES' return, his biblical evidenced provoking astonishment in Exodus4:30,7:9,7:20,8:1,8:12,9:8 and the biblical evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt.
THE TEN PLAGUES
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IDENTIFIED IDOLS OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
ARE MATCHING EXACTLY WITH
THE IDENTIFIED IDOLS HUMILIATED BY THE BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
According to the Bible, Israel's enslavement in Egypt was God's judgement for Israel's idolatry in Egypt (Hezekiel20:8). In Chapter Joseph Headline Josephs son Manasse - Idolatry of Israel in Egypt we have learned that Israel's idolatry in Egypt was introduced by Joseph's firstborn son Manasse; After he was set behind Ephraim by his grandfather Israel's blessing he decided to follow in his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II footsteps and became Priest of Amun in Thebes and introduced the semimonotheistic worshipping of the deity Amun at least by his Hebrew tribe and by the southern Egyptians. After the Ten Plagues Southern Pharaoh Ahmose changed his main worship cult to exactly this semimonotheistic tendency. Further Idolatry of Israel in Egypt was shown in JOSEPH being hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and parts of Israel as Khnum, Month and Osiris and his wife ASENATH being hero-worshipped as Setet wife of Khnum, as Zeneneth/Iunit/Henut wife of Month and as Isis wife of Osiris. Month, Amun, Apis and the Canaanite deity Baal (syncretism) were all often worshipped as Bull-headed deities.
The archaeologically evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt in Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions in the time of Moses mentions the Idols
Hathor and Baalath:
Hathor was the Egyptian female deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and promiscuity. She was the wife of Horus, son of Osiris and Isis, embodied by the living Pharaoh. Around '1700' BC acc. to Bietak a temple district to Canaanite deity Ashera and Egyptian deity Hathor was built in the eastern part of Avaris.
Baalath is the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind and lightning. Baal was often depicted as a bull or as a ram like Amun and melted in Egypt together with Amun or Month or Seth.
As already explained in Chapter Joseph Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry towards Baal/Seth; Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non evidenced and nonexistent years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology Table Chronology of Israel & Canaan in Egypt) and unsafe excavation layer datings the author proposes a Seth Temple construction in the year 1729 BC, the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, correctly described by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction and it is additionally confirmed by the "400-years-Stela" celebrating the Seth Temple 400st anniversary under Pharaoh Harembab around 1320 BC so that the construction time must have been around 1720 BC.
And now let's take a look at the Canaanite Idols and Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian Idols in Hezekiel20:8 who fell under God's judgment Exodus12:12 in the Ten Plagues to make Israel Exodus6:7,10:2 and Egypt Exodus7:5.17,8:10 and the Canaanites recognize the real One and Only G'd:
First Plague - Nile Water turns into Blood:
Judgement over the Nile Floods Idol Bull-headed Apis, Month or Amun contemporary often melted with Baal and
Judgement over the Nile Idol Isis and the Guardian deity of the Nile Khnum
Second Plague - The Frogs:
Judgement over the Frog as Idol Heqt or as a manifestation of the Idol of promiscuity Hathor
Third Plague - The Mosquitoes or Sandflies &
Fourth Plague - The Dog Flies:
Judgement over Pharaoh as deity and incarnation of Re responsible for the well-being of his people
Fifth Plague - The Cattle Plague:
Judgement over Bull-headed Apis, Month and Amun and over Ram-headed Khnum, all of them often merged with the Canaanite deity Baal
Sixth Plague - The Ulcers:
Judgement over Isis who fails as Idol of Healing
Seventh Plague - The Hailstorm of Fire and Ice:
Judgement over Storm Idol Set syncretically mixed with Apis, Month, Amun and the Canaanite deity Baal - also his female form Baalath was an Idol for weather, rain, wind and lightning
Eighth Plague - The Locusts:
Judgement over Osiris, who fails as Idol of Harvest and Fertility. Osiris embodies the King‘s afterlife.
Ninth Plague - The Darkness:
Judgement over the Sun Idols Re and Horus and over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re and Horus, also
Judgement over Baal and his female form Baalath as Idols of lightning
Tenth Plague - The Death of all Firstborn:
Judgement over Pharaoh by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re, Horus and Osiris
Judgement over Isis who fails as female Idol of Child Protection and Hathor who fails as female Idol of maternal care and protection and wife of Horus.
Neither Roger Liebi who identified the Egyptian Idols falling under the judgement did know about the author's archaeological evidenced identified Egyptian idols worshipped by Israel nor did Douglas Petrovich know Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian idol Hathor addressed by G'd's judgement through the Ten Plagues. This exact matching of the Ten Plagues addressed idols with the idols of Israel in Egypt archaeologically evidenced by the author and Douglas Petrovich is unrefutable precise Bible proving archaeological evidence.
In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and Moses are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when Moses told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba, in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.
Against this background the Ten Plagues in Exodus7:14-12:42 and the miraculous Division of the Sea in Exodus14:15-31 get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood in Exodus7:20). The Ipuwer Papyrus description of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Khamudi and Ahmose I is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com and by David Rohl in his book The Exodus. John von Peters 1966 confirms that the conditions, terms and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus dated to the Second Intermediate Period. Sage Ipuwer admonishes his Pharaoh for his failure to rectify the terrible situation. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as Hebrew ey whiteness report elaborated by David Rohl:
THE FIRST EIGHT PLAGUES
THE GEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and Moses are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when Moses told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba, in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.
For finding connectivity evidence of the Ten Plagues with the Santorini Eruption watch minute 28-43 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqLsYonjvRY&t=4310s in English or minute 23-38 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uns55sYkQ7U in German.
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
Against this background the Ten Plagues in Exodus7:14-12:42 and the miraculous Division of the Sea in Exodus14:15-31 get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood in Exodus7:20). John Van Seters (A date for the "Admonitions" in the Second Intermediate Period. In: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1964, n.50, p.13-23) estimates on his presupposition that it cannot be describing an historical event but just can be a sort of an allegorical poem, he concludes the conditions, terms, and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus have to be dated into the Second Intermediate Period, he roughly estimated it around 1674 BC but the precise Ipuwer Papyrus descriptions of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Canaanite Northern Pharaoh Khamudi and Egyptian Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I at the end of the Second Intermediate Period is much more matching which is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com and by David Rohl in his book 'The Exodus'. Finally if You look at the details, such as linguistics, you see all the words, names, and phrases that exactly suggest it was composed in the 18th Dynasty after the Exodus in 1606 BC confirmed by nearly all relating ancient writings. The author Ipuwer - who's name actually appears in a text from the period of Hatshepsut - admonishes his former Pharaoh (Ahmose I) for his failure to rectify the catastrophic situation of Egypt. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as the Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as the Hebrew eye whiteness report of the Ten Plagues in the time of the Santorini Eruption elaborated by David Rohl:
THE YPUWER PAPYRUS AND THE TEN PLAGUES
- The Nile turning into blood -
Exodus4:9 "YHWH said... You are to take some water from the Nile and pour it on the ground. And the water You have taken from the river will turn to blood on the dry land."
Ipuwer: "Behold, Egypt has fallen to the pouring water. And he who poured water on the ground seizes the mighty in misery."
- Destruction of crops and Death of livestock -
Exodus7:20 "And all the water in the Nile turned to blood. The Fish in the river died and the river stank so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile.
Ipuwer: "The river is blood! As you drink of it you Loose humanity and thirst of water."
- Ruination of Egypt -
Exodus9:31,9:6,10:15 "The flex and the bairly were ruined .. all the livestock of the Egyptians died... The locus covered the surface of the ground until the land was devastated .. and they devoured whatever was growing in the fields and all the fruit of the trees .."
Ipuwer: "Gone is the grain of abundance. Food supplies are running short. The nobles Hunger and suffer. Upper Egypt has become a wasteland. Grain is lacking on every side. The storehouse is bare. Women say 'Oh that we had something to eat'."
- Darkness covers the Land -
Exodus10:7 "For three days there was thick darkness throughout the land of Egypt."
Ipuwer: "Those who had shelter are now in the darkness of the storm." and "the power of Ra (sun god) is not seen"
- The Death of the Firstborn -
Exodus12:29 "At midnight the Lord did strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt - from the firstborn of Pharaoh, heir to his throne, to the firstborn of the Captive in the dungeon... And Pharoh rose up the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was great wailing in Egypt, for there was not a house without its dead... The Egyptians were burying those of their own people whom YHWH had struck down."
Ipuwer: Behold, plague sweeps the land; blood is everywhere with no shortage of dead. Children are dashed against the walls. The funeral shroud calls out to you before you come near. Woe is me for the grief of this time. He who buries his brother in the ground is everywhere .. Wailing is throughout the land mingled with lamentations."
- The Plundering of Egypt's wealth by the Hebrew Slaves -
Exodus12:35 "The Israelites asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewellery and for clothing. YHWH had given the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians that they let them have what they asked. So they plundered the Egyptians."
Ipuwer: "The slave takes what he finds. What belongs to the palace has been stripped. Gold, Lapislazuli, silver and turquoise are strung on the necks of female slaves. See how the poor of the land have become rich whilst the man of the property is a pauper."
Ahmose Storm Stela 16: "His Majesty set .. to cause the water (after the hail storm?) to evacuate without (the aid of) his (slaves?) .. to provide them with silver, with gold, with copper, with oil, with clothing, with all the products they desired .."
Especially the last passage of the Ipuwer Papyrus is used by leading Egyptologists as clear proof that this could not be a historical eye-witness report because it would not make any sense the poor becoming rich and the rich becoming poor. According to these self-called neutral, objective independent leading Egyptologists, it has to be imaginative prose and any connection with biblical content is rejected to be seen because it contradicts their dogma belief in their self-disproved Bible Forgers‘ Ramesses Time Paradigm which allegedly has disproved the complete Bible.
The Ipuwer Papyrus
The Ahmose Storm Stela
THE AHMOSE STORM STELA AND THE TEN PLAGUES
Another exciting archaeological example of biblical evidence is the Storm Stele introduced in the documentary of Simcha Jacobovici on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY. The Storm Stele of Ahmose I is seen as an eye-witness report and clear archaeological confirmation of the impacts of the Santorini Volcanic Eruption on Egypt by Radio Carbon Experts who date this biggest Volcanic Eruption of human history in the time around the biblical year of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC. This leads to the recommendation of Moeller and Ritter in 2014 to redate the time of Ahmoses I reign into this time which proves what also the Bible does prove in this work - that about 75 years of the Second Intermediate Period are highly speculative wrong time estimations and a misleading creation of non-existing time in Egyptian history (see Table Chronology in Chapter Chronology and Footnotes 2-6). The Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king. It tells about evidenced Santorini Eruption effects like unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning, a great storm and Egypt enveloped in darkness. „God“ manifested his power is an unusual Egyptian formulation, obviously not meaning one of the many Egyptian deities, which are always concretely identified by their name if not used a general plural for them.
SYNCHRONICITY OF THE BIBLE AND THE STORM STELA
Bible: God passed judgement on the Gods of Egypt
Storm Stela: "Then His Majesty said 'How these (events) surpass the power of the great god and the wills of the divinities .. the God manifested his power."
Bible: YHWH says I will destroy all their gods
Storm Stela: A huge storm is destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids The statues of the Gods of Egypt were toppled to the ground
Geologists: Results of Santorini Earthquake Storm and Volcanic hail
Bible: Egypt was struck by a hail made up of fire and ice mingled together
Storm Stela: A great unique storm, unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning
Geologists: Vulcanic hail rain would be a mixture of ice and burning ash
Ypuwer Papyrus: mentions raining fire and ice according to Simcha Jacobivici
Bible: A three days darkness "you can touch" comes over the land
Storm Stela: A great darkness of (not readable) days comes over the land with no one able to light the torch anywhere.
Geologists: The Santorini Volcanic Eruption Ash Cloud creates a darkness "you can touch"
THE NINTH AND THE TENTH PLAGUE
THREE DAYS OF DARKNESS AND THE NIGHT DEATH OF ALL FIRSTBORN
The ninth Plague is the judgement over Ra as the deity of the life spending sun.
The tenth plague is the judgement over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Ra by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh and all male first born of Egypt except the Israelites.
THE NIGHT OF THE TENTH PLAGUE - THE PASSOVER
For Agnostics, it's important to understand the up until today celebrated Passover Night of Exodus12 as the key event of the Exodus to the Promised Land yearly repeated since 3600 years as the repeated REAL live event every Passover feast up until today all over the world where Jews live:
For believers in the G'd of Israel, HE did send the deliverer Moses to free Israel from their enslavement, which was the spiritual consequence of their archeologically evidenced idolatry in Egypt. Accompanied by the presence of G'd in the Tabernacle Moses shall lead them through the desert to the Promised Land so that Israel finally would reach Jerusalem one day. In order to achieve the Passover of the death of every male firstborn in Egypt in the night of the Tenth Plague/ in order to be saved from the angel of death by its Passover in the night before the Exodus, they were commanded by G'd to kill an unblemished male lamb, slaughter it, spread its poured out blood on the doorposts for the angel of death to pass over, and eat the unleavened bread and eat the real flesh of the freshly slaughtered lamb as the only accepted execution of their covenant with G'd. Not any symbol for the flesh or symbol for the blood was accepted to save them from death - solely the REAL blood and eating the REAL flesh of the REAL unblemished male lamb ensured the Passover of Death. Any symbolistically reduced similar act would have lost completely its necessary effect and would have led to certain death instead of life. Later in the desert, the People of Israel were fed with Supernatural Bread called Manna from Heaven and with Flesh from Heaven (quails) as a foretaste of the Promised Land.
Over two thousand years old rabbinical traditions fixed in the Talmud say that the Messiah will be a new Moses to free Israel from spiritual enslavement in sin leading them to the New Promised Land of peace and justice - a New Eden - and finally to the eternal heavenly New Jerusalem. According to 2Baruch29:3-8 the Messiah will bring back the Miraculous Manna from Heaven to save their lives from eternal death. By this, he will at the same time bring the New Supernatural Bread & Wine of the Presence of G'd Exodus25:30. In the Exodus through the desert the Bread of the Presence - the lehem ha pannim - was yearly at Pesach lifted up by the high priest on a golden table as a sacrifice to G'd and presented in front of the Tabernacle to the people with the words "Behold, the Love of G'd!". Thus the question if the New Manna to be eaten is natural or supernatural (in greek epiousious = supersubstantial/ daily: used in the original greek Our Father prayer in Matthew6:11 "give us our supernatural/ daily bread"), if it is earthly or heavenly, ordinary or extraordinary, symbolic or real (compare John6:53-55,6:60-67) is a deciding question of belief in the eternal salvation for the People of Israel, the Children of G'd in the time when the Messiah comes ...
ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION EVIDENCE OF THE TENTH PLAGUE IN AVARIS
The Tenth Plague that shattered complete Egypt was the death of all male firstborns except the Israelites. Makeshift Mass Graves with male sceletons of that time were excavated. This hardest archaeological evidence for the biblical tenth Plague (death of all male firstborns of Egypt in one single night Exodus11,4) was excavated in Avaris: Manfred Bietak observed "The end of this stratum seems to have been connected with a tragedy. In both major excavation areas, unprotected burials were found in some shallow pits 20-40cm deep, and the orientation (extraordinarily) follows no pattern. In contrast to often-seen burials in ordinary chamber tombs, the bodies in most of the pits burials were (extraordinarily) in a casual, extended position; it is apparent that the bodies were sometimes thrown into the pit. Occasionally several burials were interred at the same time in one pit. Offerings are the exception in the tombs. It is very likely that burials resulted from an Epidemic." (Bietak BASOR 281,38) Kim Ryholt speaks of a "plague" (Kim Ryholt 1997, 301). This means they both confirm a heavy plague evidenced by mass graves in the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos. At the same time, Avaris was abandoned by its population, Excavator Manfred Bietak concluded a sudden mass extinction. As we know already the year of the Expulsion of the Hyksos 1606 BC ('1525 BC') is also the biblical year of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt (see Chapter Chronology). Since the sudden abandonment of Avaris in the biblical year 1606 BC is discussed as archaeological evidence of Israel leaving Egypt chief excavator Manfred Bietak tries to disprove this by insisting on Canaanites archaeologically evidenced having stayed in and around Avaris in the century after the historically evidenced 'Hyksos Expulsion' and occurring again after one or two centuries. He tries to prove this by archaeological evidence of not by the 18th Dynasty destroyed Canaanite pottery or buildings after the expulsion, by Canaanite cults adopted by Egyptians in the Delta after the Expulsion and remained over centuries until Ramesses II and with returned Canaanites in the Delta generations later (see also Chapter Hyksos headline The Hekashasut).
PHARAOH'S FIRST BORN SON
DIES YOUNG IN THE TIME OF TENTH PLAGUE
- ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE -
Ahmose's/ Pharaoh's firstborn son Prince Sapair
died 12 years young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion and thus
in the Time of the Tenth Plague in the biblical year 1606 BC
Prince Ahmose Sapair is the beloved first-born Kingson of Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose I. As Simcha Jacobovici firstly discovered in this context he died young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion as the biblical time of the Tenth Plague 1606 BC. How painful this loss was for Pharaoh Ahmose I is seen in his son receiving a King's Pyramide and extra Worship Cults. His Pyramidion shows the symbol of the former highest clan deity Khonsu, the moon. As half a moon crescent, for the very first time, he is shown lying on its back on the ground like dead or defeated ... Ahmose I then changed the highest deity of Egypt after the Ten Plagues to the hidden invisible deity Amun meaning "the invisible" became the chief deity and manifestation of Amun and Re together as Amun-Re; Amun was developed as semimonotheistic deity by JOSEPH's son MANASSE as Priest of Amun who lead the Amun Cult of Egypt for over 80 years c. 1800-1720 BC (see page Joseph). Thus the Egyptian semi-monotheism regarding Amun was as a matter of fact an "egyptianised" virtual monotheism introduced by JOSEPH's son MANASSE. MANASSE's descendants as Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty continued this kind of Amun worshipping and the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs took it over. Pharaoh Ahmose enhanced the worshipping by the manifestation of Amun and Re in Amun-Re. The Egyptian climax of virtual monotheism was finally the re-separation of Amun and Re by Pharaoh Akhenaten: Re the sun became the only God of Egypt and worshipping Amun became forbidden. After the Santorini Eruption and the biblical Ten Plagues archeologically precisely evidenced by the Ypuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose Storm Stela, the Egyptians fell away from their belief in the divine power of their naturalistic deities and Pharaoh: Celebrating Pharaoh's godlikeness ended abruptly after the Hyksos Expulsion in the biblical year 1606 BC ('1530 BC').
THE LAST PYRAMID OF AN EGYPTIAN PHARAOH
WAS BUILD BY HEBREW SLAVES
Ahmose's Pyramide was the last Egyptian "Godpharaoh's" Pyramide. In the time of the Hyksos Expulsion - as shown the evidenced time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the biblical year 1606 BC - all of Ahmose I's huge building projects abruptly broke off (see Page Chronology). The Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples, and Pyramids in the Theban region, and matches exactly the biblical descriptions of the impacts of the Ten Plagues.
The sudden missing huge amount of slave workforce after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt - especially for the biblical evidenced production of huge necessary amounts of mudbricks shown in on the scenery from the New Kingdom at the beginning of this chapter - is the most plausible reason for these immense project aborts. Ahmose's I Pyramide was afterward extraordinarily finished without any substructure but only filled up with sand and soil and did not even last for one Dynasty. This is unique archeological evidence for the sudden absence of the huge necessary slave workforce to finish all the huge building projects and thus additional striking evidence for the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt at this time.
Pharaoh Ahmose I built the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh. Construction was abruptly cancelled & filled up with sand & soil
The Ruins: The Pyramide had no inner mudbrick substructure and lasted for less than a single Dynasty
PHARAOH AND PHARAOH THE KING OF EGYPT
ARE DISTINGUISHED AS SUCH BY THE BIBLE
In the time of Moses always at least two different Pharaohs were existing in Egypt. On the one hand, the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh who was the foreign lifelong Ruler of Egypt, biblically called "King of Egypt" and on the other hand the less powerful tributary or counter southern Egyptian Pharaoh of Thebes certainly not being called King of Egypt; The 'Hyksos' Pharaoh as 'King' or lifelong Ruler of Egypt is biblically evidenced only at three different times:
1.) First in Exodus1:8.15.18 at the beginning of the Book of Exodus Canaanite Pharaoh Sharek/Salitis "a Foreign King who does not know Joseph arises in enmity over Egypt" (see page Hyksos). Foreign King/ Ruler means translated into Egyptian Hekashasut or Hyksos.
2.) Second in Exodus5:4,6:11.13,7:29 at the beginning of the Exodus story when Moses before the start of the Ten Plagues is sent to ('Hyksos' Pharaoh Khamudi) the lifelong Ruler of Egypt biblically called "King of Egypt" to tell him to let his People go. This took place in spring and thus in Memphis and not in Avaris, the summer residence of the 'Hyksos'.
3.) The third and at last time is in Exodus14:5.8 in the end when Pharaoh (Khamudi) as "King of Egypt" in Memphis commands his army to chase after Israel until he sinks with his army in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically unambiguously identified by its contemporary name Yam Suph.
Instead, while the Ten Plagues are coming over Egypt there is just talk of a "Pharaoh" not being called King of Egypt in the Bible thus Southern Pharaoh Ahmose had to be meant by the biblical Pharaoh who archeologically evidenced lost his firstborn son in the Tenth Plague. There is no evidence for contemporary huge building projects of the 'Hyksos' in the time of Khamudi and Ahmose - for which the foreign lifelong Ruler of Egypt Khamudi would have needed hundreds of thousands of slaves - only the Southern Pharaoh Ahmose's huge building projects needed such a huge amount of slave workforce and these took mainly place between Memphis and Thebes. Additionally, the Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples, and Pyramids in the Theban region and also the Ypuwer Papyrus describes the Ten Plagues and especially the Tenth Plague of the sudden death of all firstborns taking place in the region around Thebes. And the Bible in Exodus9:26 says that in the Northern Delta "in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, there was no hail" and they were not affected by any of the Plagues. This all leads to the conclusion that the biblical story of the Ten Plagues mainly takes place in Southern Egypt in the land of Pharaoh Ahmose and not in the northern Canaanite Hyksos region.
Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi has to be identified as the "King of Egypt" of the beginning and the end of the biblical Exodus story while Thebes' Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose needing and using the slave workforce is the only plausible direct first contact Pharaoh for Moses during the Ten Plagues in the Bible in the time when no King of Egypt is biblically mentioned. This is finally confirmed by the biblical night of the tenth plague in Exodus 12:29 in contrast to Exodus 14:5.
After Exodus 12:29 it is clearly explained how Pharaoh (Ahmose) after he has lost his son in the night tells Moses to leave with his complete people and cattle and sheep. He even asks for his blessing. And all the Egyptians are described as fearfully sending them away giving them all their fine clothes, silver, and gold. So far their departure is described. For the Pyramide building Israelites and all other between Memphis and Thebes working slaves, this meant that they first went back to their wives and families in Avaris biblically called Ra-amezes. From there they started out from Egypt via Sukkot in Exodus 12:37.
Then two whole biblical passages follow explaining how to celebrate the night of the tenth plague and the Exodus until the end of time. Then the complete journey through the desert to the Yam Suph the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba is described. And then surprisingly in Exodus14:5 the same "Pharaoh" who always assumed did already together with his Egyptian people send Moses and the people of Israel away and saw them leaving had to "receive the message that the people have fled" in order to "him and his servants" turning their hearts against the people? That does make no sense. But it does make sense that this Pharaoh is biblically identified as the "King of Egypt" in Exodus14,5 in contrast to the biblical Pharaoh of the Ten Plagues because it is not the dead son mourning southern Pharaoh Ahmose like he is described in his farewell to Moses and his people; It is the Canaanite Pharaoh and only "King of Egypt" who extra needs a message to realize in his palace in Memphis that the people of Israel have left Heliopolis/On, Lahun/Kahun and even the home base of their families Avaris and the complete country. Pharaoh Khamudi King of Egypt. He is the Pharaoh who makes sense in the first contact with Moses asking him to let his complete people go, which took place in Memphis because it was biblically and archeologically evidenced spring and not summer the time of residence in the Palace of Avaris. And he is the only Pharaoh who makes sense to command the complete Canaanite charioteers and the Egyptian charioteers and the complete Egyptian footsoldier army to hunt after the people of Israel. He is the only historical Pharaoh who makes sense to have drowned with his complete army in the Yam Suph, the biblical evidenced Gulf of Acaba because his corpse or grave was never found anywhere. He is the only historical Pharaoh of both making sense to be identified in these three times as the "King of Egypt". Because of Khamudi's Southern Vassall, Pharaoh Ahmose with his huge building projects being related to all slave work issues and the Hyksos capital Memphis being located near the border of the northern and southern dynasty and thus easy to visit for the southern Pharaoh Ahmose, he could have plausibly also been present during the first meeting of Moses with Khamudi; This invites the reader to a even deeper biblical text analysis of the First Meeting of Moses with "Pharaoh" AND „Pharaoh King of Egypt“ as Southern Pharaoh Ahmose and Northern Pharaoh Khamudi King over Egypt …
ISRAEL IN THE DESERT
Are there any remans of Hebrew campsites in the desert? In the latest biblical archeological discussions one of the main settlement locations of Israel in the 40 years of wandering through the desert is discovered; the mountain Hashem El Tarif in Sinai near Timna at the ancient contemporary travel route from Egypt to Mesopotamia and Canaan. The first Sinai stations after Israel coming back from Midian in Northern Arabia into Sinai are the lustgraves Numbers33,16 and Hazerot Numbers11,35-12,16. The last Sinai station before crossing the sea was Etham at the edge of the wilderness Exodus13:20. Hashem El Tarif at the edge of the Sinai desert mirrors most biblical data as archaeological evidence for rather years or months than weeks or days of settlement, including graves of possible tribe leaders, the grandsons of the 12 tribefathers. In the linked documentary on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY, it is not recognized as such but confused with the Holy Mountain in the land of Midian; Instead according to all ancient scriptures, Midian always was in North Arabia. If You are looking for evidence for the biblical Sea Division Miracle and the real Mount 'Sinai', actually the biblical Mount Horeb - the wilderness Sinai was not limited to the peninsula in ancient times - study the documentaries on www.patternsofevidence.com. Explore the evidence for the real Mount Sinai in Midian always having been in Arabia (Galatians4,25) beyond the biblical Reed Sea "Yam Suf" (1Kings9,26), today called Gulf of Aqaba (Exodus2,15.3,1) the fascinating Gebel El Lawz with overwhelming evidence for remans of Hebrew campsites on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y-uiccIiSY&t=354s. The wilderness of the east called Sinai was geographically reduced to the peninsula up to 2 millennia later.
THE 'HYKSOS' EXPULSION
Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi and his army never returned from their chase after Israel. The remaining Egyptian-Canaanites in Avaris were left on their own; Ahmose I sees his chance to turn the doom of the 'Hyksos' army into his victory wiping out the shameful memory of Egypt under the foreign Semitic rule. Ahmose I claims after having taken Heliopolis and Sile to have won a siege battle against Avaris (see picture below).
Historian Manetho in Josephus however states, after a composition between the Egyptians and the Canaanites was made, the Hyksos surrendered to the Egyptians in return for a safe passage back to Canaan and all of them left Egypt. Avaris Excavator Bietak states that there is no evidence for violent destruction of Avaris: "The archaeological material stops abruptly with the early 18th Dynasty in '1534 BC' (the biblical year 1606 BC). The most likely interpretation is that Avaris was abandoned. No conflagration layer or corpses of slain soldiers have been found so far in the large and widely separated excavation areas."
Picture: Ahmose's I Avaris Victory Propaganda as After Desaster Shock Confusion Coping: Pharaoh defeats ALL Foreigners - black-skinned white-clothed Southern Africans and light-skinned lengthways striped clothed Semites mixed up with transversely striped clothed Semites (compare the distinguishment between Canaanites and Israelites at the end of Chapter Hyksos) This is archeological evidence for the indifference of Egyptian grown hate against all foreigners - Canaanites and Israelites are chaotically mixed up and their distinguishment gets lost in history ...
THE LOST ARMY OF THE 'HYKSOS'
Pharaoh Khamudi/Archeles is nowhere mentioned as defeated or killed, neither in Sharuen, the old 'Hyksos' home base in Canaan and target of the 'Expulsion of the Hyksos' nor in Avaris or Memphis. There is no evidence for him having survived the year 1606 BC ('1535 BC'). No grave and no skeleton had ever been found - but a golden electron wheel of a Pharaoh's chariot and many wheels with axles, reinforced with metal and rests of many other chariots are found on the ground of both sides of the sea Yam Suf, the Gulf of Aqaba near the land of Midian Psalm136,15 Exodus14,28
"The Lord our God threw them into the sea to the depths of the Abyss
in place of the Israelites, just as the Egyptians had thrown their sons into the river.
He took revenge on one million of them: 1000 men, strong and also very brave,
perished for one infant of your people whom they had thrown into the river."
Explore the evidence for the Canaanite Pharaoh and his army sunk in the Sea of Aqaba on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HM7njJuarrg in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weaBUUqfPoI&list=PLEA7Bvb3a7XJErk7Bwi-wj0TDtftJkrQZ&index=4&t=38s in German.
"The Lord our G'd threw them into the sea into the depths of the Abyss"
"the earth swallowed them"
Jubilees48:14 and Exodus15:12
"The water came back and covered all the chariots and cavalry
of PHRAOH's army who had followed them into the sea -
NOT EVEN ONE OF THEM WAS LEFT."
Footnote: The author has to add here that he is irritated by all the different highly creative desperate attempts of Ramesses Time Paradigm devotees and so-called Early Date (1446 BC Exodos) devotees to reinterpret this and several other clearly understandable Bible cites into the conclusion the Pharaoh and parts of his army allegedly had survived the Sea Miracle because their identified Pharaohs died a natural death and left sceletons in tombs instead of in the Yam Suph, the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba.
RESOLUTION OF THE LAST OPEN QUESTIONS
THE 10 PLAGUES - EGYPT DEVASTATED - ISRAEL'S EXODUS - THE HYKSOS EXPULSION
MILLIONS OF FOREIGNERS AND TWO CENTURIES OF FOREIGN RULE ABRUPTLY DISAPPEAR
- ALL IN ONE SINGLE YEAR - A HISTORICAL SHOCK CONFUSION UP TO THIS DAY -
Nothing was evidenced more feared by the ancient Egyptians than CHAOS. The geologically evidenced Santorini Eruption Impacts on Egypt, Ahmose's I Storm Stela, and the famous Iypuwer Papyrus exactly and precisely confirm the historical CHAOS in Egypt in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, the biblical time of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the year 1606 BC ('1534 BC').
Hate is a form of confusion; Confusion of fear, sorrow, grief, jealousy, and other emotions but for sure always set on fire by egoism and hurt narcissism. The story of Egypt's relationship with Israel and Canaan as two contrary different Semitic people - both called HekaShasut Hyksos, meanwhile generalized in its meaning from Shepherd Kings to Rulers of Foreign Lands - is also the story of the beginning of antisemitism with all its contradictions and confusion inside. Antisemitism always had a spiritual dimension. Hate towards the first believers in the one and only G'd always was mixed with jealousy towards the blessings the G'D fearing received in this world if through many descendants, much prosperity, success, or power. Antisemitism always owned an evil, antitheistic part until the time of atheistic 'enlightenment' officially had 'disestablished' the evil in the modern world. The forerunner of Egyptian antisemitism was a simple antipathy towards foreigners because of cultural diversity, eg. Egyptians disliked herding sheep and shepherds and did not have meals together with foreigners thinking them unclean. No later than 1666 BC the Egyptians did not differentiate anymore between the peaceful Hebrews from Canaan having grown up to a huge people in Egypt and the brutal Canaanites themselves; Meanwhile, they were both generally seen as hated HekaShasut or Hyksos, Foreign Rulers from the East from the eyes of Egyptians, the title meanwhile turned into a negative term like the other term for Eastern Semites Retjenus. Even up until today the Israelites of the "early Hyksos period" are confused with the Canaanites, today by leading antitheistic and thus antibiblical Archeologists. And the Mesopotamian, Syrian, and Canaanite Abrahamian archeological echo in Jacob's/ Israel's first palace in Avaris mixed with Mesopotamian indications of the Canaanite brutal invaders of Assur also can easily be misused to foster further
Hate against Semites from Canaan was radically evoked by the brutal invasion, massacres, destroying, and suppression of the Canaanite Semitic Foreign Rulers from Assur. The role of Israel in the archeologically evidenced "Golden Times" suddenly changed back from foreign ruler to foreign slave as it originally did at the beginning of the story the other way round evidenced in JOSEPH's Egyptian career. The Egyptians archeologically evidenced loved and hero-worshipped JOSEPH as their savior and also "honored the children of Israel all days of Joseph's lifetime" Jubilees46:2 but they never really loved his family of Shepherd Kings who always have been disgusted as shepherds Genesis46:34, Jubilees46:16 by the Egyptians. The Egyptians abreacted their grief to the Semitic brutal suppressor Canaan by suppressing their former foreign savior and Semitic ruler Israel as slaves after they had recommended this enslavement initiative to the first Canaanite Pharaoh Sharek/ SakirHar/ Salitis (The Book of Jubilees 46:12; Klaus Berger 1981, page 539 footnote 12b). After 1666 BC in the time of the Co-Rulership of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharoh Kayan and Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV ULAM the Egyptian differentiation between the peaceful Hebrew Semites as relatives of the Semitic Saviour Hekashasut Joseph and the brutal aggressive Canaanite Semites with a suppressing 'Hyksos' King did latest come to its end. From then on Egyptian antisemitism as fear and hate against all Semitic eastern foreigners had been branded into Egyptian memory for millennia up until today: Egypt rejects any archeological discoveries proving Israel's Rulership in Egypt and any egyptologist who would admit having found confirming evidence would lose his excavation site, which is the unsolid fundament of the "scientific independence, neutrality, and objectivity" of Egyptology today; This is jointly responsible for the "Dark Second Intermediate Period" having become such a contradictory clueless helpless guesswork of speculation again and again causing new
Finally, the Ipuwer Papyrus from the time of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC claims distraught "Foreigners have become OUR PEOPLE 'rmt' everywhere!" The term rmt "people" was normally reserved solely for the description of Egyptians themselves (Charlotte Booth. The Role of Foreigners 9. in Ancient Egypt: A Study of Non-Stereotypical Artistic Representations. in Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005) Thus it was precisely and accurately describing the faced historical situation:
A) Thousands of Canaanite elite warriors married as male occupiers Egyptian wives which lead to an "egyptianised" mixed-lineage with a consistently repeating Egyptian female line through four generations resulting in over two hundred thousand evidenced Canaanitic Egyptians
B) Over 3 million biblical evidenced Israelites spread in the Nile Delta and all over Egypt
C) A 14th & 15th Dynasty of Canaanitic Egyptians with a female Egyptian lineage and Canaanitic male roots ruled over Egypt
D) A 13th & 16th Hebrew Dynasty of four generations rooted in Egyptian marriages of EPHRAIM, MANASSE, and BENYAMIN ruled over Egypt
E) A Hebrew-Canaanitic marriage between Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV and MOSES' Stepmother and Canaanitic Pharaoh Khayan's Daughter Meris/Tjan supported the declining Egyptian distinction between both Semitic Foreigners.
F) A final 17th Dynasty, based on the Egyptian takeover of the Hebrew throne by Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew royal family clan finally expelled the Canaanites after their army had sunk in the floods of the Gulf of Acaba
Even the Book of Jubilees talks about the Army of "the King of Egypt" hunting after Israel "with all the variety of the peoples of Egypt" instead of about Egyptians; it talks instead of "his (the King's) people" in Jub48:6 and of "men of Egypt" in Jub48:14 and we realize now why they weren't directly called Egyptians. The Ahmose Storm Stela and the Ipuwer Papyrus evaluation conclusions of Leading Egyptologists turn out to be an antibiblical reducement of essential historical facts of eye witness reports to symbolic poetry driven by weakly based antitheistic symbolism paradigms. Instead, in fact, Ahmose's Storm Stela does not only describe precisely the biblical plagues and the biblical plundering of gold, silver, and clothes by Hebrew slaves from Egyptian view but also does describe the complete precise historical situation of Egypt in 1606 BC regarding the very last Canaanite 'Hyksos' period with 35 different Canaanite, Hebrew and Egyptian Pharaohs, with changing unbalanced power dynamics and with such a strong mixing of Semites with Egyptians that the Egyptians realistically feared to lose their complete original identity and existence as Egyptians which caused a terrifying
The sudden abrupt disappearance of both Semitic foreign former rulers out of Egypt in the same year 1606 BC after a series of shocking deadly environmental disasters - the biblical Ten Plagues - altogether must have been strongly disturbing for the affected people's mentality; Confusion holds on even over a thousand years later revealed by Josephus' Hebrew and Manetho's Egyptian ancient attempt to describe this shocking interruption and most spectacular intervention into human history; Like all other ancient writers, they consequently both failed in clearly and precisely differentiating the Exodus of Israel from the Hyksos Expulsion both taking place in the same year. From the Egyptian perspective, both foreigners had ruled over Egypt for about one hundred years each, and Egypt was left by all meanwhile hated foreigners in the same year; Thus they suppressed the uncomfortable truth that they had helped enslaving Israel, the family of their former Semitic Savior out of famine, and their Guarantor of Peace and Stability in Egypt in the last part of the so-called "Golden Age" and they tried to cope with their shocking and ashaming memories about their Semitic suppressors Canaan. This lead to the Egyptian confusion of two rulerships with each other while trying to suppress and forget both of them. Thus the Israelites and the Canaanites - both Semites from Canaan and always just called 'Hyksos' Hekashasut or Retjenu by the Egyptians - were mixed up, melted together, and confused with each other (which was a typical Egyptian pattern of behavior also in their world of deities) in their memory being all Eastern Semites for them anyway. This confusion of the Israelites with the Canaanites has not been resolved by any ancient historian and even not up until today! It is even enforced by modern leading biblical archeologists and egyptologists and their new antitheistic and antibiblical hypotheses (see Finkelstein's & Bietak's lectures against the Exodus linked at the beginning and the end of this work). This confusion is only resolvable by the Bible - the WORD - itself, from that very time on until the end of time; Antibiblical g'dless 'scientific' guesswork has never been, is not, and will never be capable to resolve this chaotic
Dr. David Ben-God HaCohen describes Manethos' and Josephus' confused attempts to describe history as follows: Manetho, the Egyptian priest from the third century BC, in his book Aegyptiaca, identifies the Israelites with the Hyksos. Manetho offers the following outline as quotes coming from Josephus 'Against Apion': "These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants, kept possession of Egypt ... After this composition was made (meant is the Canaanite 'Hyksos' surrender to the Egyptians in return for safe passage back to Canaan) they went away with their whole families and effects, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand. They took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for Syria .." Many modern scholars believe that Manetho is preserving an authentic ancient tradition and thus they identified the Israelites with the Canaanite so-called "Asiatic" rulers of Egypt as the only 'Hyksos'. If this were actually the case, then on the one hand the Israelites claimed that they were enslaved in Egypt, and on the other hand the Egyptians claimed that they were brutally conquered by them; these claims contradict each other and thus are in direct tension with each other. It is thus likely that both of these traditions are ancient. Josephus responds harshly to Apion, who used the identification between the Israelites fleeing Egypt and the oppressing 'Hyksos' to undermine the biblical account, painting the Jews as aggressors hiding behind false claims of victimization: Now Manetho, in another book says, “That this nation, thus called Shepherds, were also called Captives in their sacred books.” Realizing that this perspective undermines the biblical account entirely, Josephus spends almost a quarter of his book refuting it to fight against this up until today millennia ongoing of
There are additional last open questions regarding the Canaanites seemingly also, on the other hand, being mixed up or confused - now with the Egyptians - in the eyes of Israel; In Genesis1:13 the Egyptians are named as the ones, who force the Israelites to hard work - Why the Egyptians instead of the Canaanites? Because they were the ones who recommended the enslavement of Israel to the first Canaanite 'Hyksos' King; And the Enslavement of Israel took place nearly all over Egypt, so the Egyptians were deeply involved in the Enslavement of Israel and they were the ones who took primarily advantage of it. As already explained in the oldest 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees the Egyptian elites are even the ones who convince the Hyksos Pharaoh to enslave Israel (Jubilees46:12 Berger footnotes). This happened as a revenge a long time after having become dispossessed servants of Pharaoh Amenemhet III by Joseph nearly one century before Genesis47:19. This translation item was certainly not recognized as the most plausible one by experts regarding the Book of Jubilees but after having examined this work now it is in fact clearly the most plausible one. Nevertheless, the Canaanite Pharaohs remained to be the decisionmaker, commander, and leading initiator of the enslavement and oppression of Israel in Egypt in 1729 BC and of the chase after Israel to the Red Sea Yam Suf on their way to Midian in Arabia after their Exodus finally in 1606 BC. But all these already explained totally mixed up populations of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Hebrews additionally obviously also in the eyes of Israel left a certain
Exodus14 calls the Pharaoh's army at the sea several times Egyptians - Why not Canaanites? The answer is, the Canaanites in 1729 BC - c. '1720' according to egyptologists speculations - conquering Avaris were primarily a male soldier army, which settled first in Avaris, where they mixed up with Egyptian females as a typical colonial behavior. After 123 years of Rulership, which are at least three generations of mixing up with Egyptian females they became not only culturally but also physically more and more (50%, 75%, 87%) Egyptians. This is from the Egyptian perspective evidenced in the Ipuwer Papyrus already explained and also from Israel's perspective; The much bigger huge number of foot soldiers anyway were Egyptians and not Canaanites. In Exodus14:7 the (Canaanite) Pharaoh took, on the one hand, his (Canaanite elite) officers in charge of his 600 best chariots and on the other hand all "THE OTHER (Egyptian) chariot fighters and their chariots" to chase after Israel. This is discoverable when You compare all different biblical translations of this sentence; In the case of only having been Egyptians the differentiation in this sentence would make no sense. Thus also a very reluctant description of ethnic differences in the Bible and the Book of Jubilees is one reason for the millennia ongoing
But nevertheless, how and why could the essential fact, that Israel was originally and initially enslaved and oppressed by Canaanite rulers get lost or forgotten in Israel's history at all? Plausible answers could be shame, repression, or a simply confused neglected differentiation like on the other Egyptian side even over one millennium later shown by Manetho. Everyone who has read through the Bible does know how much more humiliating and shameful it must have been for Israel having been slaves not only of Egyptians but also of their main historical enemy Canaan. Canaan's role in the Bible is the role of the conquered land and defeated enemy and the painful memory that Israel beforehand in Egypt was themselves conquered, defeated, and even enslaved by these Canaanites must have been a memory very welcome to be suppressed. The Jewish biblical scholar and psychoanalyst Immanuel Velikovsky not only first identified the eyewitness report of the Ten Plagues in the Ipuwer Papyrus but he also developed the theory about such a "Cultural Amnesia" of a complete people - in our case the Egyptians and also the Israelites.
And in Israel's daily life experience of slavery in Egypt the Egyptians were the visible slave drivers and slaveowners; The Hebrew slaves in their work-life logically hardly met or even saw any Canaanites. Especially since the time period of the Ahmosides, primarily the Southern Egyptian Pharaohs used the Hebrew slave workforce for their archeologically evidenced huge mudbrick building projects; As already explained all the huge building projects of Pharaoh Ahmose I abruptly were left unfinished in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion: one example is Ahmose's Pyramide, the last one of an Egyptian Pharaoh in history. The new patterns of evidence in this work (Chapter Hyksos) lead to the additional conclusion that relating essential pieces of information also became veiled more and more in some fog of translation losses. This asks for a new focus for the further exploration of yet unidentified original Qumran Scripture Fragments of the Book of Jubilees and the Bible around 200 BC. As already evidenced shown the 1500 years old Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees confirms already that the Egyptians convinced the Canaanite oppressor to enslave Israel (46,12 footnote b Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees). This all caused further
Even more indications in the Book of Jubilees and the Book of Yasher point their finger at the Egyptians: The Book of the Righteous or Book of Yasher claims the Egyptian elites introduced or prepared already beforehand the enslavement decision of the (Canaanite) Pharaoh; Most plausibly after the first weakening battle of the Canaanites against the Hebrew 13th Dynasty in the Book of Jubilees - the Egyptians began to afflict the people of Israel, took their lands and houses (Yasher63) and hired them and paid them wages to deprive them by work far away from their wives, fearing their huge increase in numbers: "All Egypt was filled with Hebrews" in the 125th (Yasher65) year of Israel in Egypt which would be the biblical year 1696 BC ten years before MOSES' birth. This is also archeologically confirmed by the already introduced Egyptian sentence "There are foreigners everywhere!" in these times. The Book of Yasher even claims that after the first commanded Hebrew baby mass murder to the biblical midwives the time came when a dream of Pharaoh - about a Hebrew son who will be born and destroy Egypt and flee with the people of Israel - lead into the second baby mass murder command "Throw all male babies into the water of the Nile!" to his soldiers. The Book of Jubilees 47:2 says that even the Hebrew fathers themselves were forced to throw their own sons into the Nile full of crocodiles. Stephanus in Acts7:18 informs about this tragedy, that Pharaoh thus "mistreated the fathers, so that they had to abandon their babies, so those didn't stay alive." And the Book of Yasher even claims the Egyptian mothers would have visited the Hebrew houses and would have made their own babies cry to let Hebrew newborn hidden babies answer. And MOSES' father Amram and other Israelites would have fled for three years confirmed by the Bible for that time only mentioning Moses' mother and sister who took care of Moses. In the Book of Jubilees they hid Moses for three months at home and then for seven days in a basket at the Nile; In the night his mother breastfed him and in the day his sister guarded him; Until a great heat according to the Book of Yasher made all Egyptians and Canaanites who did not need to work take a bath in the Nile which lead into the finding of MOSES by Pharaoh's daughter initiated by Moses' sister Miriam. Because like all Israelites she plausibly knew that the daughter of the future archeologically evidenced more Hebrew friendly 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan, called Tarmut or Meris, also was Hebrew friendly (additionally indicated in the Ethiopian Book of Jubilees 47:5); She was accompanied only by Hebrew maids.
Thus having integrated all different ancient sources does let the story of MOSES in the Basket sound by no means like a fairy tale anymore but rather like a most plausible eyewitness report just as historical and incomprehensible horrible as an Holocaust eyewitness report. It is additionally confirmed by the archeologically evidenced Pharaoh's palace at the Nile some hundred meters downstream away from the barracks of the by excavator Manfred Bietak identified ("Proto"-called because of the Ramesses Time Paradigm) Israelites, examined and realized by David Rohl. Antibiblical leading scientists will call this pattern of evidence in their own interest untrustworthy Anti-Egyptian propaganda continueing the millennia-old enhancement of
The History of the Hyksos Controversy
is up until today
a 3600 years old history of confusion.
The History of Egyptology
regarding the Second Intermediate Period
is up until today
a history of confusion.
The History of Biblical Archeology
is from its beginning on up until today
a history of confusion.
The History of the Bible
is also a history of thousands of adversaries
trying to destroy the trust
in the most reliable ancient history book
based on trustworthy eyewitness reports
never disproved in one single sentence.
THE BOOK OF JUBILEES REVEALS THE BIBLE IS A HISTORY BOOK
The last explaining background for the Canaanites of Egypt getting lost in biblical history is the repressed story of a forgotten book, lost for centuries, evidenced as a strikingly relevant part of the Hebrew authoritative scriptures and seen by an essential part of the Jewish population as inspired Scriptures in the time of the Second Temple in Israel from at least the 3rd century BC until the second century AD; It claims to be written in the time of MOSES and it clearly and precisely identifies the Canaanites as the brutal invaders and oppressors of Egypt and as the decision-makers of the enslavement and baby mass murder of Israel. But the book had been dismissed. First by the Hellenistic Jewish translators of the Tanakh in Alexandria around 200 BC because of its Antihellenistic messages and then after the first century by most Jewish religious officials because of the first Jewish followers of Yeshua Jesus having 'occupied' it for their messianic message. And later, when the first 'messianic' Jews or Jewish 'Christians' had vanished, it was dismissed by the initially 'pagan' Christians, this time because of the Hellenistic Jewish greek translation logically having become the canonical authority as the oldest greek Old Testament; First in Greece and then in the complete Roman Empire for the Christians in the time of the first developing strict official canonization of the Old Testament and the New Testament in the contemporary greek speaking world.
The Book of Jubilees has turned out to be an arrow rain
towards adversaries against the credibility of
the Torah - the Tanakh - the complete Bible
and scientists have to learn that
there is no serious evidence
that can disprove
any Word of God.
"Adonai thundered from heaven .. he sent out arrows"
The Book of the Divisions of the Times.
Moses' written Chronology of Genesis and Exodus.
Dictated by the Angel of the Face.
The Angel of the Lord. The Savior of Israel.
"I stood between You, the Egyptians and the Israelites"
"And the Angel of G'd
who goes in front of the camp of Israel
moved and went behind them .."
Genesis21:17.22:11.31.11,48:16.32.25 Exodus3:2,14:19 Numbers22:23 Joshua5:12-6:2 Judges2:1.5,23,6:11.13.3 2Kings1:3 1Chronicles21:12 Psalm15:10,34:8,35:5,109:1,109:3,110:1 Proverbs8:22,27:30,30,4 Isaiah9:5,52:13,53,53:8 Lamentations4:20 Daniel9:25,9:27 Micah5:1 Zechariah1:7,3:1.10,12:1,12:8,12:10
LAST INTERNAL EVIDENCE FOR THE BOOK OF EXODUS
BEING AN EYEWITNESS REPORT WRITTEN BY MOSES - ONLY FOR CHRISTIANS
Yeshua Jesus himself clearly believes in Moshe Moses and his writings. He builds on his written words and states
You can not truly believe in him and not believe in Moses:
"For if you really believed MOSHE, you would believe ME;
because it was about me that he WROTE.
But if You believe not HIS WRITINGS,
how shall You believe MY WORDS?"
John5:47 Matthew8:4,19:7 Marc1:44,10:3 Luke5:14,20:37
When a rich hard-hearted man died and woke up in the painful underworld, he shouted over the deep canyon onto the other side in Paradise to Father Avraham to send someone back from the dead to life to warn his brothers about this place of pain.
"They have MOSHE and the Prophets. Let them hear on THEM."
Exodus24:4,34:27 Numbers33:1 Deutoro31:9 Joshua1:7,8:31 1Kings2:3 2Kings14:6,21:8 Ezra6:18 Nehemiah13:1 Daniel9:11 Malachi3:22
When the rich man said "NO, they will not! Only if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent!" Avraham said unto him
"If they hear not on MOSHE and the Prophets,
neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."
Luke16:31 Jeremiah11,15:7 Matthew3:12 Luke22:31
There is no evidence PROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
There is no evidence DISPROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
There is no evidence PROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty before the Ahmosides
There is no evidence DISPROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty before the Ahmosides
Leading Egyptology's and Leading Biblical Archeology's
postulated adversary hypothesizes against any Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves
disproved Bible Falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm.
It's their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without ever having DISPROVED them.
Nearly all these ancient writings reveal
the time of Foreign Rulers in Egypt
as the time of Israel in Egypt and
the Exodus of Israel in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.
Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence,
and nearly all relating ancient writings
confirm all comprehensive strictly biblical time data
in the timeframe 1830-1606 BC.
The complete self-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period
enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt.
It had been darkened for repression 3600 years ago by the Egyptians as defeated adversaries of the G'd of Israel and
it has been re-darkened by modern Leading Archeologists
as Zeitgeist adversaries of the G'd of Israel.
The Bible turns out to be a reliable archeologically confirmed History Book that never has been disproved in any way
regarding the time of Israel in Egypt.
And again this is how the Scriptures of Qumran - the Books of Moses and the Book of Jubilees - are bringing the real times of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, the so-called "dark period of uncertain highly speculative time estimations" to light and are purifying history from around 75 nonexisting years, confirming Dr. Roger Liebi's words:
"The Bible is the Diamond,
that cuts the stones of historical science
and not the other wrong way around."
12m! high Split Water Rock at Mount Horeb in Midian, Arabia
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Grandvizier ZaMonth KhnumHotep
- God Sealer
- Gate of Foreign Lands
- Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
- Arm of Month
- Mouth of Nekhen
- Senewosret Ankh
& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut
Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II
- "Mother of Gods"
Mother of 10 Kingdaughters:
EPHRAIM Ankhu, MANASSE
Wepwauthotep Sobekhotep III
12 Brothers &
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, ZEBULON
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH
Amenemhet's III children:
- later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
- BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha
- EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
- Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV
Vizier Ankhu Senwosret
c. *1828-1728+ BC
Co-Rulership with his father JOSEPH:
c. 1798-1750 BC
Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety
& Wife Mereret
Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
Vizier Iymerew Aya
2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:
ESER Nebankh &
Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw
also deciphered as (Dedu-Month) Senebtefi
Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun
Legitimate sons Jos17 1Chron7
of Egyptian mother:
1. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
2. HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer
3. ASRIEL Pharaoh Ibiaw
4. HEPHER Vizier Senebhenef
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
Illegitimate son 1Chr7,14 of an aramean concubine
6. MACHIR Nehy
JOSEPH King Za-
- KING of Egypt
- First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
- Archeologically evidenced
King Zamonth and
- Father of the Land
- Father of G'ds
- Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris
- Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV
c. *1800-1710+ BC
Assistance of his Grandfather JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH
c. 1750-1729 BC
c. 1725-1700 BC
& Wife Senebtisi
- Lady of the House
- Later Widow and wife of MANASSE's/
Vizier Iymeru Aya
c. *1800-1690+ BC
Co-Rulership with brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1710 BC
c. 1710-1690 BC
Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
c. *1760-1650+ BC
King Ankhu Senwosret
- Archeologically evidenced
of Pharaoh Wegaf
c. *1790-1700+ BC
Son of SHUTELAH's Resseneb's widow Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy 1Chr7,14
Claimed by his sons as
- "Royal Sealer"
- "Father of Gods" & King as Father of "Kingsons"
& Wife MAACHAH
HUPPIM's Gen46,21 sister, granddaughter of BENJAMIN
"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR 1Chron7,12 Pharaoh Awibre Hor I
died early in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayameru II
c. *1760-1650+ BC
Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Iymeru Aya
Co-Rulership with father Iymeru Aya:
c. 1710-1690 BC
c. 1690-1666 BC
Reduced to Vizier:
Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh
Self-appointed King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt
1. SHUTELAH 1Chr7:20 Vizier Resseneb
2. BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Vizier Iymerew Aya
3. REFACH 1Chr7:25 Vizier Neferkare Iymerew Ayamerew II
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
c. *1730-1656+ BC
Son of PERESH/ Haankhef 1Chr7:16
Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan
Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
Father of BEDAN Sobekhotep V &
as the last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings
Mio Sobekhotep =
1. Wife Nubhotepi
2. Wife Meris,Tjan
1. Nubhotepi: Hebrew mother of BEDAN 1Chr7:17 Sobekhotep V
Pharaoh's Daughter of canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan
Canaanite mother of Sobekhotep VI
Adoptive Stepmother of Mio Sobekhotep =
3 self-called "Kingsons":
1.REKEM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Neferhotep
(no reign time)
3.ULAM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV
1666-1658 BC: Co-Rulership of canaanite father and hebrew son in law over reunited Egypt
Switch back from Vizier Dynasty to Pharaoh Dynasty leading into the
Downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings
Notes and References
- Yael Ehrlich, Lior Regev, Elisabetha Boaretto, 2018 Radiocarbon analysis of modern Olive Wood Raines doubts concerning a crucial piec of evidence in dating the Santorini eruption in researchgate.net
Eruption around 1600 BC: Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16
- Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.
- Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.
- Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology. sciencedaily.com, April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241P.
- Cypriot White Slip pottery .. provides no convincing argumetn against an eruption date of around 1600 BC: Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.