Who were Moses Pharaohs?
THE PHARAOHS IN THE TIME OF ISRAEL'S ENSLAVEMENT
This Chapter will unveal an overwhelming amount of archeological evidence corroborating the following Chronology of Israel in Egypt in the time of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt and JOSEPH’s grandsons rulership as Shepherd Kings in Southern Egypt and in the time of MOSES. Different highly speculative theories without any solid evidence about the time of Israel in Egypt are dominating Biblical Archeology and different highly speculative theories about the chronology of the therefore so-called „Dark“ Second Intermediate Period are dominating Egyptology; The following Chronology is not based on any new theory but solely on the extraordinary amount of over 100 matchings of the Bible with the scientifically recognized contemporary archeological evidence: This is the REAL Chronology of the 15th, 16th, and 17th Dynasties according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (Ryholt's time estimations in brackets) According to Ryholt time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (1997 p.201)
A) Ryholt 1997 tables 42/45 pages 202/024
B) 13th Dynasty enthronement traditions
C) Biblical orders & relationships
1729-1606 BC ('1649-1531 BC'):
1729 BC: 'Hyksos' Invasion
& Enslavement of Israel
in Avaris/RAAMEZES, Lahun/PHYTOM, LeONtopolis/ON, and the Nile Delta. According to historian Manetho the Hyksos King "Salitis had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt."
1606 BC: The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt
and the 'Hyksos' Expulsion shortly
1729-1606 BC ('1649-1531 BC'):
Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohkings of Egypt:
- Samuqenu/Salitis 1729-1710 BC
- AperAnati/BinAnu 1710-1697 BC
- Sakir-Har/Apakhnas 1697-1686 BC
- Khayan 1686-1658 BC
- Ippi/Apophis 1658-1617 BC
- Khamudi/Archeles 1617-1606 BC
16th Dynasty parallel to 13th Dynasty
1745: Senebefni's/MANASSE's son Senebhenef/HELEQ, Vizier of Thebes, announced himself additionally as Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep (VIII) before his family clan returns from the Northern 13th Dynasty.
1743 BC: MANASSE‘s family clan returns from Avaris to Thebes
1733 BC: MANASSE‘s Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw’s death.
+ name lost (2) MANASSE’s third son ASRIEL
+ Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti (3)
(wife: Monthotep) son in law of Vizier
Senebhenef/ MANASSE's son HELEQ
+ Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep
'VIII' (16) Senebhenef/HELEQ (Jos17:2)
Senebhenef's/Sobekhotep's VIII death.
According to Hayes at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris, the royal court had moved south to Thebes (Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78): Vizierking Ankhu/EPHRAIM flees with his 13th Dynasty Clan from Avaris to his brother MANASSE and his ruling family clan in Thebes evidenced in Papyrus Boulaq 18 & Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 (1). In the battles with the 'Hyksos', they take over the 16th Dynasty of Thebes. They are identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by ancient Egyptian historian Manetho according to Africanus and Syncellus.
# Pharaoh Djedneferre Dedumose (1)
former northern thronename Djethotepre
(or the son of killed Djethotepre)
# Pharaoh Sekhemre Sankhtawi
Neferhotep III (1): Inscriptions like
„adorned with the Kephresh (blue war
crown)“, „saving from famine“ "my city
… victorious Thebes", „having been sunk
through strife with foreigners“ speak
for him having defended a Northern
‚Hyksos‘ siege war.
# Pharaoh Seankhenre Monthotepi (1) as
"King within Thebes ... my city" was
„driving back the foreign lands“
= the Northern Canaanite ‚Hyksos‘
1726-1714 BC :
Death of EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret. Vizier Resseneb/SHUTELAH (1Chr7:20), son of Ankhu-Senwosret/EPHRAIM, becomes the new Vizierking of the 16th Dynasty. Resseneb's list of from the Canaanites bought Hebrew escaped slaves (see Brooklyn Papyrus) speaks for meanwhile established diplomatic relations with the Canaanites.
SHUTELAH's/Resseneb's son BERED/Nebiryraw becomes Pharaoh and „Overseer of Fields“ which is a typical Viziertitle also held by JOSEPH as Vizier in his time under Amenemhet III. Thus his extraordinary long reign time of '26' years in the Turin-list must actually be understood as 10 years reign time as Pharaoh and parallel 26 years of Viziership like already evidenced for MANASSE as Pharaoh Ibiaw and EPHRAIM‘s son BERIAH as Pharaoh Aya before the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion.
# Pharaoh Nebiryraw I (10/'26')
Seals of him in Northern Lisht speak for
an established diplomatic relationship
with the Canaanite Northern ‚Hyksos‘.
He is SHUTELAH's son BERED (1Chron7:20)
and father of
# Pharaoh Nebiryraw II(1)
BERED's son TAHATH (1Chron7:20)
# Pharaoh Semenre (1)
BERED's brother ERAN (Numb26:36)
SHUTELAH'S/Resseneb's death. His brother Vizier Iyumeru-Aya/BERIAH becomes Vizierking. BERIAH's first son (1Chr7,25) REFA/Neferkare-Iymeru/Ayamerew II becomes Vizierprince. His archeologically evidenced Kingson RESEPH/Bebiankh becomes Pharaoh for 12 years.
# Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh(12)
BERIAH's "Kingson" RESEPH (1Chron7:25)
# Pharaoh Sekhemre Shedwaset(1)
RESEPH's son THELAH (1Chron7:25)
# Pharaoh Djedankhre Montemsaf(1)
# Pharaoh Merankhre Monthotep VI(1)
# Pharaoh Seneferibre Senusret IV(1)
1698-1677 BC ('1582' BC):
Vizierking Iyumeru-Aya/BERIAH's death. His brother's SHUTELAH's widow Senebtisi's son Haankhef/PERESH of the illegitimate lineage of MANASSE - fails to assert his claim to the throne: BERIAH's son REFACH/Neferkare-Iyumeru/Ayameru II avoids this by an alliance with MANASSSE's legitimate lineage: He becomes Vizierking and they become Pharaohs. So EPHRAIM's King's lineage stands a second time in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage.
MANASSE’S Pharao lineage is identified as 17th Dynasty by Egyptologist Kim Ryholt. In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is clearly identified as Hyksos Dynasty: According to Africanus, Manetho identifies them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings.
1686 BC: MOSES is born in Avaris in Northern Egypt under the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Kingship change from Apakhnas to Khayan.
7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes = MANASSE's legitimate lineage (1Chron7:20.25)
+ Pharaoh Neebmaatre (position unknown)
+ Pharaoh SekhemreWahkhaw Rahotep(4)
is ZELOPHEAD son of HEPHER Senebhenef
+ Pharaoh SekhemreShedtawy Sobekemsaf I (3)
is HEPHER's brother SHEMIDA (Num26:32),
and father of
+ Pharaoh SekhemreWepmaat Antef VI(2)
SHECHEM (1Chron7:19), is the brother of
+ PharaohNubkheperre Antef VII(5)
+ Pharaoh SekhemreHerhermaat Antef VIII(0)
is the brother-in-law of Antef VI/SHECHEM
+ Pharaoh Sekhemre Wadjkaw Sobekemsaf II (7)
ANIAM (1Chron7:19) the third son of SHEMIDA
Weaker getting Vizierking REFACH/Neferkare-Iyumeru compensates Haankhef's/PERESH's sons by announcing them as Pharaohs which leads to the switchback from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty: MANASSE's illegitimate lineage's attempts to achieve the King's throne finally come to its successful end with ULAM/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV: According to ancient historian Artapanus he marries Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan's daughter MERIS/ Mereryt, adoptive mother of MOSES, and becomes co-ruling son-in-law and King over complete Egypt. He degrades former Vizierking Ayameru II/REFACH to his serving Vizier.
1666 BC: MOSES becomes (adopted) first son of Sobekhotep IV and the official heir of the Kingship over complete Egypt: He is named Prince Sobekhotep-Mio and becomes a hero and grand man of Egypt by defeating the invading southern Kushites
1646 BC: MOSES kills an Egyptian and has to flee out of Egypt to Midian in Arabia
Leading Egyptologists confirm the evidence for contemporary friendly relations between the 15th & 16th Dynasties. Whoever wrote the Turin King List did erroneously misplace the false Kingsons on the right behind the true Kingson of JOSEPH named Sobkehotep III: This order has been disproven recently by excavated archeological evidence for Sobekhotep's IV & Khayan's rulership at the same time; Leading Egyptologists are reconsidering now the order of the 15th Dynasty instead of the order of the 13th & 16th Dynasty and thus cannot reach any consensus …
The self-acclaimed 3 "Kingsons" of (1Chron7:16) PERESH/Haankhef - son of
MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy - assert their power claims:
+ REKEM/ Pharaoh Neferhotep'I' (11)
1677-1666 BC father of
crown prince without reign time
which speaks for a sudden death
+ ULAM/ Pharaoh Khaneferre
1666 BC: ULAM becomes son-in-law of
'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan and sowith achieves
the co-rulership as King over complete
Egypt. He becomes the husband of
Pharaoh's daughter Meris, the adoptive
mother of MOSES.
1658 BC: With Khayan's death Canaanite
Apophis usurps the northern throne and
degrades Sobekhotep IV to his
tributary Southern Vassall Pharaoh.
1635 BC: Death of Sobekhotep IV
+ ULAM’s firstborn son of his wife MERIS
Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep V (3)
+ ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan
Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI (5)
The Egyptian Ahmosides Dynasty of Thebes
Switchback from a Hebrew Dynasty into an Egyptian Dynasty after 171 years through Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew Dynasty
Pharaohs Sequenre Tao & Kamose are defeated and killed in their battles against Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis.
1606 BC ('1531 BC'):
The Ten Plagues & the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt & the 'Hyksos' Expulsion shortly afterwards
75 non-evidenced and non-existing years in the official Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period have been unveiled by Egyptologists Moeller and Ritner who identified Ahmose's I Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the Santorini Eruption: The Radiocarbon results proved year of the Santorini Eruption between 1620 and 1600 BC according to most experts (Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Friedrich, Heinemeier, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutschera, Higham, Steier, Wild) attest a necessary correction of the time of Ahmose I who initiated his Storm Stela in his 11th to 22nd reign year which would be '1530-1519' BC according to the Chronology of Leading Egyptology but is as a matter of fact proven as to be 1605-1594 BC confirmed by the Strict Bible Chronology.
The 4 Egyptian Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes:
- Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose 1627 BC
Hebrew mother in law Tjan
Hebrew wife Tetisheri
- Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao 1626-1621 BC
Hebrew wife Satibu/Sadjehuti
- Pharaoh Kamose 1621-1624 BC
first son of Sequenre Tao
- Pharaoh Ahmose I. 1624-1581 BC
second son of Sequenre Tao
(his 25 reign years attested by Manetho
start with the Hyksos Expulsion)
Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks: "The Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" (Exodus1:13) One of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC ('1553 BC') the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Chronology) until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire. He was Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC who ruled his first 22 years together with his stepmother Hatshepsut.
To better understand the background of this chapter watch the movie "Moses" of 1995 starring Ben Kingsley or listen to the biblical story of Moses on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1NB_p4qM0Q in English or in German on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ho3tSnW5SVQ&list=PLr_U4dE6BCIAvRw-qq6wP6XfZw4hIC3p-&index=2. Or read the Bible's Second Book of Moses Chapter 1 to 14. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as the subtitle. To make life easier for all readers in this work Wikipedia sometimes is the referred source if no special source is mentioned also when citing in quotation marks without a source to make it easier for all readers to roughly check things; In the relating Wikipedia articles, You then find the professional sources they refer on.
Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written, consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions and in two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes and letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh S(j)n Wrt/ Senwoseret can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; Thus one person easily disperses into many different persons. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is JOSEPH's Master POTIPHAR, his father-in-law POTIPHERA, and his Chief-of-Prison; In Egyptology, examples are POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath/Henut and most important the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of JOSEPH and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson; They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were as Rulers famous enough to own several different names. JOSEPH/ Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthotep with his early names Senowsret-Ankh, Amenemhet-Ankh and his most early and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea, his sons Manasse/ Vizier Senebefni-Ibiaw and Ephraim/ Vizier Ankhu-Senwosret, his grandson Beriah/ Vizier Iyumeru-Aya, and his great-grandson Vizier Neferkare-Iyumeru/Ayameru II are evidenced enlightenment examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the riddles of the officially so-called "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You are discovering and learning in this work time after time.
ISRAEL'S DIFFERENT PHASES OF ENSLAVEMENT
1729 BC - 1714 BC - 1686 BC - 1658 BC - 1625 BC - 1606 BC
"I told them,
'Each of you is to throw away the detestable things that draw your eyes.
Do not defile yourselves with the Idols of Egypt.
I AM 'I AM' / I am 'JHWH' your G'd.'
'But they rebelled against me; they did not, each of them, throw away the detestable things that drew their eyes;
and they did not abandon the idols of EGYPT.
Then I said I would pour out my FURY on them and
spend my ANGER on them there in the land of EGYPT.'"
"So they put slavemasters over them to oppress them forced labor ...
and the Egyptians made the Children of Israel to serve with rigor;
And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage ..."
According to the Book of Jubilees Chapter 45 Verse 16 father Jacob gave all his scriptures to his son Levi to preserve and renew them. So Levi wrote about Joseph’s death and his prophecy that G’d will ‘pâqad’ visit the Children of Israel (Genesis50:24); the original old hebrew translation of pâqad in this context has to be “G’d will afflict or beset them” (compare Exodus20:5,34:7 Jeremiah5:9.29 Hosiah2:15 Amos 3:2) before he will lead them to the promised land. So Joseph before his death already knew and prophezised the affliction of enslavement coming over the Children of Israel. In Exodus20:5 and Deutoronomy5:9 G‘d is warning that idolatry will lead into affliction up until third and fourth generation. The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt took place 1606 BC at the end of the fourth generation …
The Canaanite Hyksos Invasion of 1729 BC is archeologically evidenced by many war emergency burials in that time in Avaris excavated by Manfred Bietak’s team. But because of 75 non evidenced and non existing years in the highly speculative Chronology of the 13th Dynasty they were not able to recognize this evidence as the by Manetho attested Hyksos Invasion of the by the ancient Book of Jubilees and Bietak’s archeological evidence identified Canaanites; They decided to speculatively interprete the evidence as a possible „plague“. After these brutal archeological evidenced massacres (Manetho) of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion, Israel was forced under hard labor by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Samuquenu/Salitis influenced by the Egyptian elite who had lost everything (compare evidence in Chapter Joseph) under JOSEPH‘s rulership and salvation out of the big famine. Enslaved Israel had to build up the by war destroyed cities of biblical Ra-amezes/Avaris, the first ensettlement place of Israel, and On/Heliopolis, the hometown of Israel's tribefathers since father Jacob's death (acc. to AKE and Josephus) - as official fortified cities for the Canaanite 'Hyksos' to avoid further invasions of other eastern peoples.
The third town Pythom is identified by millennia-old oral tradition in Judaism as Faiyum (including Lahun); This old tradition is scripturally evidenced since the middle ages. Lahun was a Semitic slave workers' town excavated and identified by the Father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie. He found archeological evidence of the first alphabet there with recently identified Hebrew words and biblical names. Petrie was also the first one who already identified the slave workers as probable Hebrews. The Hebrew workers' town Lahun later archeologically evidenced turned into an enwalled „fortified“ slave workers town.
Archeological Evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeOntopolis are matching enslaved Israel building the fortified city of biblical On in Heliopolis confirmed in the 5th century Latin version of the Book of Jubilees46:14. The Greek Septuagint (OT) of the third century BC also adds a third, "On, which is Heliopolis." These cities are called by a Hebrew term rendered in the Authorized Version "treasure cities" and in the Revised Version "store cities." The Septuagint renders it πόλεις ὀχυραί/ "strong [or "fortified"] cities.“ (Exodus1:11). LeOntopolis was like near BabylOn a contemporary part of the town On much bigger than centuries later when it was renamed as Heliopolis.
Phytom/Lahun does unveil a hidden Canaanite motive of building fortress WALLS around especially these three towns: They are according to all evidence in this work the three mainly Hebrew towns of Egypt and ENWALLED towns as GHETTHOS prevent Hebrew slaves from fleeing to Southern Egypt the kingdom of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings. This wouldn’t be the last time in history that official „defense fortification WALLS“ are primarily built and used AGAINST INSIDE PRISONERS instead as claimed against outside enemies (german wall, korean border, other communist borders) and it wouldn’t be the last time in history Hebrews are ENWALLED as slaves and decimated (1940 Central and Eastern European enwalled Jewish Ghettos). In 1729 BC the biblical tremendous growth of Israel must have reached over 50.000 on its way to make Avaris the „largest city of the world“ according to excavator Bietak. Manetho wrote about the new king Salitis „This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive WALLS placing there a garrison of as many as 24.000 heavily armed to guard his frontier.“ and the Bible says „There a new king/ foreign ruler arose in enmity against Egypt and spoke to his people: ‚Look, of the the people of the children of Israel is many and MORE than us. Well on we want to DAMPEN them …“.
After the biblical observation (Exodus1:12) of a tremendous population growth of Israel a new phase came up in Exodus1:13-14: Now the forced labour was hardened and oppressed by regular „violance“. In this time the contemporary biblically and archeologically evidenced Hebrew midwife Shipra is together with Puah commanded by Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis to kill all Hebrew male newborns. In the next passage about the Brooklyn Papyrud we will investigate the outcome, the historical background and the archeological evidence of this story.
In the last reign year of King SakirHar/ Apakhnas he orders the killing of all Hebrew male children. This time the order is given to the entire people (Exodus1:22). The thousandfold massacre ends with Pharaoh‘s death after 10 months in the year when MOSES was born (Jubilees47:2-4,48:14). Manfred Bietak confirms c. 50% infant or newborn deaths in that time (Avaris Eastern Town layers F/E3). Rosalie David (in „Pyramide Builders of Ancient Egypt“ p.180-210) confirms many several months old infants‘ sceletons buried beneath the floors of many houses in the Semitic Slaveworkers‘ town Lahun (Phytom).
After 'Hyksos' King Aphaknas' sudden death, the less anti-hebrew 'Hyksos' King Khayan stopped the by Aphaknas ordered mass murder of Hebrew male babies and young children. As we will later learn, Khayan was the father of the biblical „Pharao‘s daughter“ and sowith adoptive grandfather of Hebrew MOSES and father-in-law of the Hebrew Southern King Sobekhotep IV. There is an archeologically evidenced increasing exchange with and mutual influence between Canaanite Northern and Hebrew Southern Egypt in this time. All these interconnections speak for a phase of reduced oppression of the People of Israel in Northern Egypt between 1686 and 1658 BC.
The essential re-worsening of Israel's situation after 1658 BC is documented for 1646 BC by MOSES' biblical visit of his 'brethren' to inspect their "struggling of forced labor" in Exodus2:11 after anti-Hebrew Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Apophis in 1658 BC usurped the throne.
A comparison of the amount of hairline cracks in the Semetic sceletons of the Hebrew Easter Town of Avaris in the different phases
a) 1729-1710 layer G1
b) 1710-1697 layer F/E3
c) 1697-1686 layer E3/E2
d) 1686-1658 layer E2/E1
e) 1658-1617/1618 E1/D3/D2
f) 1617/1618-1606 layer D2
Phase d) should show lower amounts of hairline cracks.
1821-1729 in the Bible is 1821-1645 in Egyptology including 75 non evidenced & non existing years, therefore 1729-1606 in the Bible is 1645-1530 in Egyptology. Israel’s Ensettlement in Avaris happens 1821 BC according to the Bible as also to Leading Egyptologists. The 13th Dynasty counts 92 years according to the Bible and 176 years according to the highly speculative assumptions of Leading Egyptologists without any evidence for 75 years.
Semitic Slaves under Pharaoh
Ahmose Founder of the New Kingdom
(see slave haircut/suncap)
Pharaoh Ahmose I
slaying a Semitic Slave
(same slave haircut/suncap)
When Southern Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaoh Kamose waged war against the 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis, he managed to conquer a part of Northern Egypt which could have been a used opportunity of the Ahmosides to become the owner of an essential part of the Northern Hebrew slave workforce. But the most plausible probability is that the majority of Hebrew slaves were simply rented by Ahmose I who ruled 1618-1581 BC (‚1542-1506‘ BC) from the Canaanite 'Hyksos' ruler Khamudi: King of Egypt Khamudi 1617-1606 BC (‚1542-1531’BC) had no essential archeologically evidenced Northern building projects thus mainly used his Hebrew slaves for the biblical mentioned fieldwork (Exodus1:14) while Pharaoh Ahmose I stringly needed a huge amount of slave workforce for a necessary mud brick production in order to make his archeologically evidenced mud-brick building projects all over his Southern Empire possible (c. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs, London 2009, page 11) including the Last Egyptian Pharaoh's Pyramide of History. This necessary biblically evidenced (Exodus1:14). All these Southern-Egyptian building projects - mainly mud-brick building projects - archeologically evidenced had to be canceled abruptly (c. Grimal 1988, p.200) in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, more precisely in the biblical year 1606 BC of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. The locations of these huge building projects were Karnak/Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis/On, Buhen, and in Abydos Ahmose's Pyramide, which finally had to be filled with sand and soil without an inner mud-brick structure because of the sudden mud brick production collapse in 1606 BC ('1531 BC'). The reason for this sudden mud-brick production collapse was biblically evidenced for exactly this year the sudden Exodus of its strongly needed huge Hebrew slave workforce.
In addition to the Rehkmire tomb painting showing Semitic slavework mud brick production, a leather scroll in the Louvre which dates to the time of Ramesses II mentions forty stablemasters (junior officers) who each had a quota of 2000 bricks to be made by the slaves under them. Two further Egyptian papyri (Anastasi IV and V) record that “there are no men to make bricks and no straw in the district". This highlights the importance of straw as a binder in brickmaking. It also confirms the biblical dismay the Israelites must have felt when Pharaoh stopped the supply with straw, but still required the same number of bricks to be made (Exodus5:18-21). Thus Egyptian ancient records clearly affirm the biblical description of the process of making bricks (Bryan Windle, Top Ten Discoveries related to Moses and the Exodus in: Bible Archeology Report Sept24 2021).
The modern Egyptologists' claims that Pyramids and huge building projects of ancient Egypt were not built by slave work but solely by paid skilled Egyptian workers are revealed as misleading dualistic thinking by the fact that the necessary biblical and archeological evidenced mud brick production is a typical nonskilled primitive work every unskilled person could be forced to do; This irrational claim of non existing contemporary slavework detects clear evidence for its antibiblical motivation behind it because without the Bible there would obviously no reason for this weird attempt having come up in Egyptology. Its origin is rooted in the opposition against the legendary tale the Israelites would have built the Pyramids of Egypt which is not a 100% wrong because they indeed built the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh in history as we will later see …
The strictly biblical year of the Exodus 1606 BC (‚1531‘ BC according to the outdated Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period) is also the Radiocarbon proved year of the Santorini/Thera Eruption. It is also the strictly biblical year of the following Ten Plagues evidenced on the contemporary Ahmose Stela and in the later Ipuver Papyrus. And it is finally the year of the loss of the complete Canaanite army of the Hyksos which enabled Ahmose’s I Hyksos Expulsion in the same year.
Manfred Bietak‘s excavations deliver the archeological evidence for Avaris having been abandoned by its Semitic population in the same year. Rosalin David confirms the the archeologically evidenced sudden abandonement of Lahun by its complete Semitic population. Everything archeologically evidenced for the strictly biblical year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
“I am I AM your God,
who brought you
out of the land of Egypt,
out of the abode of SLAVERY.“
The Last Page of the Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446
listing Hebrew and Biblical names of domestic slaves working for a Theban Palace
(David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth of History? Page 772)
THE LAST PAGE OF THE BROOKLYN PAPYRUS 35.1446
- JOSEPH'S GRANDSON'S RESCUE LIST OF ISRAELITES -
SHIPRA THE MIDWIFE G'D GAVE A PALACE - RESCUED BY THE SON OF EPHRAIM
The Bible mentions Shiphra, a Hebrew midwive who had not obeyed Pharaoh's command to kill the male Israelite newborns. It is written that G'D did well to them afterward by ‚basah‘ making up a ‚bajit‘ Kingpalace for them as the Exodus1:21 literal old Hebrew translation says.
The famous Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 from Thebes consists of slaves escaped from an institution called a Large Prison / Labor Camp ḫnrt-wr. Differences in handwriting and in the historical events described show that different scribes added new inscriptions over many decades in the 18th century BC. It owns an extra list from the end of this time on the back page with 37 Hebrew names; At least nine are even biblical Hebrew names of 95 names in total. This attests that there were actually people with Hebrew names living in Egypt before the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Expulsion and the strictly biblical time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. A "Lady of the House Senebtisi in Thebes" tries to establish legal ownership of them as her official "Palace" household servants; For „Shipra“ on the list this meant salvation from otherwise hard escape-related punishment, hard slave work, or even death. According to Quirke (Quirke, Administration, p. 148-149) the list of Hebrew slaves relates to the household of the Vizier Ankhu and later his son Vizier Resseneb. According to R.B. Parkinson (Reading Ancient Egyptian Poetry, page 155), these slaves were being given (or arranged) to Senebtisi by her husband Vizier Resseneb. Vizierking Resseneb (SHUTELAH) was the son of Vizierking Ankhu (EPHRAIM), who was the son of Vizierking Zamonth (JOSEPH) (see Chapter Joseph's Pharaohs) thus the Palace of his Queenwife Senebtisi was a King’s Palace matching the biblical account. The Brooklyn Papyrus is one of the major objections against the claim of Leading Egyptology that there is no evidence at all for any Israelites/ Hebrews having lived in Egypt in the time before the biblical Exodus. Leading Egyptologists reject this archeological proving evidence on the fundament of their Bible Falsification based and by Jericho self-disproved Ramesses Time Paradigm for an Exodus that allegedly never took place and at the same time allegedly had to have taken place in the 13th century BC discarding the strictly biblical date 1606 BC …
The Enslavement of Israel started in the strictly biblical year 1729 BC (Jubilees46:12), initiated by the first Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis. The finally successful killing of all male newborns took place in the biblical year 1686 BC, ordered by Canaanite Pharaoh SakirHar/ Apakhnas to all Canaanites and Egyptians. Exodus1:12,20 observes a tremendous population growth between Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis failed newborn killing command to the Hebrew midwives c. 1714 BC and the same much later successful command by Pharaoh SakirHar/ Apakhnas to his own people and the Egyptians. This is the estimated time of the Papyrus according to Kim Ryholt (1997 page 128/129) but because of the 75 non existing years of the 13th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology Year 1606 BC The Ten Plagues) Ryholt calls c. 1714 BC the time of the „mid-Thirteenth Dynasty“.
Conclusion: We have here, as a matter of fact, archeological evidence clearly PROVING the Bible claiming the people of Israel were slaves in Egypt c. 1714 BC and Shipra received a Kingpalace to live in. The only thing Egyptologists admit in this case is that the presence of so many foreigners in a single household speak for a Semitic population that increased rapidly in the 18th century BC of Egypt.
It is not just possible but indeed probable and most plausible that the Hebrew biblical name Shiphra in the Brooklyn List is as a matter of fact the biblical (Exodus1:12) midwife Shiphra, G'd provided a "Palace" for: namely Vizierking Resseneb's Palace in Southern Thebes, safe and far away from the Canaanite Pharaoh and King in Northern Egypt, who's command Shipra had not obeyed. This rescue was led by JOSEPH's grandson and EPHRAIM's son SHUTELAH named Vizierking Resseneb of Southern Egypt. This is the first but not the last rescue list prepared by an Israelite to save his brothers and sisters from oppression, cruelty, and death in Israel's history as the famous Schindler's List does show …
The Brooklyn Papyrus is contemporary scriptural evidence
of Hebrew slaves with biblical names in the time
when the unfalsified Bible says the Enslavement of Israel took place.
Shipra is archeologically and biblically evidenced
a Hebrew slave maid, saved through JOSEPH's grandson SHUTELAH, the Southern Vizierking Resseneb by receiving contemporary best working conditions in his Royal biblical mentioned Palaces of Thebes in the time of Israel's Enslavement.
THE BIBLICAL MURDER OF HEBREW MALE NEWBORNS IN EGYPT
IN HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS OF THE 17TH CENTURY BC IN EGYPT
Sinai 349 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert
Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey
At the beginning of Chapter Joseph, we learned already about the first Alphabet coming up in the biblical time of Israel's arrival in Egypt. In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 as Hebrew identified inscriptions of Ancient Egypt. One of them, called Sinai 349, says:
"He (the King of Egypt) sought occasion to cut away to barrenness
our great number, our swelling without measure.
They yearned for Hathor (Mother goddess & Turquoise Mine goddess),
but the quiver of our brothers was thoroughly despised.
He (the King of Egypt) performed terror against their quiver
& brought about a cry of wailing."
Hathor was the Egyptian female deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and of promiscuity. According to several scholars, Hathor as Cow-Godess has to be identified with the by Canaanites and Israelites worshipped Baalath, the female equivalent of Baal, often represented as a bull.
One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it after the murder of all Hebrew male newborns (Exodus1:22) in 1686 BC. This is archeological evidence confirming, and strongly indicating the Sojourn of Israel in Egypt, the idolatry of Israel in Egypt, the Enslavement of Israel in Egypt, and the command of the King of Egypt of the mass murder of all male Hebrew firstborn and its execution.
THE BRIGHTEST RAY OF HOPE IN THE DARKEST HOUR OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
- MOSES IS BORN -
According to the complete unfalsified Biblical time data MOSES was born 1686 BC, 64 years after JOSEPH's death and 43 years after the Invasion of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' and the Enslavement of Israel by the Canaanite Pharaoh Salitis/Samuquenu. The Canaanite Kings of Egypt in the North in the time of MOSES in Egypt were Apachnas, Khayan, Apophis, and finally 1606 BC with MOSES‘ return the last Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khamudi; They were all Canaanites and self-appointed 'Hyksos', ruling as an occupation force from the North over Egypt, suppressing the Egyptians, and holding the people of Israel under enslavement by Egyptian slave drivers. MOSES was born into the 4th generation of Israel in Egypt: He was the son of AMRAN, son of KAHAT, son of LEVI (which already proves the biblical 215 years and disproves the 430 years of Israel in Egypt theory as inadmissible). He was born 3 years after his father AMRAN returned from Hebron in Canaan, where AMRAN had buried together with his "brethren" his 11 forefathers meanwhile the second war against the Canaanites 1729 BC (Jubilees46:9). He most likely returned a second time from Egypt to Canaan in the time of MOSES' birth to prevent being tortured and being forced to throw his own son into the Nile according to the Book of the Yasher Chapter 65, Jubilees47:2 and Acts7:18 when 1000 Hebrew male newborns were murdered. Only MOSES' mother Jocabeth and MOSES' sister MIRIAM are biblically present at the time of his birth. MOSES' birth took place in the time of the seventh month of murder on all Hebrew male newborns commanded by Canaanite Pharaoh Apaknas (Exodus1:16-22, Acts7:23.30.36, Jubilees47). According to rabbinical messianic foreshadow traditions the birth of Moses as the liberator of the people of Israel was foretold to Pharaoh by his soothsayers, in consequence of which he issued the cruel command to cast all the male children into the river (Ex.i.22). It was the biblical year 1686 BC ('1605' BC) when 'Hyksos' King Apaknas initiated 7 months of murdering 1000 male newborn Israelites (Exodus1:16-22 Jubilees47,48:14). Leading Egyptologist Manfred Bietak confirms an extremely high mortality of male newborns in Avaris in the time of the 15th Dynasty evidenced by a tremendous increase of newborn skeletons: The excavated contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40%.
MOSES was born (Exodus2:2) after seven months of male newborn mass-murdering.
He was hidden at home for three months and then had to be hidden in a basket at the River Nile for seven days until according to Josephus and rabbinical traditions (Josephus, l.c. and Jubilees, l.c.) a great heat came over Egypt and all the royal and noble were refreshing in the Nile as like also Pharaoh's daughter. MOSES is found by Pharaoh's daughter MERIS/Merestekhi/Mereryt: Pharaoh Apaknas dies suddenly and the new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan, MERIS' father, reigns for 28 years.
Jubilees 47:2 says that even the Hebrew fathers themselves were forced to throw their own sons into the Nile full of crocodiles. The greek jew Saint Stephanos in Acts7:18 informs us about this tragedy, that Pharaoh thus "mistreated the fathers, so that they had to abandon their babies, so those didn't stay alive." In the Book of Jubilees they hid MOSES for three months at home and then for seven days in a basket at the Nile: In the night his mother breastfed him and in the day his sister guarded him. And because of the great summer heat the Canaanite elite who did not need to work as custom regularly took a bath in the cool Nile which led into the finding of MOSES by Pharaoh's daughter initiated by MOSES' sister Miriam; Like all Israelites she plausibly knew that Hyksos Khayan Pharaoh’s daughter Tarmut/ Meris/ Mererit was very Hebrew friendly which is indicated in the Ethiopian Book of Jubilees 47:5: She was accompanied only by Hebrew maids contemporarily known by the Israelites .
(Exodus2:9) In MOSES' first 20 years his real mother Jocabet had been paid by his adoptive mother - Pharaoh Khayan's Daughter MERIS/Merestekhi/Mereryt - for raising up MOSES. ".. when the child was grown up, Jocabet brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and Moses did become her son." (Exodus2:10) And Pharao’s daughter "called out his name" is literally a legal act to be the entitled owner of the child. And she "called out his name Moses, saying 'for I have pulled him out of water." Thus the literal old Hebrew translation of the Bible reveals MOSES as being primarily Egyptian name-calling. (In contrast, certain Egyptologists claim, they would have been the ones who allegedly revealed that MOSES would be an Egyptian name instead of a Hebrew name and misuse this as an argument against the trustworthiness of the Bible allegedly claiming Moses would be an original Hebrew name.) After MOSES’ military successes against the invading Kushites MOSES' popularity as Prince of Egypt increased so much that his name became the most popular contemporary royal fashion name in Southern Egypt: In Thebes in the later Dynasty of the Ahmosides family clan, over 10 male and female members were called Moses (Ahmoses, Kamoses, Priest Moses, etc.). MOSES in Egyptian means "child of" or "born out of". In Hebrew, it means "pulled out of" which parallelly reflects MOSES having been pulled out of the water as a newborn. MOSES is Israel's biggest hero and thus certainly became a popular Hebrew name up until today. For twenty years, from 1666 BC to 1646 BC MOSES lived a Prince's life first at the Palace of Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' and his first wife MERIS/Merestekhi/ Mereryt in Southern Egypt Thebes. "He was educated as the Queen's son" according to ancient historian Georgios Kedrenos. MERIS became Queen over complete Egypt and later Queen of Southern Egypt. Holy Stephanos in the New Testaments confirms "MOSES was taught in all wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts7:22).
Avaris Northern Egypt - "late Hyksos period":
(Exodus2:5) Pharaoh's Daughter/ Canaanite Hyksos King Khayan's Daughter MERIS depicted with a princess diadem finds MOSES in the River Nile - she was a Canaanite Princess of a Hebrew friendly 'Hyksos' King, she had Hebrew maidservants and became the wife of a Hebrew Pharaoh as we will later see and the loving adoptive mother of a Hebrew slaves‘ son making him Prince of Egypt
Avaris Northern Egypt - The "late Hyksos period":
A by Egyptologists so-called "Canaanite Hyksos" Princess Diadem.
JOSEPH's wife ASENATH was worshipped by the Egyptians as Zeneneth/ Inuit/Henut, wife of Month/Khnum, and mother of Ra/Horus, and she sometimes was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns. She was also merged with Isis, wife of Osiris (see Chapter Joseph headline JOSEPH & ASENATH WORSHIPPED IN EGYPTIAN IDOLATRY): Was this diadem ASENATH's former Queen-Diadem later becoming the Diadem of MOSES' adoptive stepmother, the biblical Pharaoh's daughter?
PRINCE MOSES' ROYAL ADOPTIVE FAMILY
The Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Apakhnas died directly the day MOSES was found and saved; then the 7 months of murder on one thousand male newborn Israelites ended. The next Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Khayan reigned from 1686 until 1658 BC before 'Hyksos' King Apophis usurped the throne and reigned for 41 years. The Hebrew Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' achieved the co-reign role over complete reunited Egypt together with his father in law the Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Khayan after he had married his princess daughter.
The balance of power between both is revealed by Sobekhotep's'IV titles and the contemporary Temple of Amun donation inscription in Thebes regarding his father-in-law Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Khayan: "the Ruler of the North has come to Thebes". 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location are confirmed by the Egyptologists Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers as archeological proof of the simultaneous rulership of Khayan and Sobekhotep IV. They also confirm Sobekhotep'IV' is also called Khanephere, which is according to ancient historian Artapanus the name of MOSES' Pharaoh stepfather. Sobekhotep IV was placed (together with his two "brothers") timely behind Sobekhotep III in the Turin King List because Sobekhotep‘s III Brother-Quatro and Sobekhotep’s IV Brother-Trio have in common to call themselves Kingsons while none of Sobekhotep‘s IV brothers "being any son of a King". Only the placement of the reign time of Khayan within the 15th Dynasty is debated between the Egyptologists and logically without any success ... Only Robert Porter proposes a second option "that Sobekhotep'IV' reigned much later (eg. 17th Dynasty) than previously thought (13th Dynasty)." (Robert M. Porter: The Second Intermediate Period according to Edfu, Goettinger Mizsellen 239, 2013, p. 75-80).
Khayan was the last Canaanite King of Egypt who called himself officially 'Hyksos': He changed this as soon as he reunited and ruled over complete Egypt together with Sobekhotep'IV'. From then on he used Egyptian Pronomen and Nomen like the Southern Pharaohs (Kim Ryholt 1997, 124) already did from the beginning on. Egyptologists mostly call this time the 15th Dynasty domination of Thebes or the time when Thebes was "sacked by the Hyksos" in the time of change from Khayan to Apophis. Kim Ryholt has to reduce this time to 2 years (compare Kim Ryholt 1997 186/189/190) in order to make his 17th Dynasty Chronology (without Sobekhotep IV, V, VI, Neferhotep and Sithator) work out somehow. The reason of Leading Egyptologists' preventing a revision and correction of the order of Pharaohs of the 13th/17th Dynasty by correcting Sobekhoteph's'IV' position is their staying stuck in traditionally fixed not yet realized incorrect orderings, reign lengths, lacunae, and fictitious kings in the Turin King List (compare Ryholt 1997 10,12,13,17).
20 years after the mass murdering of all Hebrew male firstborns and MOSES' birth, MOSES in 1666 BC becomes officially the Queen's son and Prince of Egypt. According to the ancient Historian of the 3rd century BC Artapanus, the adoptive mother of MOSES was Pharaoh's daughter called MERIS/Merestekhi/Mereryt. She became the first wife of Pharaoh Khanephere already identified as Sobekhotep'IV'in the time of the northern Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan who is called by Artapanus in Greek "Palmanothes".
According to Stephen C. Meyer, Artapanus additionally confirmed the 17th and parallel 15th Dynasty as the time period when Egypt had the highest number of changing and parallel Pharaohs: "... for at that time there were many kings (more accurately translated: rulers) of Egypt ...". Sobekhotep'IV' is identified as Southern Egyptian Pharaoh "Chenephres who was King over the regions beyond Memphis." (Charlesworth 1985, p. 898). Artapanus clearly distinguished between a Northern Pharaoh who "treated the Jews badly" meaning the ongoing enslavement of Israel and a Southern Pharaoh "over the regions beyond Memphis" which mirrors exactly the situation of the Canaanite 15th Dynasty of Khayan and the Southern Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Khanephere Sobekhotep'IV' where all Hebrews were free.
Other name forms of MOSES' adoptive mother's name MERIS - an obvious Greek form of the Egyptian name Mererit or Merestheki - in ancient sources are Mouthidis, Thermouthis (Josephus), Thermuthi, Ra'usa, Thermouth, or Termot (Book of Jubilees). Her body maids, who carried infant MOSES out of the water, were identified as "female Hebrews" in the Ethiopian translation of the Book of Jubilees. Mereryt was also the name of famous Pharaoh Amenemhet's II daughter, who married Ankhu/EPHRAIM over one century earlier. MERIS' fathers' ending of the 7 years enduring mass murder of Hebrew male firstborn infants, his daughter's name of a Hebrew King’s Queen, her Hebrew body maids, her falling in love with the Hebrew baby MOSES and her marriage to a Hebrew Southern Pharaoh altogether strongly speak for a phase of relief for Israel.
According to David Rohl's book "The Exodus" the first of Pharaoh Sobekhotep's'IV' sons is called Sobekhotep Miw spoken as "meow" which would also be a pet name for a cat. David Rohl thinks this is a probable hypocoristic for the fuller name MOSES. Kim Ryholt identifies Mio with Prince Sobekhotep on the Wadi el-Hudi stela. The ancient historian Josephus cites Queen MERIS saying to her husband King Sobekhotep IV "I have brought up a child who is of a divine form... I thought proper to adopt him for my son, and the heir to thy kingdom!". The marriage between Egypt's King 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan's daughter MERIS and Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' obviously was connected with the deal of a power-seeking Vassall Pharaoh promising the inheritance of his kingdom to his career enabling wife's adoptive son MOSES/Miw by publicly presenting him as his first and eldest Kingson and successor: Miw is confirmed as eldest Kingson and successor by the Wadi Hammamat stela according to Kim Ryholt (Ryholt 1997, p. 230). Sobekhotep'IV' and MERIS later had two own blood children together: they were called Sobekhotep/Djadja and Haankhef/Ikarnofret. But Sobekhotep'IV' married after his 8th regnal year (compare Ryholt 1997, p.230) a second now fully Hebrew wife - in Egyptian called Tjin or Tjan - and had a son Amenhotep and a daughter Nebtiunet with her. Nebtiunet will be later identified with her second name Tetisheri in the passage explaining the Ahmosides‘ period of the 17th Dynasty.
THE 16TH AND 17TH DYNASTY
THE 3RD AND 4TH GENERATION OF ISRAEL'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY
- THE SHEPHERD KINGS OF SOUTHERN EGYPT -
(The reader is recommended to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of Chapters Moses and Joseph as supporting help to easier follow the coming textual pieces of information.)
We have to jump back now to the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion and the beginning of Israel's Enslavement 1729 BC:
According to Hayes (in the time of the Hyksos Invasion in Avaris) at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris, its royal court had moved south to Thebes (Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78). The time between JOSEPH and MOSES was the time of doom for the people of Israel and a tough challenging time for EPHRAIM/ Ankhu and his sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH as Viziers Resseneb and Iymeru-Aya trying to save who and what can be saved while fleeing with their 13th Dynasty royal court in 1729 BC to EPHRAIM's brother MANASSE/ Senebefni, Vizier and Mayor of Thebes. In their three years battle in Thebes against the besieging Canaanite 'Hyksos', Vizierking Ankhu's Pharaohs took over the 16th Dynasty of Thebes before Ankhu/EPHRAIM died.
After the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion 1729 BC Vizierking Ankhu/ EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's son, is inscribed as palace official name of Southern Egyptian Thebes' Palace in the Papyrus Boulaq 18 ('1750 BC'); In the already mentioned Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 (of c.'1743'BC) there is also a letter and a royal decree addressed to "Ankhu, the office of the reporter of the Southern City Thebes". EPHRAIM/Ankhu probably died in the decade after the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion. SHUTELAH/Resseneb and later his brother BERIAH/Iymeru-Aya are his successors as Vizierkings. Much later in 1666-1646 BC - in the time of MOSES as Egyptian Prince - MOSES' stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep's Vizier was called Neferkare-Iymeru/ Ayameru II: His Hebrew name was REFACH (1Chr7:25). He was the son of Iymeru-Aya/ BERIAH who is an archeologically evidenced King: His second son Pharaoh Sewoserenre-Bebiankh/ RESEPH (1Chron7:25) is archeologically evidenced as a "Kingson". And he was the grandson of archeologically evidenced Vizier-King Ankhu-Senowsret/ EPHRAIM. Thus he was the great-grandson of the archeologically evidenced Vizier-King Zamonth-Khnumhotep/ JOSEPH (see Chapter Joseph). According to Genesis50:23 JOSEPH's great-grandson REFACH as a baby still belonged to the children who were sitting on JOSEPH's knees. Growing up he still fulfilled in line with his forefathers the prophecy of Father JACOB on EPHRAIM and his seed in Genesis48:19. Thus JOSEPH's Vizierking's 13th Dynasty Line of Shepherd Kings did not end with the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion and the Enslavement of the people of Israel in Northern Egypt but went on as Thebes' parallel counter - later even cooperative - Dynasty of Southern Pharaohs. Finally, REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymeru/ Ayameru II was the last Hebrew Vizierking of JOSEPH's line in Egypt. He later lost his weakened Kingship and was reduced by King Sobekhotep IV to the King's Vizier. His lifetime latest ended with the time of MOSES fleeing to Midian 1646 BC.
Regarding the different Vizier names of EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH and BERIAH's son REFACH Egyptologists have not yet realized - like already explained for JOSEPH names in the last Chapter - that the Viziers in these times as a matter of fact were the real lifelong rulers = the real Kings of now Southern Egypt instead of the yearly rotating Hebrew Pharaohs of JOSEPH's family clan. So they naturally - like every real King = lifelong ruler of Egypt in the past - owned several different names. This is most plausibly recognizable in BERIAH's two Viziernames Iymerew and Aya which melted together into the Viziername Aya-merew (if Iy and Aya are not the same hieroglyphic writing anyway). Aya-merew also became his son's REFACH's/ Neferkare-Iymerew's second name if not written the same anyway: He was secondly called Ayameru II. The same thing had happened to JOSEPH's names ZaMonth and KhnumHotep which melted together into Month(u)Hotep. Long single names like Amenemhet melted down into Ameny, so EPHRAIM's Viziernames Senwosret-Ankhu and Ameny-Ankhu - inherited from his father JOSEPH/ Senwosret-Ankh/ Amenemhet-Ankh in the 12th Dynasty - most plausibly had melted down into one of his archeologically evidenced contemporary Viziernames Ameny. (compare with the start of Chapter Joseph).
According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's/Senebefni-Ibiaw's son's are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7: Numbers26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes primarily the Joshua17 names corrected a bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. This understanding of all three biblical sources is mostly confirmed by archeological evidence. In order to prove things check https://www.thetorah.com/article/manassehs-genealogies-why-they-change-between-numbers-joshua-and-chronicles.
The two last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 16th Dynasty
are most plausibly grandsons of JOSEPH's grandson BERIAH
Pharaoh Monthotep VI
Pharaoh Senwosret IV
His King's beard as token for lifelong highest rulership, shows his ambitions to take over the kingship of his dying grandfather in rivalry to his uncle Vizierprince Neferkare Ayamerew II (REFACH)
THE 16TH DYNASTY
According to Kim Ryholt, the second Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti: His wife was called Montuhotep. She thus shows indications belonging to JOSEPH's lineage. Actually, EPHRAIM‘s not biblically named further brothers counted as belonging to EPHRAIM according to Father JACOB's blessings and the dispensation of the Promised Land. Djehuti seems to be the second Pharaoh of Thebes/ Southern Egpyt because the first one's name did get lost: He most plausibly was MANASSE’s third son ASRIEL. In that time - after JOSEPH's death and before the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion - Thebes was no longer ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier: MANASSE's son HELEQ called Vizier Senebhenef becomes the new Mayor and Vizier of Thebes. MANASSE and his further sons settled after JOSEPH's death for 8 years in Avaris in order to gain compensation for MANASSE's lost birthright of Kingship in form of Pharaoh reign times for his sons and in order to try to take over the Kingship medium term (see Chapter Joseph headline JOSEPH'S DEATH AND MANASSE'S BIRTHRIGHT CLAIMS).
Thus the first by Egyptian name known 16th Dynasty Pharaoh of Thebes was Djehuti the son-in-law of Thebes' new Mayor and Vizier Senebhenef/HELEQ. The time came that HELEQ could realize, that his brothers in the North did not seem anymore to become successful in trying to take over the rulership over complete Egypt in order to fight back the birthrights of their father: HELEQ decided as Mayor and Vizier of Thebes to additionally announce himself as the Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt Sobekhotep'VIII'. This way he avoided any claims of his brothers onto the throne as former Pharaohs as soon as they've returned from Northern Egypt.
1729 BC: The year of the Hyksos Invasion was also the year of EPHRAIM's flight with his 13th Dynasty Family Clan over to Thebes to his brother MANASSE. MANASSE's son HELEQ obviously meanwhile had lost his power as ruler of the town Thebes in the battles against the Canaanites - most likely because of his death in battle or his natural death as he was over 80 years old. It takes 24 further years for MANASSE's lineage to get back on the throne of Thebes again. The last northern Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty Pharaoh Djethotepre Dedumose was enthroned by Vizierking Ankuh/EPHRAIM with the new name Djedneferre Dedumose, as new Pharaoh of Thebes. Another option would be that Pharaoh Djethotepre had been killed by the Canaanite new Hyksos King and his son Djedneferre became his follower in the 16th Dynasty of Thebes.
The next two Pharaohs were Neferhotep'III' and Monthotepi. Pharaoh Sekhemre Sankhtawi Neferhotep'III' inscriptions like „adorned with the Kephresh (the blue war crown)“, „saving from famine“ "my city … victorious Thebes", „having been sunk through strife with foreigners“ speak for him having defended a Northern 'Hyksos‘ siege war. The following Pharaoh Seankhenre Monthotepi as inscribed claimes himself as "King within Thebes ... my city" who was „driving back the foreign lands“ = the Northern Canaanite ‚Hyksos‘. Neferhotep'III' archeologically evidenced claimed: "Thebes is my city". Monthotepi even claimed evidenced "I am the KING within Thebes" which is a clear indication of claiming their right for Kingship as successful war-winning Pharaohs; Thus in contrast to this EPHRAIM/ Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu had to take care that his father JOSEPH's idea of a strong Vizierkingship Dynasty with weak Pharaohs was saved somehow …
These were the last years of 100 years old EPHRAIM/ Vizierking Ankhu trying to ensure his son SHUTELAH's throne succession by reestablishing the yearly Pharaoh rotation system of the 13th dynasty. When EPHRAIM died in 1726 BC his firstborn son SHUTELAH/ new Vizierking Resseneb stabilized his new Kingship by enthroning his son BERED (1Chron7:20) as co-ruling Pharaoh for the next 10 years: BERED is called Pharaoh Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I. Seals of him in Northern Lisht speak for a meanwhile established diplomatic relationship with the Canaanite Northern ‚Hyksos‘. Also, SHUTELAH's/ Resseneb's list of from the Canaanites bought Hebrew escaped slaves - the already examined Brooklyn Papyrus - speaks for meanwhile established diplomatic relations with the Canaanites.
In the last two years before his death, SHUTELAH/ Vzierking Resseneb ensures that his brother BERIAH will be his successor as promised to his father EPHRAIM. He reestablishes the yearly Pharaoh rotation system to weaken the power of Pharaoh again: His grandsons, BERED's sons TAHATH (1Chron7:20) named Pharaoh Nebiryraw II and ERAN (Numb26:36) named Pharaoh Semenre are allowed to "play" Pharaoh for one year each before their grandfather dies and his brother takes over the Vizierkingship. BERIAH/ Iyumeru-Aya does repeat the same stabilizing action of his brother SHUTELAH: He stabilized his new Kingship by enthroning his son RESEPH (1Chron7,25) as co-ruling Pharaoh for the next 12 years. He is called Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh and archeologically evidenced as "Kingson" which corroborates his father Vizier Iyumeru-Aya/ Ayameru being Vizierking of Southern Egypt. BERIAH/ Iyumeru-Aya also does repeat the same stabilizing action of his twin brother SHUTELAH in his last years before his death; he destabilizes Pharaoh's power by reestablishing the traditional Pharaoh rotation system. His grandson, Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh's/ RESEPH's son THELAH (1Chron7:25) becomes the first yearly Pharaoh and three more yearly Pharaohs follow until BERIAH's death.
But all these precautions cannot avoid the troubles which occurred with BERIAH's death. The troubles are rooted in the one decade earlier died twin brother's SHUTELAH's widow Senebtisi. Senebtisi was the archeologically evidenced "Lady of the House" who employed the biblical midwife Shipra in her palace, who disobeyed the Hebrew male firstborn murder commandment of the first Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharoh Semquem/ Salitis. In 1750 BC Senebtisi was given by JOSEPH as wife to his son SHUTELAH/Resseneb. She was the young widow of MANASSE's illegitimate firstborn son of an Aramean concubine (1Chr7:14) who is biblically called MACHIR.
MACHIR was called Nehy in Egyptian. He died in the first battle against the Canaanite Hyksos 1530 BC. His firstborn son of Senebtisy was called Haankhef/ PERESH. Haankhef/ PERESH first fails to assert his resulting claim to Pharao’s throne against his stepbrothers, the sons of SHUTELAH/ Resseneb. Secondly he fails to his resulting claim to the Vizierkingship's throne when BERIAH/ Iyumeru-Aya dies; BERIAH's son REFACH/ Neferkare-Iyumeru/ Ayameru II avoids Haankhef's attempts to take over the throne by an alliance with MANASSSE's legitimate lineage: The deal is REFACH becomes Vizierking and MANASSE's legitimate lineage become Pharaohs. This leads a second time in Israel's history into the dilemma that EPHRAIM's King's lineage stands again in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage and the King's beard of the sculpture (see next photo) of the first Pharaoh Sobekemsaf I, MANASSE‘s 5th son SHEMIDA (Num26:32) shows already that he is standing in rivalry with the Vizierking …
According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's sons are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7. Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua17 corrected a little bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Thus MANASSE would have had one son with an Aramean concubine called MACHIR and five sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible but evidenced in his probable statue: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA.
In the timetable at the start of this Chapter, You can see the biblical identification of the Pharaohs of the 16th and 17th Dynasty according to
A) Archeological evidenced relationships according to Kim Ryholt (1997 Second Intermediate Period tables 42/45 pages 202/024)
B) Established enthronement order traditions of the 13th Dynasty according to Chapter Joseph
C) Biblical orders & relationships.
This leads into the rough Pharaoh order
1) Further grandsons of JOSEPH
2) SHUTELAH's sons & grandson
3) BERIAH's son & grandson and
4) MANASSE's sons & grandsons.
Vizierking Neferkare-Iymerew/ Ayamerew II/ REFACH
in the biblical Egyptian standard Vizierking outfit since Joseph
Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the first third of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes:
MANASSE's legitimate lineage of his Egyptian wife according to 1Chron7:20.25
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
MANASSE‘s 5th son SHEMIDA (Num26:32)
His King's beard reveals his obviously failed attempt to claim REFACH‘s Neferkare Iymerew‘s kingship for himself
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Son of Sobekemsaf/SHEMIDA
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Son of Sobekemsaf/SHEMIDA
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Brother-in-law of Antef VII/LIQUI
THE FIRST THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
EPHRAIM‘S GRANDSON VIZIERKING REFACH AND MANASSE‘S LEGITIMATE LINEAGE‘S PHARAOHS
We are discovering and learning in the following passages about the three different phases of the 17th Dynasty and how EPHRAIM’s lineage’s Hebrew theocracy (already polluted with Egyptian idolatry) was taken over by MANASSE‘s lineage‘s Hebrew-Egyptian fully idolatrous „Anti-JHWH“ and „Pro-Amun“ religious rulership: Chapter Joseph headlined passage JOSEPH‘S SON MANASSE reveals the historical roots of this apostasy: The decline of JOSEPH‘s originally established Vizierkingship is also the decline of Israel’s theocracy in the 13th Dynasty later becoming the 16th Dynasty of Egypt; The faith in JHWH declines more and more into a suppressed underground faith of last parts of enslaved Israel …
Archeologically excavated destroyed Temples in and around Thebes are interpreted by leading Egyptologists as proving evidence for 'Hyksos' attacks on the 17th Dynasty and the 17th Dynasty being "sacked by the Hyksos": It is later in this Chapter revealed as archeological evidence for the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Biblical Plagues at the end of the 17th Dynasty destroying the temples and their idols confirmed by the Ahmose Storm Stele and the Ypuwer Papyrus.
The sons of MANASSE's son HELEQ (Vizier Senebhenef, later called Pharaoh Sobekhotep'VIII') and of his son SHEMIDA (Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I) were dominating the first half of the 17th Dynasty as Pharaohs: They were the first 7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes and represented MANASSE's legitimate lineage according to 1Chron7:20.25. They had a more far-reaching Egyptian female lineage than EPHRAIM's lineage and were more physically, religiously, and culturally "egyptianised". They showed strong ambitions for power through their marriages into the royal lineage of EPHRAIM and by archeologically evidenced cooperation with the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs always seeking for the Kingship which finally resulted in success in the second phase of the 17th Dynasty, the time of MANASSE's great-grandson ULAM/ Pharaoh Sobekhote'IV': With this phase the downfall of the Vizierkingship of Ephraim's lineage was introduced and the downfall of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings of Egypt at all ...
The last Hebrew Pharaohs/ Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty:
MANASSE's illegitimate lineage of his Aramean concubine 1Chron7:16
REKEM & ULAM, the Pharaohs Neferhotep'I' & Sobekhotep'IV', are self-acclaimed "Kingsons" of PERESH/Haankhef, the son of MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR/Nehy.
1677-1666 BC: REKEM/ Pharaoh Neferhotep'I' of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage
1666-1635 BC: ULAM/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage
1635-1632 BC: ULAM’s firstborn son of his wife Meris Sobekhotep/ Djadja named Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep'V' of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage receives the promised throne
1632-1627 BC: ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan Amenhotep is biblically called BEDAN and archeologically evidenced as Pharaoh Sobekhotep'VI'
THE SECOND THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
MANSSE'S ILLEGITIMATE LINEAGE‘S PHARAOH‘S
In 1677 BC 9 year old MOSES grew up as adopted son of Pharao’s daughter in his own Hebrew family in the huge Hebrew slave town Avaris in Northern Egypt under the Canaanite ‚Hyksos‘ Pharaoh Kingships of Khayan until he became 20 years old: Then 1666 BC MOSES becomes official first son and heir of Southern Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV, which was the precondition of Sobekhotep‘s career-enhancing marriage with biblical „Pharao’s daughter“ Meris; This marriage made him son-in-law of Canaanite Hyksos Pharao Kayan and co-ruling Pharaoh above complete Egypt. Thus the time of the second third of the 17th Dynasty is the time of MOSES as Prince of Egypt and here comes the historical background of this biblical time phase:
The Bible mentions in 1Chr7:14 an Aramean concubine as first but illegitimate wife of MANASSE: Her son is called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons were PERESH and SHERESH. Their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, the region, their tribes later lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM and ULAM has a son called BEDAN. All three will be identified as the Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty. ULAM/ Sobekhotep'IV', the son of PERESH/ Haankhef, was a grandson of Nehy who following the archeologicall evidence in Chapter Joseph must be the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE called MACHIR. This lineage shows strong ambitions for and the explicit claim to the King's power as original birthright of MANASSE ...
ULAM/ Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' made sure that an inscription attests that EPHRAIM‘s grandson REFACH - the former Southern Vizierking - now only King Sobekhotep's Vizier Neferkare-Iymeru/ Ayameru II - "sacrificed before him as his King". This is the latest evidence for the intrafamilial old rivalry between EPHRAIM and MANASSE and their lineages. Following in JOSEPH's footsteps Vizier Ankhu/ EPHRAIM appointed both of his sons as Viziers: Thus biblical BERIAH/ Iymeru-Aya succeded his older brother biblical SHUTELAH/ Resseneb. BERIAH/ Iymeru-Aya appointed his own son REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymerew/ Ayamerew II as succeeding Vizier and certainly not the first son of SHUTELAH’s/ Resseneb’s wife Senebtisy with her first husband MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy who was called PERESH/ Haankhef. Haankhef's mentioned strong ambitions towards the King's throne can be deduced from his sons‘ later attempts to honor him by proclaiming themselves Kingsons. Haankhef's mother is also identified as the Lady of the House Senebtisy in the already mentioned Brooklyn Papyrus (c. Ryholt 1997, p. 226). After her first husband MACHIR/ Nehy had fallen in the first war against the Canaanite Hyksos JOSEPH took care for her and married her with his son SHUTELAH/ Resseneb.
This is further evidence of the rivalry between EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's lineage; This time between PERESH's/ Haankhef's son ULAM/ Sobekhotep'IV' and BERIAH's/ Iymeru-Aya's son REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymerew.
The rivalry conflicts resolution compromises of REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymerew/ Ayamerew II did let the sons of PERESH/ Haankhef become Pharaohs which lead to mid-term Dynasty weakening power struggles and to the shift of power from the Vizierking back to the Pharaohking with PERESH's/ Haankhef's son ULAM/ Sobekhotep'IV'. Haankhef was obviously seen by his sons as the legitimate successor of JOSEPH’s firstborn son MANASSE and his firstborn son MACHIR as the legitamite birthright lifelong ruler or King over Egypt because they named themselves "Kingsons". Father Haankhef was also called "Royal Sealer" by his sons which means he was the only archeologically evidenced Royal Sealer of Thebes since MANASSE/ Senebefni who inherited this title from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II: MANASSE and PERESH both owned the title Royal Sealer in combination with the title Highpriest. Thus PERESH/ Haankhef must be the grandson of MANASSE/ Senebefni-Ibiaw. Haankhef's title "Father of Gods" (it-ntr) is known from JOSEPH/ Monthhotep - the by Egyptians hero-worshipped Ruler over Egypt - in inscriptions of his son Wepwauthotep/ Sobekhoteph III. It is also known from EPHRAIM/ Ankhu as "Father of Gods" in his biographical inscriptions (Blumenthal ZAS 114, 35, Nachträge A). So JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE/ Senebefni-Ibiaw was seen by his illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy and his grandson PERESH/ Haankhef as the only legitimate heir of JOSEPH's title "Father of God's" in contrast to JOSEPH's second-born son EPHRAIM/ Ankhu who in fact archeologically evidenced proclaimed this title for himself: And indeed, EPHRAIM did not become a direct blood father of any "godlike" Pharaoh because SHUTELAH and BERIAH became Vizierkings and his two further sons ESER and ELEAD died early in a fight against GAD's lineage (1Chr7:21). ESER’s early death is archeologically evidenced as early death of Vizier Ankhu’s son by a small sculptural figure. But according to Father JACOB's blessing though all other sons of JOSEPH should be counted as belonging to EPHRAIM and these and their sons indeed became from Egyptian perspective "godlike" Pharaohs. Nevertheless PERESH/ Haankhef obviously claimed the title "Father of God's" for his grandfather MANASSE and thus also for himself. Because of MANASSE having been the first son of JOSEPH, he always must have claimed to be the real legal heir of JOSEPH's Kingship and this claim obviously went on through all generations of MANASSE's lineage: The sons of PERESH/ Haankhef managed to transform their traditional claim to the King's throne into a switch from a Vizierking Dynasty back into a Pharaohking Dynasty latest when his son ULAM/ Sobekhotep'IV' managed to marry MOSES' Canaanite-Hebrew stepmother MERIS, the daughter of 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan: This way he arose as co-ruling Pharaohking over complete Egypt; The beforehand already also self-called "Kingsons" are named Pharaoh Neferhotep I (Pharaoh Sobekhotep's'IV' brother) and Pharaoh Sihathor (Pharaoh Neferhotep's'I' son). Their title "Kingsons" claims MANASSE's lineage to be due to the original birthright of the firstborn the only ‚true legal lineage‘ of King JOSEPH's throne instead of EPHRAIM's lineage.
Latest when Sobekhotep'IV' became Khayan's co-ruling Pharaoh over complete Egypt and EPHRAIM's grandson REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymerew/ Ayamerew II was degraded to his Vizier, the balance of power had fully switched: Now the Hebrew Vizier had archeologically evidenced to sacrifice before the Hebrew Pharaoh, the self-acclaimed "godlike" Pharaoh, and King, which owned the bitter taste of humiliation and forced idolatry for REFACH. According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226), archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's/ Sobkehotep's'IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun like his great grandfather MANASSE; One of his sons is named Amun-hotep. MANASSE/Senebefni Ibiaw was the leader of the cult of Amun as Highpriest of Thebes (Chapter Joseph) so there is enough archeological evidence leading to the conclusion that Haankhef's father Nehy must be the biblical illegitimate son of Manasse called MACHIR.
As already explained in the passage about Israel’s enslavement phases the end of the Book of Genesis unveals JOSEPH‘s prophecy that G‘d will let affliction come down on Israel before he‘ll lead Israel out of Egypt to the promised land. JOSEPH‘s sees this future affliction while among others EPHRAIM‘s grandson REFACH and MACHIR‘s twin son PERESH were brought as newborns upon his knees in the time before his death 1750 BC. Why does Moses the editor not simply talk about „EPHRAIM‘s & MANASSE‘s grandsons“? Why does the Word of G‘d or Torah of Hashim explicitly point to MANASSE‘s illegitimate firstborn son „MACHIR‘s“ lineage? The answer is, because JOSEPH did not only see his people‘s affliction through future enslavement due to it’s idolatry up into the fourth generation according to Exodus20:5 and Deutoronomy5:9 but also all the problems and the future downfall of JOSEPH‘s lineage‘s Kingship in Egypt: This downfall is caused by the rivalry and fight for the throne between MANASSE‘s and EPHRAIM‘s lineage - and it culminates in the fight between MACHIR’s son PERESH/ Haankhef and EPHRAIM’s grandson REFACH/ Neferkare-Iymerew and is followed by the downfall of JOSEPH‘s lineage’s Vizierkingship - loyal to the G’d of Israel - in favor of MACHIR‘s lineage’s Pharaohkingship - lost in MANASSE‘s idolatry. And JOSEPH must have seen this future while holding the future opponents little REFACH/ Neferkare and little PERESH/ Haankhef both on his knees. Thus the tribes of JOSEPH‘s ten brothers who sold him into slavery became themselves primarily afflicted through the yoke of slavery for their forefathers‘ sins and their own idolatry while JOSEPH‘s lineage was spared from slavery but became afflicted by external and internal war for the crown because of their more (MANASSE) and less (EPHRAIM) involvement in Egyptian and Canaanite idolatry. The different afflictions of the complete people of Israel didn’t end before the end of the fourth generation fullfilling the judgement of G‘d for idolatry and other hated sins like intrigues (Zechariah8:17) proclaimed in Exodus20:5 and Deutoronomy5:9.
After ULAM‘s/ Sobekhotep‘s IV death in 1635 BC ULAM’s firstborn son of his wife MERIS Sobekhotep/ Djadja became Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep V. With this ULAM‘s marriage promise to MERIS - originally related to MOSES - to make her son heir to his kingdom was fullfilled. After three years Djadja died suddenly and making way for ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan biblically called BEDAN and archeologically evidenced as Amenhotep. He called himself Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI and ruled for 5 years.
The switchback from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty weakened Israel's 17th Dynasty extraordinary; After the new Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis had usurped the throne and broken up the Canaanite-Hebrew Co-Rulership of Khayan and Sobekhotep'IV' -in order to avoid a Hebrew takeover of the Canaanite Kingship over Egypt - and after Sobekhotep‘s VI death, the Egyptian Ahmosides used the Southern Dynasty weakness to reestablish an Egyptian Southern Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs dreaming of the reestablishment of the old Middle Kingdom of Egyptian Pharaoh Power over complete Egypt and over ALL the Semitic foreigners they hated strongly after all. Since the Semitic Co-Rulership of the Canaanite and Hebrew Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep, the Egyptians latest made no distinction anymore between the two different Semitic peoples: They had become meanwhile altogether hated foreigners and the term 'Hyksos' latest had changed into the meanwhile solely negatively connoted meaning 'Foreign Rulers'. The Egyptians had become overall antisemites now, archeologically confirmed by nearly no 15th, 16th, or 17th Dynasty burials having survived as non destroyed graves with the only exception of the Egyptian Ahmoside graves (Ryholt 1997, p. 167).
(Khayan's and his son and planned successor Yanassi's sudden disappearance in Egyptian History together with Apophis' sudden throne usurpation leads to the question of if they died an unnatural death and if their death was only connected with the successful coup of Apophis or also with a previous failed coup of Sobekhotep IV to achieve the sole power over complete Egypt …)
Former Vizierking now Vizier Neferkare-Iymerew/ REFACH WITHOUT the King's beard. He was the grandson of Vizierking Ankhu/ EPHRAIM, the son of Vizierking Zamonth/ JOSEPH, the brother of LEVI, the great-grandfather of MOSES.
('1732-1720'BC) 1666-1634 BC:
Pharaohking Sobekhotep'IV'/ ULAM
WITH the King's beard as the token
for lifelong highest rulership.
He was a great-grandson of MANASSE/ Senebefni and the stepfather of Crownprince Sobekhotep-Mio/ MOSES.
MOSES VISITS HIS SLAVEWORK SUFFERING „BROTHERS“ IN PHYTOM/LAHUN
THE PRINCE OF EGYPT CHOSES TO BECOME A HEBREW SLAVE
The time of the Canaanite-Hebrew Co-Rulership above Egypt of King Khayan and his son-in-law King Sobekhotep IV (the stepfather of Moses) counts also the first eight years of Moses as Crownprince of Egypt. Then King Khayan dies and Cananite throne usurpator Apophis degrades Sobekhotep IV back into his Southern Egypt Vasall Pharaoh Position and Israel’s slavework burdens (Exodus2:11) reworsened again. After 12 more years Moses decides to visit his suffering people:
Lahun/Fayum is identified by old rabbinical scriptures as the biblical Hebrew slave workers' town Phytom. Lahun in Fayum owns an archeologically evidenced Semitic workers' ghetto separated by walls from the wealthy part of the town and many male newborn skeletons were found buried under the house floors of the ghetto confirming Pharaoh Apakhnas commanded biblical killing of all Hebrew male newborns. Lahun was near the border between Northern Egypt - ruled by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Apophis when Moses was 40 years old - and Southern Egypt - ruled by Prince Sobekhotep Miw's/ MOSES's stepfather Hebrew Shepherd King Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV/ biblical ULAM. Thus Lahun was the most easily accessible Hebrew slavework place reachable for MOSES who was living in Southern Egypt. Thus it is the most plausible place where MOSES should have visited his "suffering 'brothers'" to inspect their working conditions.
In Exodus2:11 and Jubilees47:10 MOSES was 40/41 years old when he went out to the "AH" = the belonging of his people. In most cases it is biblically translated as 'brothers' in foreign languages like Greek but this can by no means be taken as proving evidence for MOSES having several different blood brothers because AARON is his only brother - a fact which no one is discarding up until today: In other biblical cases the potentially misleading translation into 'his brothers' instead of into "his belonging ones" as a matter of fact had a crucial impact on Christianity after one and a half millenia what makes this knowledge critically relevant: Even the Greek translation of the Aramaic/Hebrew original "his belonging ones" into his "adelphos" does not lead into the unequivocal identification of anyone's blood brother like it does in English or German. In the Greek case, it is still primarily used as a short term for any "relatives". The English word 'brother' primarily meaning blood brother never existed as any word in the old Hebrew or Aramaic language, which was the mother language of the biblical authors: The Hebrew word "AH" has to be translated depending on the case as "belonging one" or close one, close or distant relative, family member or familiar one, cohabitation member or close neighbour, tribesman or national comrade, close friend or allied comrade. Even familiar foreigners or believe community members were called "AH". A unequivocal brother in the English/German word sense has to be confirmed by the term "Son of" and the name of the common father. The mother's name clarifies different mothers and the same father or different unexpected fathers but then usually the different fathers' names follow (check Mishle/Pro30:4 Tehillim/Psalm110:1 and 109:1,3 and Mathew22:41-46;1:16;27:56). An exception can be a hereditary adoptive son in law who married a father's only child and daughter like it happens in Luke3:24. According to Torah based Jewish law, a widow with sons could be adopted by no one else to accommodate her and care for her than only by her blood sons who have the exclusive duty and right to accommodate and care for her. Only a widow without living children could be adopted by relatives or close ones for shelter and care (compare John19:26-27).
The Jewish expected Messiah is rabbinically also called the "Son of" Joseph, the Moshiach Ben Yoseph: JOSEPH is rabbinically seen as a Foreshadow of the Messiah's waging war against the evil forces and his suffering, dying and arising in Psalm 89 & 22. BENYAMIN is the only full-blood brother of JOSEPH. Genesis46:22 identifies them as two of twelve brothers as "Sons of" JACOB. But on the other hand, they are also identified as their mother RACHEL‘s two only "sons" and thus indirectly as two full-blood brothers. Mother RACHEL is from her time up until today adored and praised as the matriarchal spiritual Mother of Israel and the most influential Advocate for g'dfearing jews. She is called for intercession towards the Almighty for example in case of a mother's strong desire to have children (compare Luke1:48). King SOLOMON is the "Son of" DAVID and the "Son of" his Queenmother BATHSHEBA. SOLOMON‘s brother is called "Adonia, the son of Haggit" in 1Kings2:13 to indicate their different mothers. Adonia makes intercession to his King's Queenmother as the most influential advocate of the empire because he is knowing that the King will not refuse the advocacy of his Queenmother as the Word of G'd says in 1Kings2:16,20. The Kingdom of Israel - later Israel and Judah - lasted for half a millennium from 1096 to 586 BC. From King SOLOMON on (1016 BC) the King’s mother has always been the Queen of the Kingdom sitting on the throne next to the King until the end of Kingdom time (1Kings2:19, 2Chronicles25:1, 2Chronicles29:1, Jeremiah29:2). For Jewish believers their Messiah’s mother has naturally without saying always been considered as Queenmother of the Kingdom of the King of Kings; And like the King also the Queen always had to be adored and praised according to the Word. Thus g'dfearing Israel always also knelt down in front of the Queenmother of their King. This leads especially for Jewish Christians and Messianic Jews of this time to the question of what kind of treatment towards their Messiah’s/King’s mother did the Hebrew Bible thus indirectly demand from the Jewish disciples of the Jew Jesus/Yeshua and how did the very first Messianic Jews and Early Christians consistently treat the Queenmother of their King of Kings?
The Messiah is the Son of David and also his LORD according to Psalm110:1. He is the King of Kings according to Psalm2:6 and the highest Prophet according to MOSES who prophesized about him in Deutoronomy18:19 (compare John1:45 & 5:46). The Bible says true subservients of their King/Messiah are fulfilling the Word's prophecies (check Luke1:48) obediently throughout all generations (Greek "genea") and the future coming of the King of Kings, the Messiah, will fulfill the Tanakh‘s prophecies in the end of time (Zechariah12:10-14).
The Messiah was also called the „Son of G’d“ in ancient Israel: Mark14:61 says „… the Kohen Gadol Highpriest was questioning him and says to him, Are you the Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, the Messiah HaBen Hamevorakh the son of the blessed G‘d?“. The answer „Yes“ lead to the judgement „You heard him commit Chillul Hashem gidduf (blasphemy). How does it seem to you? And they all condemned Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach to be deserving of mishpat mavet death“ according to Leviticus24:16. Exactly 100 years later Bar Kokhba was appointed as Messiah King by Rabbi Akiva, Chief of the Sages, Highest contemporary representative of Judaism. In https://jewsforjesus.org/jewish-resources/messianic-prophecy/the-messiah-would-be-called-gods-son we read „Psalm 2 speaks of the nations of the world plotting against both God himself and his ‚Anointed‘. Originally, this referred to the Davidic king, but the scope of what is described here, as well as later Jewish tradition, understood this to be referring to the Messiah, God’s Ultimate, ‚Anointed‘.
In Vers 7, God specifically calls the Anointed ‚my Son‘ and promises worldwide rule in the face of the laughable opposition of the nations who counsel rebellion against God. Vers 12 is sometimes translated, ‚Do homage in purity,‘ or something similar, especially since the word in that verse for ‚son‘ is not the Hebrew ben as in verse 7, but the Aramaic bar, which seems out of place. Therefore, some have looked for an alternate translation. However, the switch to bar can be because (1) the psalmist is addressing the nations of the world, for whom Aramaic was the common language; and (2) otherwise, the Hebrew would have an odd-sounding phrase, ben pen (‚Son, lest‘), here made better by having bar pen.“
(Compare Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22, Acts 4:25-28, Acts 13:33, Hebrews 1:5, Hebrews 5:5). In the Hebrew Bible, “son of God” is used about angels (Job 1:6), about the nation of Israel (Exodus 4:22-23), and about Israel’s king (2 Samuel 7:14). This lead to later different understandings of Psalm 2 between Jewish and Christian believers in the first millennium AD.
Only for Christians: There was more to Moses decision to visit his kinsmen and watch them struggling at forced labour as sparsely told by Exodus2:11; The former Pharisee Shaul (Paul) was also the former student of the famous rabbinical teacher of the law Gamiliel, highly honored by the people of Israel (Acts5:34) in the time of Jesus. Thus Shaul (Paul) was one of the most educated scribes and pharisees of his time: And he reveals in Hebrews11:24-26 that Moses visiting his „brothers“ was much more than just a visit; Moses repented and turned back from his former „enjoying his passing pleasures of sin“ as Egyptian Prince and instead „chose being mistreated along with God’s people“ as Hebrew slave; He even „refused to be called the son of Pharaoh‘s daughter“ anymore. According to Paul the reason of this radical change of mind and life was not primarily his turn back to his roots after having seen the suffering of his people but instead his beforehand deeper conversion regarding his „faith“ in the one and only G‘d of Israel. Even his given awareness of being the chosen one, the redeemer of Israel out of bondage, can be already seen here in his fruitless attempts to speak with his brothers as ruler and judge in Exodus2:14 one day after having killed an Egyptian as brutal suppressor and agressor against one of his „brothers“. This is secondly confirmed by the greek jewish disciple and first martyr Stephanos who reveals that Moses erroneously „thought his ‚brothers‘ would realize that God through his (Moses‘) hand wanted to redeem them but they didn’t realize it“ (Acts7:25 Allioli Bible AD 1875 comment: „So Moses was already supernaturally instructed about his destiny“). Thus Moses was indeed going to live the life of a Hebrew Slave instead of an Egyptian Prince when he reached Pythom. His disappointing experiences as possible redeemer of Israel out of its bondage already in his first two days at the mudbrick production slavework center explains the motives for his hesitations in front of the burning Bush about fourty years later …
MOSES AND JOSEPH
ARE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED FAMOUS HEROES OF EGYPT
IN THE SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
MOSES was 41 years old when he went out to his 'brothers' to watch them struggling at forced labor. The Bible says in Exodus2:11, it happened "when MOSES was grown up": the literal translation is "when MOSES was grown mighty/grand" and the King James Bible Acts7:22 says MOSES was then already "mighty in words and in deeds". Exodus11:3 documents, that MOSES, as Man of the one G'D in the time of the environmental disasters of the Ten Plagues "was regarded by Pharaoh's servants and the people as a very great man in the land of Egypt"(CompleteJewishBible). Several ancient writings confirm that already in his youth MOSES was a well-known great leader of his time all over Egypt. He was not only a popular Prince but also a famous Commander and the savior from invasion as we will learn in this passage. MOSES' popularity as Prince of Egypt increased so much that his name became one of the most popular fashion names in Southern Egypt already in his lifetime. In Thebes in the later Dynasty of the Ahmosides family clan, over 10 male and female members were called Moses (Ahmoses, Kamoses, Priest Moses, etc.).
Egyptian artifacts of the Second Intermediate Period and the famous Brooklyn Papyrus deliver sufficient archeological evidence to show that also the Savior out of famine King JOSEPH's and his son King EPHRAIM's Egyptian name Ankh(u) was one of the most popular names to give to a son in Egypt that time - for Egyptians as well as for Israelites. And similar evidence is given for the Egyptian names of Ephraim's sons Resseneb and Iyumeru/Ayamerew. 30 Hebrew male slave names of the Brooklyn Papyrus show four times the name Ankhu and even five times the name Resseneb. Resseneb was also the one who rescued exactly these slaves out of the Northern into his Southern Dynasty and further eight names are relating compound names like Ankhuemhesut, Ankhuseneb or Senebresseneb. David Rohl identified these names as evidence for JOSEPH's and his King's lineage's names being hero names for the Israelites. JOSEPH's name Ankh clearly also delivers sufficient archeological evidence for having been a hero's name to the Egyptians: Egyptologists know Ankh as one of the most popular names of the Second Intermediate Period. (c. David Rohl, The Exodus - Myth or History 2015 p.334 and S. Quirke: The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom - Whitstable 1990 - p.148). The second evidence for JOSEPH's King names having become cult figure names is the prevalence of variations of the name Monthotep in the Second Intermediate Period
- ANCIENT GOSSIP -
MOSES WAS ALREADY MARRIAGED WITH A KUSHITIAN WOMEN
MOSES was not only a popular Prince but also a famous Commander and Savior from invasion: The ancient historians Artapanos and Josephus identify MOSES as a successful popular Commander of war against the Kushites/Ethiopians, where "Tharbis was the daughter of the King of the Ethiopians" and saw MOSES fighting with great courage. She "fell deeply in love with him .. and Moses consummated his marriage with her". Josephus' description of the invasion into Southern Egypt was confirmed by deciphered inscriptions evidence of Vivian Davies in the tombs at El-Kab in 2003. In Numbers12:1 over 50 years later in the desert his sister Mirjam accuses MOSES of his marriage with a kushitian woman belonging to a foreign people with foreign idols. Rashbam Rabbi Shmuel ben Meir calls her the Kushitian Queen Adonia, widow of King Kokinus, and states MOSES did not consummate his marriage with her which is biblically confirmed by the missing evidence of any children together. Last but not least Moses did not marriage with the kushitian princess or widow queen valid in front of the G‘d of Israel because the Kushitians worshipped foreign idols whereas his wife Tzipporah did convert to the faith in the G‘d of Israel evidenced in her circumcision of her only yet uncircumcised son Gershom (Exodus4:25,18:1-4 and the rabbinical sources Mek.,Ytro,1[ed.Weiss,p.65b] and Ned.31b-32a;Ex.R.v.).
MOSES FLEES TO MIDIAN IN ARABIA
The slave workers' town Lahun in Fayum is the most plausible place where Moses, who had been grown tremendously in popularity visited his 'brothers' and had to flee afterward. Lahun in Fayum is near the border between Northern and Southern Egypt, here you can easily inspect how bad the situation for the Hebrews in Canaanite Northern Egypt in fact is and you can quickly withdraw back into the Southern Vassall Pharaoh's terrain. From Lahun MOSES had to flee (Exodus2:15) to Midian evidenced in Arabia beyond the Gulf of Acaba called Yam Suf. He had to flee away from the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh and King of Egypt Apophis: Apophis death sentence was "death by manslaughter" after MOSES had man slaughtered an Egyptian who mistreated an Israelite slave. The literal old Hebrew reveals this as a juridically easy to justify reaction on his deed not only according to the law of Egypt but as well as even to the Torah (Exodus22:20,21:12,21:23-25). On the other hand rabbinical scriptures explain Moses did not commit murder in killing the Egyptian (Ex.ii.12); for the Egyptian merited death because he had forced an Israelitish woman to commit adultery with him (Ex.R.i.33).
In this time Sobekhotep'IV' already had been reduced to being only the Southern Vassall Pharaoh of Thebes again like his predecessors. Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'/ULAM was now paying Vassall tribute to the Canaanite throne usurpator Pharaoh Apophis (Almunecar Vase, Marie d'Almunecar-Molina, Fs Domas II, 517-524). According to Kim Ryholt, Apophis ousted not only Sobekhotep'IV' from his overall Egyptian throne but also would have ousted Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan's eldest Kingson Yanassi (Ryholt p. 256).
The author proposes an alternative probability: ULAM's/Sobekhotep's enormous power hunger and tactical behaviors - evidenced by his marriage and his in ancient scriptures evidenced attempt to send his stepson and throne heir MOSES into death by an ordered military campaign against the Kushites - brings him under the suspicion to be the (eg. poison) murderer of his brother Pharaoh Neferhotep I's son and throne successor Sihathor who is evidenced as Pharaoh without any reign time: This speaks for a sudden death breaking the heart of his father Neferhotep I and leading into the enthronement of Sobekhotep IV. This kind of power-seeking murder could have been repeated a second time by ULAM/Sobekhotep'IV' against his father-in-law Khayan's beloved son Yanassi who - as well as Sihathor - suddenly disappears regarding his historical evidence. This attempt to take over the sole rulership over Egypt the way he took over the southern rulership would also explain as a reaction the sudden usurpation of the throne by the Canaanite military commander and later Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis who took advantage of this sudden opportunity against the plans of the hated Hebrew ULAM/ Sobekhotep'IV'.
Because of MOSES' huge fame especially in Southern Egypt, he had become an even more dangerous rival for his stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' and thus could not expect any shelter from him but had to fear him too when he had to flee away from Pharaoh Apophis. In the 3rd century BC, historian Artapanus writes Chenephre/Chaneferre/Sobekhotep'IV' envied Moses' virtues and "was looking for an opportunity to destroy him" so he had sent MOSES against the Ethiopians. But this had led to even bigger fame for Moses after his victory. Thus now a flight to Midian beyond the Egyptian-controlled Sinai Peninsula would have been the only locational chance to survive for him. Now Sobekhotep'IV' was finally able to break easily his promise to his wife MERIS to make MOSES/ Mio/Sobekhotep the heir to his kingdom (MOSES/Miw is archeologically confirmed as originally first listed son of Sobekhotep IV on the Wadi Hammamat stela). Instead, Sobekhotep'IV' was now able to announce his own first full Hebrew blood son of his fully Hebrew wife - in Egyptian called Tjan - as his heir: His first fully Hebrew blood son was called Amenhotep.
According to Josephus' account of this story (see Moses in Hellenistic Literature), after Moses' marriage to the daughter of the Ethiopian king, he did not become King of Ethiopia, but led his troops back to Egypt, where he remained. The Egyptians and even Pharaoh himself were envious of his glorious deeds, fearing also that he might use his power to gain dominion over Egypt. They therefore sought how they might assassinate him; and Moses, learning of the plot, fled to Midian. This narrative of Josephus' agrees with two haggadic accounts, according to which Moses fled from Egypt to Midian and fits quite well to other mentioned findings.
MOSES fled to Midian in Northern Arabia at the Gulf of Aqaba and married Zipporah the Midianite daughter of Reguel the Priest of Midian. She gave birth to his son GERSHOM. MOSES lived a 40-year long life as a shepherd and family father in Midian near Mount Horeb.
In 1606 BC G'd told MOSES according to Exodus4:19 "ALL" who wanted to kill MOSES had died (Apophis had died 12 years ago 1618 BC and Sobekhotep'IV' had died 1627 BC). MOSES returned from the Holy Mountain in Midian in Northern Arabia to Avaris in Egypt to initiate Israel's Exodus from Egypt back to Mount Horeb in Midian beyond the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically always called "Yam Suph" 1Kings9:26.
THE EGYPTIAN AHMOSIDES
Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao
son of Senakhtenre Ahmose
Hebrew Queen Sidjehuti
of Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao
Pharaoh Kamose - First Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao
THE THIRD THIRD OF THE 17TH DYNASTY
THE AHMOSIDES - THE EGYPTIANS ARE BACK ON THE THRONE
CANAANITES AND ISRAELITES
ARE NO LONGER DISTINGUISHED SEMITES
IN EGYPTIAN ANTISEMITISM
While MOSES lived for fourty years in his exile in Midian Arabia, the Egyptian Ahmosides took over the throne of the former Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Southern Egypt:
The 17th Dynasty turns out to be in fact two totally different and on the same side very similar Dynasties: First the Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage fought successfully step by step for MANASSE's original claim to the throne as the firstborn son of JOSEPH. And second, the Dynasty of the Egyptian royal lineage fought successfully step by step for their original claim to the throne as descendants of the Egyptian noble families of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.
Sobekhotep'IV' was only Southern Pharaoh of Thebes again after his father-in-law Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan died and military Canaanite Apophis usurped the throne as Hyksos Pharaoh of Egypt.
Thus the Egyptian Nobility was able to observe how marriages into the 17th Dynasty Family Clan successively lead into the takeover of the throne:
MACHIR's/Nehy's biblical son PERESH/Haankhef managed to marry the evidenced "King's daughter" Kemi. And PERESH's biblical son ULAM/Sobekhotep'IV' managed to marry the daughter of the northern Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh Khayan and became co-ruling Pharaoh of a reunited Egypt.
In the latest phase of the so-called 17th Dynasty in 1636 BC, the Egyptian Ahmoside's Clan Dynasty arose. The First Ahmoside Pharaoh of Thebes was Senakhtenre Ahmose under Canaanite 'Hyksos' King of Egypt Apophis. Senakhtenre's son Sequenre-Tao had a sister-wife called Sidjehuti, both were children of Queen Tetisheri. Sidjehuti‘s second name Satibu was Hebrew according to Polz (Daniel Polz, Der Beginn des Neuen Reiches: Zur Vorgeschichte einer Zeitenwende, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, p.350). This reveals the way how the change from a Hebrew to an Egyptian Dynasty evolved: Satibu’s mother Tetisheri must also have been Hebrew. Thus a marriage of the first Egyptian Ahmoside with a Hebrew Dynasty daughter into the Hebrew Dynasty Family Clan enabled the Egyptian takeover of rulership in Thebes.
The mother of Pharaoh Senakhtenre's wife Tetisheri is identified by egyptologists as Neferu. Her additional inscribed name - read as Tjenna or Tjanna by egyptologists - was interpreted by them as her father's name. But as far as it is read as Tjin or Tjan, he is indeed a she, and Tetisheri is the probable daughter of Tjan, Sobekhotep's'IV' fully Hebrew second wife. As already explained in Chapter Joseph Neferu is the most used additional name for the Great Royal Wifes or Queen Mothers from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful and refers to the heart. Eg. the name itiNeferu - inscribed in the Wpwauthotep Stele and examined in Chapter Joseph - was used as prename for JOSEPH's wife ASENAT/tAhenut to honor her as Great Royal Wife of King Khnumhotep and Queenmother of his four generations Dynasty Clan. Thus Senakhtenre's mother-in-law is most plausibly called the beautiful (neferu) Tjan as the most beloved Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV' and Queenmother of her son Amenhotep and her daughter Nebtiunet. Amenhotep must have died abruptly in order to clear the way to kingship for the Egyptian Ahmoside Senakhtenre through his marriage with Amenhotep’s sister Nebtiunet, after her marriage newly named Queen Tetisheri.
The Egyptian Ahmosides
did reach the throne by marrying into the Hebrew Dynasty.
Nebtiunet/Tetisheri was the „Pharaoh‘s daughter of a Hebrew mother“ (Tjan) according to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (AKE, 1774-1824 Geheimnisse des Alten Bundes, p. 108) who would have helped MOSES together with midwife Serah, daughter of the tribe of Asher, to find Asenath‘s and Joseph‘s mummified body which had been robbed by Egyptian priests who worshipped them. They would have found their bodies including a holy secret in a tomb hidden in Joseph’s Canal after she had thrown a note with the name of G‘d into the water in the night of the Tenth Plague before the Exodus. Rabbinical traditions also confirm this story (Ex.R.xviii.8 and Sotah13a; Ex.R.xx.17; "D.Y."l.c.; "S.Y."p.126; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Gen1:26).
Senakhtenre's son Sequenre-Tao already started the first open fight against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, followed by his firstborn son Kamose. They both ended up killed in a battle against 'Hyksos' Apophis. At last Kamose's brother, Ahmose I became the Pharaoh of the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' in 1606 BC ('1535 BC') and initiated the New Kingdom as the next period of Egyptian History. Egyptologists still reck their brains if Kamose was Ahmose's elder brother or uncle and if Sapair was Ahmose's son or much younger brother: Kamose has to be the firstborn son of Sequenre Tao and Sapair has to be the firstborn son of Ahmose because Sapair dies young in the Tenth Plague of death of all firstborn sons and Ahmose does not (as we will see later), thus Ahmose cannot be the firstborn son and thus Kamose has to be his elder brother. This leads us into the archeologically evidenced 19th reign year of the Egyptian Southern Vasall Pharao Ahmose and the 12th reign year of the Canaanite Northern King of Egypt Khamudi: 1606 BC the year of the Ten Plagues, the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite ‚Hyksos‘ out of Egypt by Ahmose I …
Pharaoh Ahmose I Second Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao
The fourth Egyptian Pharaoh, the last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty,
and the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom
Up until today, there is no evidence PROVING
the members of Thebes' 16th and 17th Dynasty
(before the Ahmosides) being Egyptians.
And up until today, there is no evidence DISPROVING
the members of Thebes' 16th and first half 17th Dynasty
The opposite is the case.
THE NAME OF MOSES
IN HEBREW INSCRIPTIONS OF THE 17TH CENTURY BC IN EGYPT
Sinai 361 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert
Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey
This second inscription (Sinai 361) of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert (1606 BC) shows besides several Hebrew words unequivocally the Hebrew name of Moses: "Moshe" (see yellow alphabetical Hebrew letters M and Sh in the first picture above). It says:
"Our bound servitude had lingered.
MOSHE provoked astonishment.
It is a year of astonishment because of Baalath."
Baalath was the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind, and lightning. Baal was depicted as a bull or as a ram like the Egyptian deity Amun and melted in Egypt together with Amun and Month. Some scholars say, Hathor the Egyptian Cow-Godess has also to be identified with Baalath in that time.
One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it in the midst of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC because he explicitly focussed on one single year and 1606 BC as the year of all the Santorini eruption caused environmental desasters is geologically, archeologically and biblically evidenced „the year of“ the greatest „astonishement“ of Egypt in its complete history. This is archeological evidence confirming the historical existence of MOSHE in Egypt, the since around a century (see the first Sinai inscription in this Chapter earlier) ongoing slavery of Israel in Egypt until MOSES' return 1606 BC, MOSES' biblical evidenced provoking astonishment in Exodus 4:30, 7:9, 7:20, 8:1, 8:12, 9:8 and the biblical evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt in Ezekiel/Hesekiel 20:8.
Worshipping Centers of Egyptian Deities
THE TEN PLAGUES
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IDENTIFIED IDOLS OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
ARE MATCHING EXACTLY WITH
THE IDENTIFIED IDOLS HUMILIATED BY THE BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
According to the Bible, Israel's Enslavement in Egypt was the Almighty's judgement for Israel's idolatry in Egypt (Hezekiel20:8). In Chapter Joseph headlined JOSEPH's SON MANASSE - IDOLATRY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT we have learned that Israel's idolatry in Egypt was introduced by JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE; After he was set behind EPHRAIM by his grandfather ISRAEL's blessing he decided to follow in his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's II footsteps and became Priest of Amun in Thebes and introduced the semimonotheistic worshipping of the deity Amun at least by his Hebrew tribe and by the Southern Egyptians. After the Ten Plagues Southern Pharaoh Ahmose changed his main worship cult to exactly this semimonotheistic deity Amun. Further Idolatry of Israel in Egypt was shown in JOSEPH being hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and even some Hebrews as Khnum, Month and Osiris and his wife ASENATH being hero-worshipped as Satis/Setet wife of Khnum, as Zeneneth/Iunit/Henut wife of Month and as Isis wife of Osiris. Month, Amun, Apis and the Canaanite deity Baal (syncretism) were all often worshipped as Bull-headed deities.
The archaeologically evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt in contemporary Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions in the time of MOSES mentions the Idols
Hathor and Baalath:
Baalath is the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind and lightning. Baal was often depicted as a bull or as a ram like also Amun and he melted in Egypt together with Amun, Month and Seth.
Some scholars say, Hathor the Egyptian Cow-Godess has also to be identified with Baalath, wife of Baal, the Bull-God:
Hathor, worshipped as cow goddess with the sun disc between her horns (like the „golden calve“), was the deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and promiscuity. She was seen as wife or mother of Horus (embodied by the living King), the son of Osiris and Isis; the Second Intermediate Period is the time of Syncretism of Isis with Hathor. Like Osiris was called the First of the Western, she was called the First Lady of the Western and the patroness of the western miners. Like Isis she was identified with Aphrodite by the Greeks.
As shown at the end of Chapter Joseph, JOSEPH’s/ZaMonth’s wife ASENATH/Henut was hero-worshipped as Isis in sycretism with many other goddesses. Her son Rensenebu being called son of Hathor Za-Hathor (CGC20102) and Zamonth giving sacrafice to Hathor for the Ka of his wife Henut (CGC42.034) speaks for ASENATH additionally having been hero-worshipped as Hathor; Hathor enables as wife and mother of Kings the reincarnation of the King as Horus, ASENATH/Henut as the King’s wife gave birth to 2 Kings and 4 Pharaohs.
Around '1700' BC acc. to Bietak a temple district to Canaanite deity Ashera and Egyptian deity Hathor was built in the eastern part of Avaris. As already explained in Chapter Joseph Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry towards Baal/Seth; Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non evidenced and nonexistent years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology Table Chronology of Israel & Canaan in Egypt) and because of unsafe excavation layer datings the author proposes a Seth Temple construction in the year 1729 BC which is the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, correctly described by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction and it is additionally confirmed by the "400-years-Stela" celebrating the Seth Temple 400st anniversary under Pharaoh Harembab around 1320 BC so that the construction time must have been around 1720 BC.
And now let's take a look at the Canaanite Idols and Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian Idols in Hezekiel20:8 who fell under the LORD's judgment (Exodus12:12, Numbers33:4) of the Ten Plagues so that Israel (Exodus6:7) and Egypt (Exodus7:5.17,8:10) may have the da'as/cognizance that "I AM the I AM"/ that HE is the real One and Only G'd (Exodus10:2).
First Plague - Nile Water turns into Blood:
Judgement over the Nile Floods Idols Bull-headed Apis Osiris, Month and Amun contemporary often melted with Baal and
Judgement over the Nile Idol Isis, over the Guardian deity of the Nile Khnum and over Satis/Setet the deification of the floods of the Nile River.
Second Plague - The Frogs:
Judgement over the Frog as Idol Heqet or as a manifestation of the Idol of promiscuity Hathor
Third Plague - The Mosquitoes or Sandflies &
Fourth Plague - The Dog Flies:
Judgement over Pharaoh as deity and incarnation of Re responsible for the well-being of his people
Fifth Plague - The Cattle Plague:
Judgement over Bull-headed Apis Osiris, Month and Amun and over Ram-headed Khnum, all of them often merged with the Canaanite deity Baal
Sixth Plague - The Ulcers:
Judgement over Isis who fails as Idol of Healing
Seventh Plague - The Hailstorm of Fire and Ice:
Judgement over Storm Idol Set syncretically mixed with Apis, Month, Amun and the Canaanite deity Baal - also his female form Baalath was an Idol for weather, rain, wind and lightning
Eighth Plague - The Locusts:
Judgement over Osiris, who fails as Idol of Harvest and Fertility. Osiris embodies the King‘s afterlife.
Ninth Plague - The Darkness:
Judgement over the Sun Idols Re and Horus and over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re and Horus, also
Judgement over Baal and his female form Baalath as Idols of lightning
Tenth Plague - The Death of all Firstborn:
Judgement over Pharaoh by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re, Horus and Osiris.
Judgement over Isis who fails as female Idol of Child Protection and Hathor who fails as female Idol of maternal care and protection and wife of Horus.
Neither Roger Liebi who identified the Egyptian Idols falling under the judgement did know about the author's archaeological evidenced identified Egyptian idols worshipped by Israel nor did Douglas Petrovich know Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian idol Hathor addressed by the Almighty's Judgement through the Ten Plagues. This EXACT matching of the Ten Plagues addressed idols with the idols of Israel in Egypt archaeologically evidenced by the author and Douglas Petrovich is unrefutable precise Bible proving archaeological evidence.
In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and MOSES are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when MOSES told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba - in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.
Against this background the Ten Plagues (Exodus7:14-12:42) and the miraculous Division of the Sea (Exodus14:15-31) get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood like in Exodus7:20). The Ipuwer Papyrus description of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Khamudi and Ahmose I is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com. John von Peters 1966 confirms that the conditions, terms and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus dated to the Second Intermediate Period. Sage Ipuwer admonishes his Pharaoh for his failure to rectify the terrible situation. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as Hebrew eye whiteness report elaborated by David Rohl in his book "The Exodus":
THE FIRST EIGHT PLAGUES
THE GEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and MOSES are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when MOSES told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba, in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.
For finding connectivity evidence of the Ten Plagues with the Santorini Eruption watch minute 28-43 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqLsYonjvRY&t=4310s in English or minute 23-38 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uns55sYkQ7U in German.
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED BIBLICAL TEN PLAGUES
Against this background the Ten Plagues (Exodus7:14-12:42) and the miraculous Division of the Sea in (Exodus14:15-31) get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues, and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood in Exodus7:20). John Van Seters (A date for the "Admonitions" in the Second Intermediate Period. In: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1964, n.50, p.13-23) estimates on his presupposition that it cannot be describing a historical event but just can be a sort of an allegorical poem, he concludes the conditions, terms, and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus have to be dated into the Second Intermediate Period, he roughly estimated it around 1674 BC but the precise Ipuwer Papyrus descriptions of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Canaanite Northern Pharaoh Khamudi and Egyptian Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I at the end of the Second Intermediate Period is much more matching which is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com and by David Rohl in his book 'The Exodus'. Finally, if You look at the details, such as linguistics, you see all the words, names, and phrases that exactly suggest it was composed in the 18th Dynasty after the Exodus in 1606 BC confirmed by nearly all relating ancient writings. The author Ipuwer - whose name actually appears in a text from the period of Hatshepsut - admonishes his former Pharaoh (Ahmose I) for his failure to rectify the catastrophic situation of Egypt. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as the Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as the Hebrew eye whiteness report of the Ten Plagues in the time of the Santorini Eruption elaborated by David Rohl:
THE YPUWER PAPYRUS AND THE TEN PLAGUES
- The Nile turning into blood -
Exodus4:9 "YHWH said... You are to take some water from the Nile and pour it on the ground. And the water You have taken from the river will turn to blood on the dry land."
Ipuwer: "Behold, Egypt has fallen to the pouring water. And he who poured water on the ground seizes the mighty in misery."
- Destruction of crops and Death of livestock -
Exodus7:20 "And all the water in the Nile turned to blood. The Fish in the river died and the river stank so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile.
Ipuwer: "The river is blood! As you drink of it you Loose humanity and thirst of water."
- Ruination of Egypt -
Exodus9:31,9:6,10:15 "The flex and the bairly were ruined .. all the livestock of the Egyptians died... The locus covered the surface of the ground until the land was devastated .. and they devoured whatever was growing in the fields and all the fruit of the trees .."
Ipuwer: "Gone is the grain of abundance. Food supplies are running short. The nobles Hunger and suffer. Upper Egypt has become a wasteland. Grain is lacking on every side. The storehouse is bare. Women say 'Oh that we had something to eat'."
- Darkness covers the Land -
Exodus10:7 "For three days there was thick darkness throughout the land of Egypt."
Ipuwer: "Those who had shelter are now in the darkness of the storm." and "the power of Ra (sun god) is not seen"
- The Death of the Firstborn -
Exodus12:29 "At midnight the Lord did strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt - from the firstborn of Pharaoh, heir to his throne, to the firstborn of the Captive in the dungeon... And Pharoh rose up the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was great wailing in Egypt, for there was not a house without its dead... The Egyptians were burying those of their own people whom YHWH had struck down."
Ipuwer: Behold, plague sweeps the land; blood is everywhere with no shortage of dead. Children are dashed against the walls. The funeral shroud calls out to you before you come near. Woe is me for the grief of this time. He who buries his brother in the ground is everywhere .. Wailing is throughout the land mingled with lamentations."
- The Plundering of Egypt's wealth by the Hebrew Slaves -
Exodus12:35 "The Israelites asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewelry and for clothing. YHWH had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians that they let them have what they asked. So they plundered the Egyptians."
Ipuwer: "The slave takes what he finds. What belongs to the palace has been stripped. Gold, Lapislazuli, silver, and turquoise are strung on the necks of female slaves. See how the poor of the land have become rich whilst the man of the property is a pauper."
Ahmose Storm Stela 16: "His Majesty set .. to cause the water (after the hail storm?) to evacuate without (the aid of) his (slaves?) .. to provide them with silver, with gold, with copper, with oil, with clothing, with all the products they desired .."
Especially the last passage of the Ipuwer Papyrus is used by leading Egyptologists as clear proof that this could not be a historical eye-witness report because it would not make any sense the poor becoming rich and the rich becoming poor. According to these self-called neutral, objective independent leading Egyptologists, it has to be imaginative prose and any connection with biblical content is rejected to be seen because it contradicts their dogmatic insisting on their by Jericho disproved Bible Forgers‘ Ramesses Time Paradigm which allegedly has disproved the complete Bible.
The Ipuwer Papyrus
The Ahmose Storm Stela
THE AHMOSE STORM STELA AND THE TEN PLAGUES
Another exciting archaeological example of biblical evidence is the Storm Stele introduced in the documentary of Simcha Jacobovici on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY. The Storm Stele of Ahmose I is seen as an eye-witness report and clear archaeological confirmation of the impacts of the Santorini Volcanic Eruption on Egypt by Radio Carbon Experts who date this biggest Volcanic Eruption of human history in the time around the biblical year of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC. This leads to the recommendation of Moeller and Ritter in 2014 to redate the time of Ahmoses I reign into this time which proves what also the Bible does prove in this work - that about 75 years of the Second Intermediate Period are highly speculative wrong time estimations and a misleading creation of non-existing time in Egyptian history (see Table Chronology in Chapter Chronology and Footnotes 2-6). The Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king. It tells about evidenced Santorini Eruption effects like unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning, a great storm and Egypt enveloped in darkness. „God“ manifested his power is an unusual Egyptian formulation, obviously not meaning one of the many Egyptian deities, which are always concretely identified by their name if not used a general plural for them.
SYNCHRONICITY OF THE BIBLE AND THE STORM STELA
Bible: God passed judgement on the Gods of Egypt
Storm Stela: "Then His Majesty said 'How these (events) surpass the power of the great god and the wills of the divinities .. the God manifested his power."
Bible: YHWH says I will destroy all their gods
Storm Stela: A huge storm is destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids The statues of the Gods of Egypt were toppled to the ground
Geologists: Results of Santorini Earthquake Storm and Volcanic hail
Bible: Egypt was struck by a hail made up of fire and ice mingled together
Storm Stela: A great unique storm, unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning
Geologists: Vulcanic hail rain would be a mixture of ice and burning ash
Ypuwer Papyrus: mentions raining fire and ice according to Simcha Jacobivici
Bible: A three days darkness "you can touch" comes over the land
Storm Stela: A great darkness of (not readable) days comes over the land with no one able to light the torch anywhere.
Geologists: The Santorini Volcanic Eruption Ash Cloud creates a darkness "you can touch"
THE NINTH AND THE TENTH PLAGUE
THREE DAYS OF DARKNESS AND THE NIGHT DEATH OF ALL FIRSTBORN
The Ninth Plague is the judgement over Ra as the deity of the life spending sun - absolute Darkness.
The Tenth Plague is the judgement over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Ra by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh and all male Firstborn of Egypt except the Israelites.
THE NIGHT OF THE TENTH PLAGUE - THE PASSOVER
It's important to understand the up until today celebrated Passover Night of Exodus12 as the key event of the Exodus yearly repeated since 3600 years as a repeated REAL live event every Passover feast up until today all over the world where Jewish people live:
Believers in the G'd of Israel know HE did send the deliverer MOSES to free Israel from their enslavement. Their enslavement was the spiritual consequence of their archeologically evidenced idolatry in Egypt. MOSES had to lead them through the desert to the final Promised Land and they were accompanied by the presence of G'd in the Tabernacle. Before the Exodus - in order to achieve the Passover of the Angel of Death for every male firstborn in Egypt in the night of the Tenth Plague - they were commanded by G'd to kill an unblemished male lamb, slaughter it, spread its poured out blood on the doorposts for the angel of death to pass over, and eat the unleavened bread and eat the real flesh of the freshly slaughtered real lamb. This way it was the only accepted execution of their covenant with G'd. Not any symbol for the flesh or symbol for the blood was accepted to save them from death. solely the REAL blood and eating the REAL flesh of the REAL unblemished male lamb ensured the Passover of Death. Any symbolistically reduced somehow similar act would have lost completely its necessary effect and would have led to death instead of life (compare 1Corinthians11:29-30). Later then in the desert, the People of Israel were fed with Supernatural Bread called Manna from Heaven and with Flesh from Heaven (quails) as a foretaste of the Promised Land.
Over two thousand years old rabbinical traditions fixed in the Talmud say that the Messiah will be a new Moses to free Israel from spiritual Enslavement in Sin leading them to the New Promised Land of peace and justice - a New Paradise - and finally to the eternal heavenly New Jerusalem. According to 2Baruch29:3-8 the Messiah will bring back the Miraculous Manna from Heaven to save their lives from eternal death. By this, he will at the same time bring the New Supernatural Bread & Wine of the Presence of G'd Exodus25:30. During the wandering through the desert, the „bread of the presence“ of G‘d - the "lehem ha pannim" - was yearly at Pesach lifted up by the highpriest on a golden tablet as a sacrifice to G'd and presented in front of the Tabernacle to the people with the words "Behold, the Love of G'd!".
Thus the question if the New Manna to be eaten is natural or supernatural (in greek „epiousious“ = supersubstantial/ supernatural/ daily - used in the Our Father Prayer in Matthew6:11 "Give us our supernatural/ daily bread"), if it is earthly or heavenly, ordinary or extraordinary, symbolic or real (compare John6:53-55,6:60-67 & 1Corinthians11:29-30) is a deciding question of belief in the eternal salvation of Israel, the Children of G'd, when the Messiah has come.
In this passage mentioned rituals and beliefs were transformed by Yeshua/ Jesus in his last supper, adopted by his Jewish followers and continued through 2000 years of Christianity from the first century on. They are believed in, practiced and celebrated in their messianic orientation up to this day and until his coming.
PHARAOH'S FIRST BORN SON
DIES YOUNG IN THE TIME OF TENTH PLAGUE
- ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE -
Ahmose's/ Pharaoh's firstborn son Prince Sapair
died 12 years young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion and thus
in the Time of the Tenth Plague in the biblical year 1606 BC.
Prince Ahmose Sapair is the beloved first-born Kingson of Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose I. As Simcha Jacobovici firstly discovered in this context he died young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion which is also the strictly biblical time of the Tenth Plague 1606 BC. How painful this loss was for Pharaoh Ahmose I is seen in his son receiving a King's Pyramide and extra Worship Cults: His Pyramidion shows the symbol of the former highest clan deity Khonsu, the moon. As half a moon crescent, for the very first time, the moon is shown lying on its back on the ground like dead or defeated ... Ahmose I then changed the highest deity of Egypt after the Ten Plagues to the hidden invisible deity Amun meaning "the invisible g'd" became the chief deity: Amun was established as semimonotheistic deity by JOSEPH's son MANASSE as Priest of Amun who lead the Amun Cult of Egypt in Thebes for over 80 years c. 1800-1720 BC (see Chapter Joseph). Thus the Egyptian semi-monotheism regarding Amun was as a matter of fact an "egyptianised" virtual monotheism introduced by a Hebrew - JOSEPH's son MANASSE. MANASSE's descendants as Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty continued this kind of Amun worshipping and the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty took it over. Pharaoh Ahmose enhanced the worshipping by the manifestation of Amun and Ra in Amun-Ra. The later following Egyptian climax of virtual monotheism was finally the re-separation of Amun and Ra by Pharaoh Akhenaten: Ra the sun became the only God of Egypt and in contrast worshipping Amun became forbidden. After the Santorini Eruption and the biblical Ten Plagues archeologically precisely evidenced by the Ypuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose Storm Stela, the Egyptians fell away from their belief in the divine power of their naturalistic deities and Pharaoh: Celebrating Pharaoh's godlikeness ended abruptly after the Hyksos Expulsion in the biblical year 1606 BC ('1530 BC').
THE LAST PYRAMID OF AN EGYPTIAN PHARAOH
WAS BUILT BY HEBREW SLAVES
FOR THE EXODUS
Ahmose's Pyramid was the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh as symbol of Pharaoh’s divinity. The time of the Hyksos Expulsion has been proven in Chapter Chronology as the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. In this time ALL Egyptian huge building projects abruptly broke off. The Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm for this time striking Egypt, destroying the tombs, temples, and Pyramids. This storm matches exactly the biblical descriptions of the impacts of the Ten Plagues and the impacts of the Santorini/ Thera Mega Eruption both evidenced exactly or roughly for 1606 BC. The sudden missing of the huge amount of slave workforce after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt - especially for the biblical and archeologically evidenced production of huge necessary amounts of mudbricks - is the obvious only plausible reason for these immense project aborts. Ahmose's Pyramide was afterwards finished by an extraordinary poor emergency solution: without any substructure it was only filled up with sand and soil. So it did not even last for the duration of one single Dynasty. This is unique archeological evidence for the sudden absence of the huge necessary slave workforce to finish all the huge building projects. Thus it is also additional striking evidence for the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt at this time.
Pharaoh Ahmose I built the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh. Its construction was abruptly canceled & filled up solely with sand & soil
The Ruins: The Pyramide without any inner mudbrick substructure collapsed within a short time
Pyramids were standing for the alleged divinity of Pharaoh.
In the generation after the Ten Plagues, that humiliated and disproved the divine power of Pharaoh, Pharaoh was not worshipped as divine anymore:
"But everyone who heart these words of mine
and does not act on them
will be like a stupid man
who BUILT his house ON SAND.
The rain fell, the rivers flooded,
the wind blew and beat against that house,
and it COLLAPSED -
and its collapse was horrendous!"
At the same time, Avaris was abandoned by its complete population: Excavator Manfred Bietak concluded a sudden mass extinction. Exactly the same for the same time is archeologically evidenced for the Semitic Slavetown Lahun in Fayum: It was all of a sudden abondened completely. As we know already the year of the Expulsion of the Hyksos 1606 BC ('1525 BC') is also the biblical year of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt (see Chapter Chronology).
Since the sudden abandonment of Avaris in the biblical year 1606 BC is discussed as archaeological evidence of Israel leaving Egypt antibiblical Avaris excavator Manfred Bietak tries to relativise his own excavated discovery by insisting on some Canaanites who now allegedly have sporadically evidenced stayed in and around Avaris in the century after the historically evidenced 'Hyksos Expulsion' and are allegedly occurring again sporadically evidenced after one or two centuries. He tries to prove this claim by archaeological evidence of not by the 18th Dynasty destroyed left Canaanite pottery or buildings after the Expulsion, and by Canaanite cults adopted by Egyptians in the Delta after the Expulsion. This would allegedly prove "returned" Canaanites in the Delta generations later evaluated by the author as turned out weak affair nothing proving but his antibiblical bias (see Chapter Hyksos headline THE HEKASHASUT and Chapter Conclusions).
According to the Strict Bible Chronology and according to nearly all ancient relating writings the Exodus of Israel out Egypt took place in the time of Pharaoh Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion.
Exactly in this time a huge Semitic Population abandoned Egypt archeologically evidenced for the Semitic Mega City Avaris and for the Semitic Slave Town Lahun.
Exactly in this time the complete Egyptian production for all huge building projects including Pharaoh Ahmose’s pyramid abruptly broke off and ended.
This is disproving and debunking the modern myth of the alleged missing of any slightest evidence for the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
PHARAOH AND PHARAOH THE KING OF EGYPT
ARE DISTINGUISHED AS SUCH BY THE BIBLE
In the time of MOSES always at least two different Pharaohs were existing in Egypt. On the one hand, the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh who was the foreign lifelong Ruler of Egypt, biblically called "King of Egypt" and on the other hand the less powerful tributary or counter Southern Egyptian Pharaoh of Thebes certainly not being called King of Egypt; The 'Hyksos' Pharaoh as Lifelong Ruler/ King of Egypt is biblically evidenced only at three different times:
1.) First in Exodus1:8.15.18 at the beginning of the Book of Exodus Canaanite Pharaoh Semquem/Salitis "a Foreign King who does not know Joseph arises in enmity over Egypt" (see Chapter Hyksos). Foreign King/Ruler means translated into Egyptian Hekashasut or into Greek Hyksos.
2.) Second in Exodus5:4,6:11.13,7:29 at the beginning of the Exodus Story when Moses before the start of the Ten Plagues is sent to ('Hyksos' Pharaoh Khamudi) the lifelong Ruler of Egypt biblically called "King of Egypt" to tell him to let his People go. This took place in spring and thus in Memphis and not in Avaris, the summer residence of the 'Hyksos'.
3.) The third and last time is in Exodus14:5.8 in the end when Pharaoh (Khamudi) as "King of Egypt" in Memphis commands his army to chase after Israel until he sinks with his army in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically unambiguously identified by its contemporary name Yam Suph.
Instead, while the Ten Plagues are coming over Egypt there is just talk of a "Pharaoh" not being called King of Egypt in the Bible thus Southern Pharaoh Ahmose had to be meant by the biblical Pharaoh who archeologically evidenced lost his firstborn son in the Tenth Plague. There is no evidence for contemporary huge building projects of the 'Hyksos' in the time of Khamudi and Ahmose - for which the Foreign lifelong Ruler of Egypt Khamudi would have needed hundreds of thousands of slaves - only the Southern Pharaoh Ahmose's huge building projects needed such a huge amount of slave workforce and these took mainly place between Memphis and Thebes. Additionally, the Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples, and Pyramids in the Theban region and also the Ypuwer Papyrus describes the Ten Plagues and especially the Tenth Plague of the sudden death of all firstborns taking place in Southern Egypt. And the Bible in Exodus9:26 says that in the Northern Delta "in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, there was no hail" and they were not affected by any of the Plagues. This all leads to the conclusion that the Biblical Story of the Ten Plagues mainly takes place in Southern Egypt in the land of Pharaoh Ahmose and not in the northern region where most Israelites lived.
Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi has to be identified as the biblical "King of Egypt" of the beginning and the end of the Exodus story while Thebes' Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose needing and using the main slave workforce is the only plausible direct first contact Pharaoh for MOSES during the Ten Plagues in the Bible in the time when no King of Egypt is biblically mentioned. This is finally confirmed by the biblical night of the Tenth Plague in Exodus12:29 in contrast to Exodus14:5.
After Exodus12:29 it is clearly explained how Pharaoh (Ahmose) after he has lost his son in the night tells MOSES to leave with his complete people and cattle and sheep. He even asks for his blessing. And all the Egyptians are described as fearfully sending them away giving them all their fine clothes, silver, and gold. So far their departure is described. For the Pyramide building Israelites and all other between Memphis and Thebes working Hebrew slaves, this meant that they first went back to their wives and families in Avaris biblically called Ra-amezes. From there they started out from Egypt via Sukkot in Exodus12:37.
Then two whole biblical passages follow explaining how to celebrate the night of the Tenth Plague and the Exodus until the end of time. Then the complete journey through the desert to the Yam Suph the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba is described. And then surprisingly in Exodus14:5 the same "Pharaoh" who always assumed did already together with his Egyptian people send MOSES and his People of Israel away and saw them leaving had to "receive the message that the people have fled" in order to "him and his servants" turning their hearts against the people? That does make no sense. But it does make sense that this Pharaoh is biblically identified as the "King of Egypt" in Exodus14:5 in contrast to the biblical Pharaoh of the Ten Plagues because it is not the dead son mourning southern Pharaoh Ahmose like he is biblically described in his farewell to MOSES and his People; It is the Canaanite Pharaoh and only real "King of Egypt" who extra needs a message to realize in his palace in Memphis that the People of Israel have left Heliopolis/"On", Lahun/"Phytom" and even the home base of their families Avaris/"Ra-amezes" and the complete country: Pharaoh Khamudi, the King of Egypt. He is the Pharaoh who makes sense in the first contact with MOSES asking him to let his complete People - spread throughout complete Egypt - go, which took place in Memphis because it was biblically and archeologically evidenced spring and not summer, the time of their residence in the Palace of Avaris. And he is the only Pharaoh who makes sense to command the complete Canaanite charioteers and the Egyptian charioteers and the complete Egyptian footsoldier army to hunt after the people of Israel as described in the Bible. He is the only historical Pharaoh who makes sense to have drowned with his complete army in the Yam Suph, the biblical evidenced Gulf of Acaba because his corpse/grave was never found anywhere. He is the only historical Pharaoh of both making sense to be identified in these three times as the "King of Egypt".
Interestingly enough the Bible says that certain regions were spared by certain plagues (eg. Exodus 8:18,9:26): the Israelites in Goshen at the Nile Delta, Avaris/Ra-amezes, Phytom/Lahun and Heliopolis/On were spared from dog flies, ulcers, hailstorm, absolute darkness and death of all male firstborn. The Ipuwer Papyrus does confirm historically most of the plagues for complete Egypt. The Ahmose Stela for Southern Egypt archeologically confirms especially the pyramids, temples and idols destroying storm with “unnatural rain” and the Ypuver Papyrus mentions its biblically confirmed raining of fire and ice. Also the darkness is mentioned by both sources. The death of all firstborn is archeologically confirmed by the mass graves in Avaris and the death of the firstborn son of Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I. We don’t know if the King of Egypt Khamudi had any son at all confirming again the biblical distiguishment of both Pharaohs.
Khamudi's Southern Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose with his huge building projects is related to all slave work issues and the Hyksos capital Memphis is located near the border of the Northern and Southern Dynasty. Thus Memphis was easy to visit for the Southern Pharaoh Ahmose. He could have plausibly also been present during the first meeting of MOSES with Khamudi ...
This invites the reader to an even deeper biblical text analysis of the first meeting of MOSES with "Pharaoh" AND „Pharaoh King of Egypt“ as Southern Vassall-Pharaoh Ahmose AND Northern Pharaoh Khamudi King over Egypt ...
Enjoy Your research discovery adventure!
ISRAEL IN THE DESERT
Are there any remains of ancient Hebrew campsites in the desert? In the latest biblical archeological discussions one of the main settlement locations of Israel in the 40 years of wandering through the desert is discovered: The mountain Hashem El Tarif in the Sinai desert near Timna at the ancient contemporary travel route from Egypt to Mesopotamia and Canaan; The first Sinai stations after Israel came back from Midian in Northern Arabia into Sinai are the lustgraves (Numbers33:16) and Hazerot (Numbers11:35-12:16). The last Sinai station before crossing the sea was Etham at the edge of the wilderness (Exodus13:20). Hashem El Tarif at the edge of the Sinai desert matches with most biblical data as archaeological evidence for rather years or months than weeks or days of settlement, including graves of possible tribe leaders, the great grandsons of the 12 tribefathers. In the linked documentary on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY, the place is not recognized one of the desert stations in the 40 years of Israel in the desert. Instead it is confused with the Holy Mountain in the land of Midian. But according to all ancient scriptures including the Bible, Midian always was in Northern Arabia and the wilderness Sinai was not limited to the peninsula in ancient times. If You are looking for evidence for the biblical Sea Division Miracle and the real Mount 'Sinai' - actually the biblical Mount Horeb - study the documentaries on www.patternsofevidence.com. Explore the evidence for the real Mount 'Sinai' in Midian always having been in Arabia (Galatians4:25) beyond the biblical Reed Sea "Yam Suf" (1Kings9:26), today called Gulf of Aqaba (Exodus2:15.3:1): The fascinating Gebel El Lawz with overwhelming evidence for remains of Hebrew campsites on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y-uiccIiSY&t=354s. The wilderness of the east called Sinai was geographically reduced to the peninsula up to 2 millennia later.
THE 'HYKSOS' EXPULSION
Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi and his army never returned from their chase after Israel. The remaining Egyptian-Canaanites in Avaris were left on their own: Ahmose I sees his chance to turn the doom of the 'Hyksos' army into his victory wiping out the shameful memory of Egypt under the foreign Semitic rule. Ahmose I claims after having taken Heliopolis and Sile to have won a siege battle against Avaris (see picture below).
Historian Manetho (in Josephus) however states, after a composition between the Egyptians and the Hyksos was made, the Hyksos surrendered to the Egyptians in return for a safe passage back to Canaan and all of them left Egypt. Avaris Excavator Bietak states that there is no evidence for any violent destruction of Avaris: "The archaeological material stops abruptly with the early 18th Dynasty in '1534 BC' (the biblical year 1606 BC). The most likely interpretation is that Avaris was abandoned. No conflagration layer or corpses of slain soldiers have been found so far in the large and widely separated excavation areas."
Picture: Ahmose's I Avaris Victory Propaganda as After Desaster Shock Confusion Coping: Pharaoh allegedly defeats ALL Foreigners - black-skinned white-clothed Southern invaders and light-skinned lengthways striped clothed Semites (Israelites) mixed up with transversely striped clothed Semites (Canaanites). Now compare the distinguishment between Canaanites and Israelites at the end of Chapter Hyksos with this picture: This is archeological evidence for the indifference of Egyptian grown hate against all foreigners - Canaanites and Israelites are chaotically mixed up and their distinguishment gets lost in history. The memory of the brutal Canaanites being erased in the floods of the Gulf of Acaba (biblically identified as Yam Suph) by the one G‘d of Israel instead of Ahmose is from then on suppressed and the peaceful Israelites now become the main Semitic invaders and object of Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion. Israelites instead of Canaanites are sinking in the waters. All this confusion is manifested in priestly traditions in the following millennium and leads to ancient historian Manetho’s confusing the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion and Expulsion with the Hebrew Ensettlement, Enslavement and Exodus; This again leads two millennia later to the antibiblical successfull attempts of leading egyptologists to discard Manetho’s historical evidence of Israel in Egypt completely as „corrupted“ …
HISTORY ELIMINATION ATTEMPT
In order to save his life and existence as Pharaoh, Ahmose had to
- delete and compensate the defeat of the Egyptians Gods under the Santorini Eruption Effects of the Ten Plagues and the loss of Egypt‘s complete slaveworkforce
- delete the glorious history of Egypts savior out of famine Vizierking Joseph and his three Vizierking Dynasties of his sons, grandsons and greatgrandsons
- delete the shameful history of the Egyptians having co-comitted the enslavement of Israel by their Canaanite brutal invaders and opressors
To delete and twist disadvantagous history into advantagous glorious history was common practice of Pharao’s in ancient Egypt as commonly known in Egyptology.
Ahmose’s first attempt has already been shown in the propaganda picture of his „Hyksos Expulsion“.
Ahmose’s second attempt was to declare all Semitic Foreign Past Dynasties as illegitimate and non historical: The resulting archeological evidence is still seen three centuries later in the Saqarra King List and the Abydos King List: Joseph‘s 13th Dynasty of Hebrew Shepherd Kings is omitted together with his lineage’s 16th and 17th Dynasty Hebrew Shepherd Kings. ALL three Dynasties (13/16/17) had been omitted as illegal foreign Dynasties together with the Canaanite 14th and 15th Dynasty of Egypt’s brutal oppressors. Nevertheless Egyptologists still proclaim up until today the 13th/16th/17th Dynasty as to be “Egyptian” which only holds true for Pharao Ahmose’s I family clan of “Ahmosides” who married into the Hebrew Dynasty at the end of the 17th Dynasty.
a) Only inscriptions Queen Hatshepsut reveal a clear distinction between the by the Egyptians called (Hebrew) Hekashasut since Amenemhet III and the later upcoming (Canaanite) “Barbarians” in the midst of them: “I do not sleep forgetting, (but) have made form what was ruined. For I have raised up what was dismembered beginning from the time when the Hekashasut were in the midst of the Delta, (in) Avaris, with barbarians in their midst, toppling what had been made. They ruled without the Sun, and he did not act by god’s decree down to my (own) uraeus-incarnation.”
b) Only the Karnak List of the 15th century is honoring ALL Pharaohs who were involved in building any parts of the Karnak Tempel Complex and thus mentions some Pharao’s of the Second Intermediate Period.
c) Only the informal in hiratic written down unofficial Turin King List on the back of an older Papyrus reveal the names of the rotating Hebrew Shepherd Kings under Joseph’s Vizierking lineage.
d) Only ancient historian Manetho’s 3rd century BC list of the five different Dynasties and his list of the 15th Dynasty Pharao’s from Phonecia or Arabia (namely Assur, corroborated by excavated evidence of Manfred Bietak) unveils partly the Second Intermediate Period.
THE LOST ARMY OF THE 'HYKSOS'
Pharaoh Khamudi is nowhere mentioned as defeated or killed, neither in Sharuen, the old 'Hyksos' home base in Canaan and target of the Expulsion of the Hyksos nor in Avaris or Memphis. There is no evidence for him having survived the year 1606 BC ('1535 BC'). No grave and no skeleton had ever been found - but a "golden" electron encased wheel of a Pharaoh's chariot and many other wheels with axles, reinforced with metal and rests of many other chariots are found on the ground of both sides of the sea Yam Suf, the Gulf of Aqaba near the land of Midian (Psalm136:15, Exodus14:28).
"The Lord our God threw them into the sea
to the depths of the Abyss
in place of the Israelites,
just as the Egyptians had thrown their sons into the river.
He took revenge on one million of them:
1000 men, strong and also very brave,
perished for one infant of your people
whom they had thrown into the river."
Explore the evidence for the Canaanite Pharaoh and his Egyptian-Canaanite army sunk in the Sea of Aqaba on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HM7njJuarrg in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weaBUUqfPoI&list=PLEA7Bvb3a7XJErk7Bwi-wj0TDtftJkrQZ&index=4&t=38s in German.
"The Lord our G'd threw them into the sea
into the depths of the Abyss"
"the earth swallowed them"
Jubilees48:14 and Exodus15:12
"The water came back and covered all the chariots and cavalry
of PHRAOH's army who had followed them into the sea -
NOT EVEN ONE OF THEM WAS LEFT."
Different successful highly creative and speculative attempts of Ramesses Time Paradigm devotees (c. 1260 BC Exodus) and 'Early' Date devotees (1446 BC Exodus) to reinterpret and heavily change the meaning of these and several other cristal clear Bible cites led into the dominant antibiblical hypothesis that the Pharaoh (and even essential parts of his army) allegedly had "biblically indicated" survived the Sea Miracle (fixed in the brains of the world by the most famous Exodus movies). This is necessary to make their Bible contradicting dating hypotheses work because their identified Pharaohs Ramesses II and Amenhotep II never lost their army, died a natural death, and left their skeletons behind in their tombs in contrast to Khamudi, King of Egypt until 1606 BC ('1531'BC), who is lying with his army on the ground of the Yam Suph, the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba: This enabled Ahmose I to easily expel the Canaanite people of the Nile Delta, Avaris, and Memphis out of Egypt after the ten times bigger people of Israel - most of them having lived in the Nile Delta/Avaris/Ra-amezes, Fayium/Lahun/Pythom, and Heliopolid/Leontopolis/On - already had left Egypt, had crossed the Sinai and the Sea and already had reached Mount Horeb in Midian Arabia.
RESOLUTION OF THE LAST OPEN QUESTIONS
THE 10 PLAGUES - EGYPT DEVASTATED - ISRAEL'S EXODUS - THE HYKSOS EXPULSION
MILLIONS OF FOREIGNERS AND TWO CENTURIES OF FOREIGN RULE ABRUPTLY DISAPPEAR
- ALL IN ONE SINGLE YEAR - A HISTORICAL SHOCK CONFUSION UP TO THIS DAY -
Nothing was more feared by ancient Egyptians than CHAOS. The geologically evidenced Santorini Eruption Impacts on Egypt, Ahmose's I Storm Stela, and the famous Iypuwer Papyrus precisely confirm the historical CHAOS in Egypt in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, which is also the biblical time of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the year 1606 BC ('1534 BC').
Hate is a form of confusion; Confusion of fear, sorrow, grief, jealousy, and other emotions but for sure always set on fire by egoism and hurt narcissism. The story of Egypt's relationship with Israel and also Canaan as two absolutely different Semitic people (they were both called HekaShasut or Hyksos meanwhile generalized in its meaning from Shepherd Kings to Rulers of Foreign Lands) is also the story of the beginning of antisemitism in history with all its contradictions and confusions inside. Antisemitism always had a spiritual dimension; Hate towards the first believers in the one and only G'd always was mixed with jealousy towards the blessings the G'd fearing received in this world - blessings through many descendants, much prosperity, success, or power. Antisemitism always had an evil, antitheistic part. The forerunner of Egyptian antisemitism was a simple antipathy towards foreigners due to cultural differences; For example Egyptians disliked herding sheep and shepherds and did not have meals together with foreigners thinking them unclean. No later than 1666 BC the Egyptians did not differentiate anymore between the peaceful Hebrews from Canaan having grown up to a tremendous huge people and the brutal Canaanites themselves: Meanwhile, they were both simply seen as hated „HekaShasut“, foreign rulers from the East; this title meanwhile turned into a negative term like the other term for people from Canaan „Retjenus“. Even up until today the Israelites of the "Early Hyksos Period" are confused with the Canaanites - nowadays by leading atheistic antibiblical Archeologists. And the Mesopotamian, Syrian, and Canaanite Abrahamian archeological echo in (David Rohl) JACOB's palace in Avaris was mixed up with indications of the later Canaanite brutal invaders from Assur, which also can be easily misused to foster further
Hate against Semites from Canaan was radically evoked by the brutal invasion, massacres, destructions, and suppression of the Canaanite Foreign Rulers from Assur from 1729 BC onwards. The role of Israel in the archeologically evidenced "Golden Times" of the 13th Dynasty suddenly changed back from foreign ruler to foreign slave - the other way round than in JOSEPH's Egyptian career. The Egyptians archeologically proven in this work loved and hero-worshipped JOSEPH as their savior and they also "honored the children of Israel all days of Joseph's lifetime" according to Jubilees46:2. But they never really loved his family clan of Shepherd Kings who were disgusted as shepherds (Genesis46:34, Jubilees46:16) by the Egyptians. The Egyptians abreacted their grief to the Semitic brutal suppressor Canaan by suppressing their former foreign savior and ruler Israel after they had recommended their enslavement to the first Canaanite Pharaoh SakirHar/ Salitis (The Book of Jubilees 46:12; Klaus Berger 1981, page 539 footnote 12b).
1666 BC was the time of Co-Rulership of a Canaanite (Hyksos Kayan) and a Hebrew Pharaoh (Sobekhotep IV); The Egyptian differentiation between peaceful Hebrew Semites as relatives of the Saviour JOSEPH and brutal suppressing Canaanite Semites did come to its end. From then on Egyptian antisemitism as fear and hate against all Semitic Eastern Foreigners had been branded into Egyptian memory for millennia up until today; Egypt rejects archeological discoveries confirming any rulerhsip of Israel in Egypt and any egyptologist who would admit publicly to have discovered confirming evidence would risk to lose his excavation site; this makes the fundament of scientific independence, neutrality, and objectivity of Egyptology today. And it is mainly responsible for the "Dark Second Intermediate Period" having become such a clueless helpless guesswork full of weak speculations today (check Manfred Bietak's lectures linked at the start and end of this work). And again and again it’s causing new
Finally, the Ipuwer Papyrus from the time of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC claims distraught "Foreigners have become OUR PEOPLE 'rmt' everywhere!" The term 'rmt'="people" was normally reserved solely for the description of Egyptians themselves (Charlotte Booth. The Role of Foreigners 9. in Ancient Egypt: A Study of Non-Stereotypical Artistic Representations. in Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005). Thus it was precisely and accurately describing the faced historical situation:
A) Thousands of Canaanite elite warriors as male occupiers took Egyptian wives; This lead to an "egyptianised" mixed-lineage with an Egyptian female line through four generations resulting in over two hundred thousand evidenced Canaanite Egyptians
B) Over 3 million biblical evidenced Israelites spread in the Nile Delta and all over Egypt
C) A 14th & 15th Dynasty of Canaanite Egyptians with a female Egyptian lineage and Canaanite male roots ruled over Egypt
D) A 13th & 16th Hebrew Dynasty of four generations, rooted in Egyptian marriages of EPHRAIM, MANASSE, and BENYAMIN ruling over Egypt
E) A Hebrew-Canaanite marriage between Sobekhotep IV and Khayan's/ Pharaoh‘s Daughter Meris/Tjan - MOSES' adoptive mother -supported the declining Egyptian distinction between these two different Semitic Foreigners.
F) A final 17th Dynasty, based on the Egyptian takeover of the Hebrew throne by Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew royal family clan finally expelled the Canaanites after their Pharaoh and army had sunk in the floods of the Gulf of Acaba.
Manfred Bietak’s newest research results (see end of Chapter Hyksos) confirm the mixture of Egyptians, Israelites and Canaanites with each other by a wide range of istope values.
Even the Book of Jubilees talks about the Army of the King of Egypt hunting after Israel "with all the VARIETY of the Peoples of Egypt" instead of calling them Egyptians; Instead of calling them Egyptians it talks about the King's "his people" (Jub48:6) and of "men of Egypt" (Jub48:14). And we realize now why these peoples weren't directly called Egyptians. The Ahmose Storm Stela and Ipuwer Papyrus evaluation conclusions of Leading Egyptologists turn out to be an antibiblical reducement of essential historical facts in eyewitness reports into „symbolic poetry“ driven by weakly based antibiblical symbolism paradigms. Instead, as a matter of fact, Ahmose's Storm Stela does not only precisely describe the biblical plagues and the biblical plundering of gold, silver, and clothes by Hebrew slaves from an Egyptian viewpoint; It also does describe the complete precise historical situation of Egypt in 1606 BC regarding the last Canaanite Hyksos period including 35 different Canaanite, Hebrew and Egyptian Pharaohs and regarding the constantly changing unbalanced power dynamics. And this all with such a strong mixing of Semites with Egyptians that the Egyptians realistically feared to lose their complete original identity and existence as Egyptians which caused a terrifying
The sudden abrupt disappearance of both Semitic foreign former rulers out of Egypt in the same year 1606 BC after a series of evidenced shocking deadly environmental disasters - the Biblical Ten Plagues - altogether must have been strongly disturbing for the affected people's mentality: Confusion holds on even over a thousand years later revealed by Josephus' Hebrew and Manetho's Egyptian ancient attempt to describe this shocking interruption and most spectacular intervention into human history. Like all other ancient writers, they consequently both failed in clearly and precisely differentiating the Exodus of Israel from the Hyksos Expulsion both taking place in the same year. From the Egyptian perspective, both foreigners had ruled over Egypt for about a century each. And Egypt was left by all these meanwhile hated foreigners in the same year. Thus the Egyptians suppressed the uncomfortable truth that they had helped enslaving Israel, the people of their former Semitic Savior out of Famine and their Guarantor of Peace and Stability in Egypt in the last part of the evidenced so-called "Golden Age". They tried to cope this together with their shocking and ashaming memories about their Semitic suppressors Canaan. This led to the Egyptian confusion of two different Semitic rulerships with each other while trying to suppress and forget both of them. Thus the Israelites and the Canaanites - both being Semites from Canaan mostly just called Hekashasut by the Egyptians - were mixed up, melted together and confused with each other. This was a typical Egyptian pattern of behavior also in their world of deities. This confusion of the Israelites with the Canaanites has not been resolved by any ancient historian and is not even not up until today. This confusion is even enforced by modern leading Biblical Archeologists and Egyptologists and their new antitheistic antibiblical hypotheses (see Finkelstein's & Bietak's lectures against the Exodus linked at the beginning and the end of this work). This confusion is only resolvable by the Word, the Bible itself, from that very time on until the end of time. Antibiblical self-called "scientific" guesswork has never been, is not, and will never be capable to resolve this chaotic
Dr. David Ben-God HaCohen describes Manethos' and Josephus' confused attempts to describe history as follows: Manetho, the Egyptian priest from the third century BC, in his book Aegyptiaca, identifies the Israelites with the Hyksos. Manetho offers the following outline as quotes coming from Josephus 'Against Apion':
"These people, whom we have before named Kings, and called Shepherds also, and their descendants, kept possession of Egypt ... After this composition was made (meant is the Canaanite 'Hyksos' surrender to Pharaoh Ahmose in return for a safe passage back to Canaan) they went away with their whole families and effects, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand. They took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for Syria.“
Many scholars believed that Manetho is preserving an authentic ancient tradition and thus they identified the Israelites with the Canaanite rulers of Egypt as the only existing Hyksos. If this were actually the case, then on the one hand the Israelites claimed that they were enslaved in Egypt, and on the other hand, the Egyptians claimed that they brutally conquered Egypt: These contradicting claims are in direct tension with each other. Tt is likely that both of these traditions are somehow ancient. Josephus responds harshly to Apion, who used the identification of the Israelites fleeing Egypt with the Egypt oppressing Hyksos to undermine the biblical account, painting „the Jews" as aggressors hiding behind false claims of victimization; Now Manetho, in another book says, “That this nation, thus called Shepherds, were also called Captives in their sacred books.” Realizing that this perspective undermines the biblical account entirely, Josephus spends almost a quarter of his book refuting it to fight against this up until today for millennia ongoing of
This ancient confusion up until today is called the Hyksos Controversy. But there are also additional last open questions regarding the Canaanites; They also seem to be mixed up or confused. This time with the Egyptians in the eyes of Israel: In Genesis1:13 the Egyptians are named as the ones, who force the Israelites to hard work - Why the Egyptians instead of the Canaanites? Because they were the ones who recommended the Enslavement of Israel to the first Canaanite Hyksos King. And the Enslavement of Israel took place all over Northern Egypt, so the Egyptians were deeply involved in the Enslavement of Israel and they were the ones who took primarily advantage of it. As already explained in the oldest 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees the Egyptian elites are the ones who convince the Hyksos Pharaoh to enslave Israel (The Book of Jubilees 46:12 Berger footnotes). This happened as revenge a long time after having become dispossessed servants of Pharaoh Amenemhet by JOSEPH nearly one century earlier (Genesis47:19). This translation item was certainly not recognized as the most plausible one by experts regarding the Book of Jubilees but after having examined this work it is in fact clearly the most plausible one. Nevertheless, the Canaanite Pharaohs remained to be the decisionmaker, commander, and leading initiator of the Enslavement and oppression of Israel in Egypt in 1729 BC. And the same for the Canaanite Egyptian chase after Israel to the Red Sea/ Yam Suf on their way to Midian in Arabia after their Exodus out of Egypt in 1606 BC. All these explained totally mixed up populations of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Hebrews - obviously also in the eyes of Israel - left a certain
Exodus14 calls the Pharaoh's army at the sea several times Egyptians - why not Canaanites? The answer is, the Canaanites in 1729 BC conquering Avaris were primarily a male soldier army, which mixed up with Egyptian females as typical colonial behavior. In 123 years of Rulership - that’s at least three generations of mixing up with Egyptian females -they became more and more (50%, 75%, 87%) Egyptians, not only culturally but also physically. This is evidenced from the Egyptian perspective in the Ipuwer Papyrus as already mentioned. But also from Israel's perspective: The much huge number of foot soldiers were Egyptians and not Canaanites. In Exodus14:7 the (Canaanite) Pharaoh took, on the one hand, his (Canaanite elite) officers in charge of his 600 best chariots and on the other hand all "THE OTHER (Egyptian) chariot fighters and their chariots" to chase after Israel. This is discoverable when You compare all different biblical translations of this sentence. The differentiation in this sentence would make no sense if only Egyptians were meant. Thus also a reluctant description of ethnic differences in the Bible and the Book of Jubilees is one reason for the millennia ongoing Hyksos Controversy
But nevertheless: How and why could the essential fact, that Israel was originally and initially enslaved and oppressed by Canaanite rulers get lost or forgotten in Israel's history at all? Plausible reasons could be shame, repression, and a simply confused neglected differentiation between Egyptians and Canaanites; Comparable to the other Egyptian side regarding Israelites and Canaanites even over one millennium later still traceable in Manetho‘s attempts to describe history. Everyone who has read through the Bible, does know how much more humiliating and shameful it must have been for Israel having been slaves not only of the Egyptians but also of their historical arch enemy Canaan. Canaan's role in the Bible is the role of the Conquered Land and of the defeated enemy and the painful memory that Israel beforehand in Egypt was themselves conquered, defeated, and even enslaved by these Canaanites must have been a memory very likeable to be suppressed. The Jewish biblical scholar and psychoanalyst Immanuel Velikovsky did not only as the first one identify the eyewitness report of the Ten Plagues in the Ipuwer Papyrus; He also developed a theory about such an obvious "Cultural Amnesia" of a complete people - in our case the amnesia of the Egyptians but also partly of the Israelites.
And in Israel‘s daily life experience of slavery in Egypt the Egyptians were the daily visible slave drivers and slaveowners of the Israelites. The Hebrew slaves in their daily work-life hardly met or even saw any Canaanites. And especially since the time of Ahmose, primarily the Southern Egyptian Pharaoh used the Hebrew slave workforce for his archeologically evidenced huge mudbrick building projects. As already explained all the huge building projects of Pharaoh Ahmose I abruptly were left unfinished in the time of the Exodus of Israel and the Canaanite Hyksos Expulsion. One example is Ahmose's Pyramide, the last Pyramide of an Egyptian Pharaoh in history. New patterns of evidence in Chapter Hyksos (the biblical foreign ruler who arose in enmity above Egypt and the Canaanite Invasion in the Book of Jubilees) have lead to the additional conclusion that relating informations also became veiled more and more in some „fog“ of translation losses. This asks for a new focus for further explorations of yet unidentified original Qumran Scripture Fragments of the Book of Jubilees and the Bible of around 200 BC; As already evidenced shown the 1500 years old Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees confirms that the Egyptians convinced the Canaanite oppressor to enslave Israel (46,12 footnote b Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees). This cultural amnesia and translation losses altogether caused further
The History of the Hyksos Controversy
is up until today
a 3600 years old history of confusion.
The History of Egyptology
regarding the Second Intermediate Period
is up until today
a history of confusion.
The History of "Biblical" Archeology
is from its beginning on up until today
a history of confusion.
The History of the Bible
is also a history of thousands of adversaries
trying to destract and destroy the trust
in the most reliable ancient history book
based on trustworthy eyewitness reports
never disproved in one single verse.
THE BOOK OF JUBILEES REVEALS THE BIBLE IS A HISTORY BOOK
The last explaining background for the Canaanites of Egypt getting lost in biblical history is the repressed story of a forgotten book, lost for centuries, evidenced as a strikingly relevant part of the Hebrew authoritative scriptures and seen by an essential part of the Jewish population as inspired Scriptures in the time of the Second Temple in Israel from at least the 3rd century BC until the second century AD: It claims to be written in the time of MOSES and it clearly and precisely identifies the Canaanites as the brutal invaders and oppressors of Egypt and as the decision-makers of the enslavement and male firstborn mass murder of Israel. But the book had been dismissed too often. First by the Hellenistic Jewish translators of the Tanakh in Alexandria around 200 BC because of its anti-Hellenistic messages and then after the first century AD by most Jewish religious officials because of the first Jewish followers of Yeshua/Jesus having 'occupied' it for their messianic message. And later, when the first 'messianic' Jews or Jewish 'Christians' had vanished, it was dismissed by the initially 'pagan' Christians, this time because of the Hellenistic Jewish Greek translation of the Pentateuch logically having become the canonical authority as the oldest Greek Old Testament; First in Greece and then in the complete Roman Empire for the Christians in the time of the first developing strict official canonization of the Old Testament and the New Testament in the contemporary Greek speaking world.
The Book of Jubilees has turned out to be an arrow rain
towards the adversaries against the credibility of
the Torah - the Tanakh - the complete Bible
and Scientists have to learn that
there is no serious evidence
that can disprove
the Word of God.
"Adonai thundered from heaven .. he sent out arrows"
The Book of the Divisions of the Times.
MOSES' written down Chronology of the books of Genesis and Exodus.
Dictated by the Angel of the Face.
The Angel of the Lord.
The Savior of Israel.
"I stood between You, the Egyptians and the Israelites"
"And the Angel of G'd
who goes in front of the camp of Israel
moved and went behind them .."
In relationship to the New Testament, the book of Jubilees contains one of the earliest references to the idea that God gave the Law to Moses through an angelic mediator, the Angel of the Face; This (Klaus Berger Jubilees1:28.28,2:1) is likewise confirmed in Paul’s epistle to the Galatians (Galatians3:19) and leads like other OT verses about the Angel of the LORD to the question if God himself is meant with this person as another person of G‘d - also discussed by the Ethiopean Jewish and Christian believers in the Book of Jubilees. Paul does hint here to these two different persons seemingly being one and the same G‘d:
„Why then the Mattan Torah (the Giving of the Torah)? The Torah was added because of transgressions, until the descendant Zera (Messiah/Moshiach) should come to whom the promise havtachah had been made (Bereshis22:18). Now the law Torah was administered through an angel/angelos and mediator/mesites. Now the mesites is not mediator for only one, but God is only one.“ Galatians3:19-20 TheOrthodoxJewishBible2011
Also King David hints in Psalm 110 to the Messiah adressing him as his LORD Adonai in the same way as he adresses JHWH as his LORD Adonai. The reader is invited to also prove and deeply analyse: Genesis21:17.22:11.31.11,48:16.32.25 Exodus3:2,14:19 Numbers22:23 Joshua5:12-6:2 Judges2:1.5,23,6:11.13.3 2Kings1:3 1Chronicles21:12 Psalm15:10,34:8,35:5,109:1,109:3,110:1 Proverbs8:22,27:30,30,4 Isaiah9:5,52:13,53,53:8 Lamentations4:20 Daniel9:25,9:27 Micah5:1 Zechariah1:7,3:1.10,12:1,12:8,12:10
Whatever conclusion the reader draws, he has to answer himself following questions: In Judaism it leads to the question „Is the citation of the Book of Jubilees that JOSEPH was sold by his brothers on Yom Kippur and are other citations in the Midrasch Tadsche holy truth and instructions of Hashim?“.
In Christianity and also in Messianic Judaism it leads to the questions „Did Paul by citing the Book of Jubilees also proclaim it as G‘d breathed? Did nearly all Holy Writers of the Second or New Testament cite the Book of Jubilees as up until today valid Word of G‘d? Did even the Lord himself cite the Book of Jubilees as G‘d breathed Word?“. In Biblical Archeology after having delivered so many matchings of the Bible with Archeology in this work it leads believers to the question „Is the Book of Jubilees really a heretical apocrypha without any historical value I should discard seeking for the truth?“.
LAST INTERNAL EVIDENCE FOR THE BOOK OF EXODUS
BEING AN EYEWITNESS REPORT WRITTEN BY MOSES
For our elder Jewish brothers:
The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" Exodus17:14 and to the Children of Israel "Write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" Deutoronium6:9,11:20 and the Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions of Egypt prove the Israelites were able to easily learn to read and write.
For the Christians: Yeshua/Jesus himself clearly believes in Moshe‘s/Moses‘ writings as his personal writings, he builds on them and states You can not truly believe in him and not believe in Moses:
"For if you really believed MOSHE, you would believe ME; because it was about me that he WROTE. But if You believe not HIS WRITINGS, how shall You believe MY WORDS?"
John7:40,5:47,6:14,1:19-23 Matthew8:4,19:7 Marc1:44,10:3 Luke5:14,20:37
When a rich hard-hearted man died and woke up in the painful underworld, he shouted over the deep canyon onto the other side in Paradise to Father Avraham to send someone back from the dead to life to warn his brothers about this place of pain. Avraham answered "They have MOSHE and the Prophets. Let them hear on THEM."
Exodus24:4,34:27 Numbers33:1 Deutoro31:9 Joshua1:7,8:31 1Kings2:3 2Kings14:6,21:8 Ezra6:18 Nehemiah13:1 Daniel9:11 Malachi3:22
When the rich man said "NO, they will not! Only if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent!" Avraham said unto him "If they hear not on MOSHE and the Prophets,
neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."
Luke16:31 Jeremiah11,15:7 Matthew3:12 Luke22:31
There is no evidence PROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
There is no evidence DISPROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
There is no evidence PROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
- before the Ahmosides -
There is no evidence DISPROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty
- before the Ahmosides -
Leading Egyptology's and Leading Biblical Archeology's
postulated hypothesizes against any Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves
disproved Bible falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm.
It's their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without ever having DISPROVED them.
Nearly all these ancient writings reveal
the time of Foreign Rulers in Egypt
as the time of Israel in Egypt and
the time of the Exodus of Israel
as the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.
Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence,
and nearly all relating ancient writings
confirm all comprehensive strictly biblical time data
in the timeframe 1830-1606 BC.
The complete self-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period
enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt.
It had been darkened for repression 3600 years ago by the Egyptians as defeated adversaries of the G'd of Israel and
it has been re-darkened by modern Leading Archeologists
as Zeitgeist dependant adversaries of the Bible.
The Book of Exodus turns out to be a fully reliable
archeologically evidenced eyewitness report of Moses and a history book that never has been disproved.
The Bible has to be primarily acknowledged as a reliable Book of History based on archeologically evidenced eyewitness reports that by no means has ever been disproved in any way.
The Lord speaks to You:
"Before I formed You in the womb
I knew You,
and before You were born,
I set You apart for a special work …"
Feel called to send out this work
to all Your friends weak in faith
due to education and current general knowledge
and to all influencers You know.
God bless Your Serving the Word.
"... There are stories ... about a time of Israel in Egypt and what happened back then ...?"
"... It's true. ...
All of it. ..."
The Bible is an archeologically proven History Book:
is God breathed
is valuable for teaching
convicting of sin,
and training in right living,
so that the man of God
may be perfect,
having been trained for every good work.
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Pharaoh Senwosret III
Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Amenemhet-Ankh Khety KhnumHotep
- God Sealer
- Gate of Foreign Lands
- Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
- Arm of Month
- Mouth of Nekhen
- Senewosret- Ankh
- later Mon(th)-hotep
& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut
Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II
- "Mother of Gods"
MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw
Wepwauthotep/ Sobekhotep III
„Kingson“ Khakaw/ Sewadjtew
„Kingson“ Sonb/ Ined
Seneb, Satamun, …
12 Brothers &
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, ZEBULON
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH
Amenemhet's III children:
- later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
- BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha
- EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
- Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV
Vizier Ankhu Senwosret
Co-Rulership with his father JOSEPH:
Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety
Vizierkingship over Egypt:
& Wife Mereret
Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
Vizier Iymerew Aya
2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:
ESER Nebankh &
Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw
also deciphered as Dedwen-/ Dedu-Month Senebtefi
Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun
Illegitimate son (1Chr7:14) of an Aramean concubine:
1. MACHIR Nehy
Legitimate sons (Jos17,1Chron7)
of Egyptian mother Nebetka:
2. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ Vizier Senebhenef
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL Pharaoh name lost
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER Pharaoh Khendjer
- First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
- Archeologically evidenced
King Zamonth and
- Father of the Land
- Father of G'ds
- Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris
- Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV
c. *1794-1714+ BC
Assistance of his Grandfather JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
over Southern Egypt:
(Gen46:21) granddaughter of BENJAMIN
"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR (1Chron7:12) Pharaoh Hor
„Lady of the House“
Former Widow of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
Vizier Iymeru Aya
c. *1786-1698+ BC
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Wifes: ZatJan, Redinetes
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
16th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
13th Dynasty Vizierking
over complete Egypt:
- Archeologically evidenced
of Pharaoh Wegaf
c. *1752-1658+ BC
Son of SHUTELAH's Resseneb's wife and former widow MAACHAH Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
PERESH Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne.
He died early before his sons reaching their kinghship.
He was proclaimed by his sons as
- "Royal Sealer"
- "Father of Gods"
- King as Father of "Kingsons"
& Wife Kemi
died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep
Mother of 2 self-called "Kingsons":
1.REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
2.ULAM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayameru II
c. *1752-1646+ BC
Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH (1Chr7:23) Iymeru Aya
Co-Rulership with father Vizierking Iymeru Aya:
c. 1716-1698 BC
17th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
Reduced to Vizier
Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh
Self-appointed first 15th Dynasty King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt = "A foreign King who arose in enmity above Egypt who did not know Joseph" (Exodus1:8 in literal old hebrew)
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:20) Vizierking Resseneb
2. BERIAH 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:23) Vizierking Ayamerew
3. REFACH 17th Dynasty
(1Chr7:25) Vizierking Ayamerew II
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'
c. *1720-1626+ BC
Son of PERESH/ Haankhef (1Chr7:16)
Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan
Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
Mio Sobekhotep =
1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan
1. MERIS/ Meristheki or Mereryt:
Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan,
Mother of Sobekhotep/ Djadja,
Adoptive Mother of Sobekhotep/ Mio =
2. Hebrew wife Tjan:
Daughter Nebtiunet, later named Queen Tetisheri,
wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose
REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
no reign time due to early death
nephew of Sobekhotep IV
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep'IV'
Co-Rulership as hebrew son in law together with canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC
Thebes: 1666 BC
Switch back from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the
downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover of the Ahmosides 1627 BC
Notes and References
- Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology. sciencedaily.com, April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241P.
- Hayes JNES 12, p. 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, p. 71-78
- Yael Ehrlich, Lior Regev, Elisabetha Boaretto, 2018 Radiocarbon analysis of modern Olive Wood Raines doubts concerning a crucial piec of evidence in dating the Santorini eruption in researchgate.net
- Eruption around 1600 BC: Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16
- Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.
- Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.
- Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology. sciencedaily.com, April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241P.
- Cypriot White Slip pottery .. provides no convincing argumetn against an eruption date of around 1600 BC: Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.