Who were Moses Pharaohs? 


This Chapter will unveal an overwhelming amount of archeological evidence corroborating the following Chronology of Israel in Egypt in the time of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt and in the time of JOSEPH’s grandsons rulership as Shepherd Kings in Southern Egypt and in the time of MOSES. Different highly speculative theories without solid evidence about the time of Israel in Egypt are dominating Biblical Archeology and different highly speculative theories about the chronology of the „Dark“ Second Intermediate Period are dominating Egyptology; The following Chronology is not based on any new theory but solely on the extraordinary amount of over 100 matchings of the Bible with the scientifically recognized contemporary archeological evidence.

This is the unveiled REAL Chronology of the 15th Dynasty of Canaanite self announced Hyksos from Assur in the North corroborating the Bible (Chapter Hyksos), ancient, and actual historians (Chapter Chronology). Furthermore it is the unveiled REAL Chronology of the 16th and 17th Dynasty of Hebrew Shepherd Kings in the South corroborating leading ancient historians. 

It is based on the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (Ryholt's time estimations in brackets). According to Ryholt time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (Ryholt 1997, p. 201) 



  • = Egyptian Ahmosides 

according to 

A) Ryholt 1997 tables 42/45 pages 202/024

B) 13th Dynasty enthronement traditions

C) Biblical orders & relationships

1729-1606 BC
(1649-1531 BC)

1729 BC: Hyksos Invasion

& Enslavement of Israel
in Avaris (RAAMEZES), Lahun (PHYTOM) and LeONtopolis (ON). According to historian Manetho the Hyksos King "Salitis had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt."

1606 BC: THE EXODUS OF ISRAEL OUT OF EGYPT and Pharaoh Ahmose’s Expulsion of the Canaanite Hyksos 

All rulers of the Second Intermediate Period were identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by ancient Jewish historian Josephus. However ancient Egyptian historian Manetho assumed the invading Hyksos of the 15th Dynasty to be Phonecians or Arabs. Based on Manetho’s Chronology ancient Judaeo-Christian historian Africanus (cited by Syncellus) identifies the 16th Dynasty as „HEBREW SHEPHERD KINGS“. 

1729-1606 BC
(1649-1531 BC)

Memphis/Avaris: 15th Dynasty
Canaanite Hyksos Pharaohkings of Egypt:

  • Samuqenu/ Salitis         1729-1710 BC

  • AperAnati/ BinAnu         1710-1697 BC

  • Sakir-Har/ Apakhnas      1697-1686 BC

  • Khayan                   1686-1658 BC

  • Apophis/ Ippi            1658-1617 BC

  • Khamudi/ Archeles        1617-1606 BC

1750-1729 BC
(1649-1628 BC)
16th Dynasty
parallel to the 13th Dynasty

1750: Senebefni's
(MANASSE's) lineare rules from Thebes over Southern Egypt for 5 years while the rest of the family clan had moved to Avaris to support JOSEPH‘s 13th Dynasty family clan in their first war against the Canaanites. For their successfull support MANASSE’s Second and youngest son received Northern Pharaoh positions. They tried to use these to take over the complete rulership over Egypt.

Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw’s (MANASSE's) fourth son Senebhenef (HELEQ) was Vizier of Thebes and announced himself additionally as Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII before his family clan returns from Avaris.

1743 BC: MANASSE‘s family clan returns from Avaris to Thebes after their failed attempts to take over the complete rulership over Egypt.

1733 BC: MANASSE (Vizier Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw’s) dies.

1750-1729 BC
(1649-1628 BC)
Start of Thebes‘ 16th Dynasty

+ name lost (2 years)
MANASSE’s third son ASRIEL

+ Pharaoh Djehuti (3 years) is the son in law of Vizier Senebhenef (wife: Monthotep)
He is MANASSE's fourth son HELEQ.

+ Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII (16 years) is Senebhenef/ HELEQ (Jos17:2) himself. 

1729-1726 BC
(1649-1646 BC)

According to Hayes at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris its royal court moved south to Thebes; Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu (EPHRAIM) abandons his palatial district of Avaris (c. Mieroop 2021, p. 124) and flees to MANASSE’s sons in Thebes evidenced in Papyrus Boulaq 18 & Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446. The Canaanites chase after them. In the following battles against the Canaanites in Thebes MANASSE’s son HELEQ (Sobekhotep VIII) is killed. After a three years of Canaanite siege war EPHRAIM and his sons can hit the Canaanite Hyksos back. They take over the 16th Dynasty of Thebes. They are identified as SHEPHERD KINGS by ancient Egyptian historian Manetho and as HEBREW Shepherd Kings according to Africanus.

1729-1726 BC
(1649-1646 BC)

# Pharaoh Djedneferre Dedumose (1 year) either owns the former northern thronename Djethotepre or is the son of killed Djethotepre.

# Pharaoh Neferhotep III
(1 year): Inscriptions like „adorned with the Kephresh (blue war crown)“, „saving from famine“, "my city … victorious Thebes", and  „having been sunk through strife with foreigners“ speak for him having defended a Northern Hyksos siege war.

# Pharaoh Monthotepi
(1 year) as "King within Thebes … my city" was „driving back the foreign lands“ meaning the Northern Canaanite Hyksos.

1726-1714 BC             
(1646-1618 BC)

Death of EPHRAIM (Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu). His first son (Senwosret Resseneb) SHUTELAH (1 Chronicles 7:20) becomes the Vizierking of the 16th Dynasty. Resseneb's list of from the Canaanites bought Hebrew escaped slaves (see Brooklyn Papyrus) speaks for meanwhile established diplomatic relations with the Canaanites.
Senwosret Resseneb's (SHUTELAH's) son Neferhotep (BERED) becomes Pharaoh Nebiryraw I and „Overseer of Fields“ which is a typical Viziertitle also held by JOSEPH in his time under Amenemhet III. Thus his long rulership time of “26” years in the Turin-list not matching any archeological evidence must actually be understood as 10 years reign time as Pharaoh and parallel 26 years of Viziership like already evidenced for (MANASSE) Pharaoh Ibiaw and (EPHRAIM‘s son BERIAH) Pharaoh Aya before the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion.

1726-1714 BC
(1646-1618 BC)

Pharaoh Nebiryraw I
(10 instead of 26 years)
BN Neferhotep: Seals of him in Northern Lisht speak for an established diplomatic relationship with the Canaanite Northern Hyksos.
He is SHUTELAH's son BERED 1 Chronicles 7:20 and father of

# Pharaoh Nebiryraw II
(1 year). He is BERED's son TAHATH 1 Chronicles 7:20.

# Pharaoh Semenre (1 year) is BERED's brother ERAN Numbers 26:36.

1714-1698 BC
(1618-1602 BC)
SHUTELAH's) Senwosret Resseneb's death. His brother Vizier Iyumeru Aya (BERIAH) becomes Vizierking. BERIAH's first son 1 Chronicles 7,25 REFACH named Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II becomes Vizierprince and his archeologically evidenced Kingson RESEPH named Bebiankh becomes Pharaoh for 12 years in order to stabalize his kingship.

1714-1698 BC
(1618-1602 BC)

# Pharaoh Bebiankh
(12 years) is BERIAH's "Kingson" RESEPH
1 Chronicles 7:25

# Pharaoh Shedwaset
(1 year) is RESEPH's son THELAH 
1 Chronicles 7:25

# Pharaoh Montemsaf
(1 year)

# Pharaoh Monthotep VI
(1 year)

# Pharaoh Senusret IV
(1 year)

1698-1677 BC
(1602-1581 BC)

Vizierking Iyumeru Aya’s (BERIAH's) death. The first son of SHUTELAH's double widow wife Senebtisi and MANASSE‘s deceased illegitimate first son MACHIR (Nehy) is called PERESH and named Haankhef and fails to assert his claim to the throne:  Neferkare Iyumeru (BERIAH's son REFACH) avoids this via an alliance with MANASSSE's legitimate lineage. He becomes Vizierking and they become his Pharaohs. This way EPHRAIM's King lineage stands a second time in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage.

in Avaris in Northern Egypt under the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Kingship change from Apakhnas to Khayan.

MANASSE’S Pharao lineage is identified as 17th Dynasty by Egyptologist Kim Ryholt. Ancient Judaeo-Christian historian Africanus (Syncellus) identifies the 17th Dynasty as Hebrew Shepherd Kings and Kings of THEBES“; 1627 BC the 17th Dynasty experiences a change from a Hebrew Shepherd Kings Dynasty into an Egyptian Kings of Thebes Dynasty.

1698-1677 BC
(1602-1581 BC)

7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes belong to MANASSE's legitimate lineage according to 1 Chronicles 7:20.25

+ Pharaoh Neebmaatre
(position unknown)
+ Pharaoh Rahotep (4 years)
is biblical ZELOPHEAD the son of HELEQ (Senebhenef).
+ Pharaoh Sobekemsaf I
(3 years) is HEPHER's brother SHEMIDA of Numbers 26:32. He is the father of
Pharaoh Sobekemsaf II
(7 years) is called SHECHEM 1 Chronicles 7:19 the first son of SHEMIDA. He is the father of

+ Pharaoh Antef VI (2 years)
who is the brother of 

+ Pharaoh Antef VII
(5 years). 

+ Pharaoh Antef VIII (0,5 years) is the brother-in-law of Antef VI.

1677-1634 BC
(1581-1551 BC)  

Weaker getting Vizierking (REFACH) Neferkare Iyumeru compensates Haankhef's (PERESH's) sons by announcing them as Pharaohs. This leads to a switchback from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty: MANASSE's illegitimate lineage's attempts to obtain the King's throne finally come to its successful end with (ULAM) Pharaoh Khanepherre Sobekhotep IV: According to ancient historian Artapanus he marries the Canaanite PHARAOH’S DAUGHTER MERIS. She is the ADOPTIVE MOTHER OF MOSES. This way he becomes co-ruling son-in-law and King over complete Egypt. He degrades former Vizierking Neferkare Iymeru (REFACH) to his serving Vizier.

1666 BC: MOSES
becomes adopted first son of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV and official heir of the Kingship over complete Egypt. MOSES is named Prince Sobekhotep Mio and BECOMES A famous hero and GRAND MAN OF EGYPT (Exodus 2:11, 11:3 & Acts 7:22) after having defeated the invading southern Kushites.


There is evidence for contemporary friendly relations between the 15th & 16th Dynasties. Whoever put together the Turin King List did erroneously misplace the false
“Kingsons” without any Pharaoh father of MANASSE’s lineage right behind the true “Kingson” of JOSEPH without a Pharaoh father named Sobkehotep III: This order has been disproven recently by excavated archeological evidence for Sobekhotep's IV & Khayan's rulership at the same time. Egyptologists are reconsidering now the order of the 15th Dynasty instead of the order of the 13th & 16th Dynasty and sowith cannot reach any consensus …

1677-1634 BC
(1581-1551 BC)

The self-acclaimed 3 evidenced Kingsons of biblical PERESH 1 Chronicles 7:16 named Haankhef the son of Nehy (MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR) assert their power claims:

+ REKEM becomes Pharaoh Neferhotep I (11 years)
He is the father of

+ Sihathor
is a crown prince without reign time which speaks for a sudden death.

+ ULAM becomes Pharaoh Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (25 years).

1666 BC:
ULAM becomes son-in-law of Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan and sowith achieves the co-rulership as King over complete Egypt. He becomes the husband of PHARAOH’S DAUGHTER MERIS, THE ADOTIVE MOTHER OF MOSES.

1658 BC:
After Khayan's death the Canaanite Commander Apophis usurps the northern throne and degrades Sobekhotep IV to his tributary Southern Vassall Pharaoh.      

1641 BC: Death of
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV (ULAM)

ULAM’s firstborn son of his wife MERIS called Sobekhotep Djadja is named
Pharaoh Sobekhotep V (3 years)

+ ULAM’s only entirely Hebrew son of his wife Tjan (BEDAN) called Amenhotep is named
Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI (5 years)

1633-1606 BC
(1552-1531 BC)

The Egyptian Ahmosides Dynasty of Thebes

After finally 171 years occurs the switchback from a Hebrew Dynasty into an Egyptian Dynasty. This happens through Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew Dynasty.

Pharaohs Sequenre Tao & Kamose are defeated and killed in their battles against Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis.

1606 BC
(1531 BC)
Pharaoh Ahmose’s claimed Hyksos Expulsion

75 non-evidenced and non-existing years in the official Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period have been unveiled by Egyptologists Moeller and Ritner who identified Ahmose's I Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the Santorini Eruption: The Radiocarbon results proved year of the Santorini Eruption between 1620 and 1600 BC according to most experts (Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Friedrich, Heinemeier, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutschera, Higham, Steier, Wild) attest a necessary correction of the time of Ahmose I who initiated his Storm Stela in his 11th to 22nd reign year which would be 1530-1519 BC according to the Chronology of Leading Egyptology but is as a matter of fact proven as to be 1613-1602 BC confirmed by the Strict Bible Chronology.

1633-1606 BC
(1552-1531 BC)

The 4 Egyptian Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes:

• Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose 1633 BC
His Hebrew mother in law is Tjan the widow of Sobekhotep IV. Her daughter his Hebrew wife is named Queen Tetisheri.  

• Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao     1632-1627 BC

One of his wifes is called Satibu (a Hebrew name) and named Queen Sadjehuti.

• Pharaoh Kamose             1627-1624 BC
is the firstborn son of Sequenre Tao

• Pharaoh Ahmose
1624-1581 BC
(1562-1525 BC)
is the second son of Sequenre Tao. He built his PYRAMID with Hebrew slaves. It is the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh. His 25 reign years of the New Kingdom attested by Manetho start with the Hyksos Expulsion.

Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks: "The Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" (Exodus1:13) One of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC ('1553 BC') the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Chronology) until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire. He was Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC who ruled his first 22 years together with his stepmother Hatshepsut.

To better understand the background of this chapter watch the movie "Moses" of 1995 starring Ben Kingsley or listen to the biblical story of Moses on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1NB_p4qM0Q in English or in German on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ho3tSnW5SVQ&list=PLr_U4dE6BCIAvRw-qq6wP6XfZw4hIC3p-&index=2. Or read the Bible's Second Book of Moses Chapter 1 to 14. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as the subtitle. To make life easier for proving truthseekers in case of high level general knowledge Wikipedia is the referred source when citing in quotation marks and no other source is mentioned. Researching the relating Wikipedia article, You will find the sources referred to.

Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written, consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions and in two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes and letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh S(j)n Wrt/ Senwoseret can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; Thus one person easily disperses into many different persons. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is JOSEPH's Master POTIPHAR, his father-in-law POTIPHERA, and his Chief-of-Prison; In Egyptology, examples are POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath/Henut and most important the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of JOSEPH and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson; They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were as Rulers famous enough to own several different names. JOSEPH/ Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthotep with his early names Senowsret-Ankh, Amenemhet-Ankh and his most early and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea, his sons Manasse/ Vizier Senebefni-Ibiaw and Ephraim/ Vizier Ankhu-Senwosret, his grandson Beriah/ Vizier Iyumeru-Aya, and his great-grandson Vizier Neferkare-Iyumeru/Ayameru II are evidenced enlightenment examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the riddles of the officially so-called "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You are discovering and learning in this work time after time.


1729 BC - 1710 BC - 1686 BC - 1658 BC - 1625 BC - 1606 BC

"I told them,
'Each of you is to throw away the detestable things that draw your eyes.
Do not defile yourselves with the Idols of Egypt.
I AM 'I AM' / I am 'JHWH' your G'd.'
'But they rebelled against me;
they did not, each of them, throw away the detestable things that drew their eyes;
and they did not abandon the idols of EGYPT.
Then I said I would pour out my FURY on them and
spend my ANGER on them there in the land of EGYPT.'"
CJB Yechezk'el/ Ezekiel 20:7-8

"So they put slavemasters over them to oppress them with forced labor ...
and the Egyptians made the Children of Israel to serve with rigor;
And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage ..."
CJB/ OJB Sh'mot/ Exodus 1:11-14

According to the Book of Jubilees Chapter 45 Verse 16 father Jacob gave all his scriptures to his son Levi to preserve and renew them. So Levi wrote about Joseph’s death and his prophecy that G’d will ‘pâqad’ visit the Children of Israel (Genesis 50:24); the original old hebrew translation of pâqad in this context has to be “G’d will afflict or beset them” (compare Exodus 20:5, 34:7 Jeremiah 5:9.29 Hosiah 2:15 Amos 3:2) before he will lead them to the promised land. So Joseph before his death already knew and prophezised the affliction of enslavement coming over the Children of Israel. In Exodus 20:5 and Deutoronomy 5:9 G‘d is warning that idolatry will lead into affliction up until the third and fourth generation. The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt took place 1606 BC at the end of the fourth generation …


In order to better understand the different phases and different types of slavework of the Israelites we have to first understand the typical work of an Israelite in Egypt before they became enslaved. A Southern Egyptian Pharaoh Khamose inscription about his campaign into the north against the Canaanite Hyksos c. 20 years before the Exodus describes the situation of the Hebrew inhabitants of Avaris when his soldiers entered the city: “the women of Avaris can no longer give birth because there is no longer a man to open their hearts”. This leads to the question where were all the male Israelites when Kamose entered Avaris? How did their (slave) work look like and where did it take place? For the answer we have to go back to the very beginning of the history of Israel in Egypt:

As we know from Chapter Joseph, the Bible, and indirectly from Josephus, Pharao Amenemhet did set the Israelites as Shepherds and Cattle herdsman over all his cattle and sheep which was a tremendously huge amount because at the end of the famine he owned the complete amount of all cattle and sheep in Egypt as we have already learned. So their biblically confirmed main work in the beginning was working as the King’s Shepherds. But the people of Israel grew tremendously each generation so the variaty of typical work also grew. Biblically confirmed many Israelites were also working on the fields of farmers (Exodus 1:14) which was also the work of over 80% of all Egyptians. A third typical job was offered by JOSEPH’s adoptive father-in-law POTIPHAR (Khnumhotep II): As shown in Chapter Joseph he was the highest supervisor of all copper and turquois mines in the Sinai Desert. And the oldest Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions discovered in the mines prove that Israelites must have worked in these mines. Furthermore we have already learned that JOSEPH initiated a huge Canal building up project from Kahun/ Lahun/ Fayum to the Lake of Moris. Highest supervisor of the Israelite workers were JOSEPH’s son EPHRAIM as mayor Senwosret Ankhu and as next his grandson SHUTELAH as mayor Resseneb. These Israelites mainly lived in the workers’ town Kahun in their working periods. The fifth type of work was building Jacob’s House, Joseph’s palace, the administration residence and the growing necessary amount of mudbrick buildings of Avaris for the Israelites. After Jacob’s death the tribefathers built up their own town at the City of On/ Heliopolis near huge grasslands for cattle and sheep according to Josephus and Emmerich. All these building projects in Northern Egypt needed a huge amount of mudbrick production thus it became a typical biblical confirmed work for Israelites from the very beginning on. In the time of JOSEPH all of this was regular “paid” work. Men lived mainly at their work location while their wifes and children mainly lived in Avaris. In the time of MANASSE’s sons Pharaoh Wegaf & Khendjer temples were built up and a huge Pyramid. All of this daily work became changed into slavework after “a foreign ruler arose in enmity against Egypt who did not (want to) know JOSEPH” - the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion. So the Egyptians were the main profiteers of the enslavement of Israel and they were the daily seen slave drivers in the life of the Israelites which explains the focus on them in the Bible. And additional biblically and archeologically evidenced huge building projects were initiated by the Canaanites in the time of Israel’s enslavement …

1729 BC: 

The Canaanite Hyksos Invasion of 1729 BC is archeologically evidenced by many war emergency burials in that time in Avaris excavated by Manfred Bietak’s team. But because of 75 non evidenced and non existing years in the highly speculative Chronology of the 13th Dynasty they were not able to recognize this evidence as the by Manetho attested Hyksos Invasion of the Canaanites identified by the ancient Book of Jubilees and Bietak’s archeological evidence; Bietak decided to speculatively interprete the evidence as a possible Semitic „plague“. Rohl interpretes this alleged plague as one of the ten plagues Israel had allegedly to suffer ignoring the Bible reveals the Israelites were spared from these plagues. After these brutal archeological evidenced massacres (Manetho) in the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion, Israel was forced under hard labor by the Canaanite Hyksos King Samuquenu/ Salitis guided by the Egyptian elite who had lost everything (compare evidence in Chapter Joseph) under JOSEPH‘s rulership and salvation of Egypt out of the big famine. Enslaved Israel had to build up firstly the by war destroyed city of biblical Ra-amezes/ Avaris, having been the first ensettlement place of Israel, secondly their worker’s town Phytom/ Lahun, and thirdly the Hewbrew district of On/ Heliopolis, home of Israel's tribefathers since father Jacob's death (acc. to AKE and Josephus). These three locations were fortified/ enwalled on order of the Canaanite Hyksos. Officially these walls were built in order to avoid further invasions of other eastern peoples …

The three locations are called by a Hebrew term rendered in the Authorized Bible Version "treasure cities" and in the Revised Bible Version "store cities." The Septuagint renders them πόλεις ὀχυραί/ "strong [or "fortified"] cities.“ (Exodus 1:11).

The translational options fortified cities and store cities are both matching the archeological evidence according to Avaris Excavator Bietak: Avaris was not fortified until the start of the 15th Dynasty of the Canaanite Hyksos - then it became enwalled and the oldest Canaanite Hyksos palace owned an extraordinary deposit capacity revealing Avaris was also a store city: „According to Manetho, the Hyksos enclosed this whole area with a HIGH, STRONG WALL …“ (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I.14, §§ 73‑92).

The second mentioned biblical fortified/ enwalled town is Pithom: The 10th century Jewish scholar Saadia Ben Joseph of Fayyum identified the town Pithom in his Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch as Faiyum acorrding to very old local traditions. Up until today Faiyum has always been named „Pitomi" in Hebrew, derived from the millennia old traditional identification of Fayum with Biblical Pithom (c. Mossad Harav Kook 1984 p. 63). Kahun/ Lahun in Fayium had been a Semitic slave workers' town of the Second Intermediate Period. It was excavated and identified by the Father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie. He also found archeological evidence of the first alphabet there with recently by Petrovich identified Hebrew words and biblical names. Petrie was also the first one who identified the inhabitants as probable Hebrews. This Hebrew workers' town Kahun archeologically evidenced turned into an enwalled fortified slave workers town in the time of the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion and was abruptly completely abandoned in the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and Pharaoh Ahmose’s Canaanite Hyksos Expulsion. The reader is invited to compare the quality of evidence for Lahun being Pithom with other locational candidates for Pithom.

Furthermore archeological evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeONtopolis are matching enslaved Israel building the third fortified/ enwalled location biblical ON in Heliopolis evidenced in the 5th century Latin version of the Book of Jubilees 46:14. The Greek Septuagint (OT) of the third century BC also confirms this third city "ON, which is Heliopolis." LeONtopolis was like near BabylON a contemporary part of the huge maybe oldest town of Egypt ON. ON was originally much bigger than centuries later when it was renamed as Heliopolis.

Phytom/ Lahun does unveil the hidden Canaanite motive of building fortress WALLS around these three biggest Hebrew locations: They are according to all evidence in this work the three main Hebrew towns of Egypt - and all three of them were enwalled! ENWALLED towns can be used as GHETTHOS in order to prevent Hebrew slaves from fleeing to Southern Egypt the Kingdom of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings. This is not be the last time in history that official „defense fortification WALLS“ are primarily built and used AGAINST INSIDE PRISONERS instead of as claimef against outside enemies (eg. the german wall, the korean border, and other communist borders). And it is not the last time in history that Hebrews are ENWALLED as slaves and decimated (1940 Central and Eastern European enwalled Jewish Ghettos). In 1729 BC the biblical tremendous growth of Israel must have reached already over 100.000 on its way to three millions; Avaris became the „largest city of the world“ according to excavator Bietak. Manetho wrote about the new Canaanite King Salitis „This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive WALLS placing there a garrison of as many as 24.000 heavily armed to guard his frontier.“ and the Bible says „There a new king/ foreign ruler arose in enmity against Egypt and spoke to his people: ‚Look, of the the people of the children of Israel is many and MORE than us. Well on we want to DAMPEN them …“. 

All in all we can conclude that the fortification walls of the three centers of Israelites in Egypt Ra’amezes/Avaris, Pythom/Lahun, and On/LeONtopolis and the garrisons of soldiers had two parallel purposes:
1. Holding CAPTIVE the Hebrew slaves in their ghettos and avoiding their flight to the Southern Hebrew Dynasty.
2. Defending these ghettos against potential attempts at liberation by their Hebrew Southern Dynasty brothers.

We find additional corroborating evidence for this assumption in Josephus‘ cited alternative copy of Manetho‘s record giving a second translation option of the title Hyksos from Shepherd Kings into CAPTIVE Shepherds: „In another copy the expression Hyk, it is said, does not mean ‚kings‘: on the contrary, the compound refers to ‚CAPTIVE-Shepherds‘. In Egyptian Hyk, in fact, and Hak when aspirated expressly denote ‚CAPTIVES‘. This explanation seems to me the more convincing and more in keeping with ancient history.“ And in Josephus Contra Aponiem „Manetho says that this race of so‑called Shepherds is, in the sacred books of Egypt, described as ‚CAPTIVES‘".

1710 BC: 

After the biblical observation (Exodus 1:12) of a tremendous population growth of Israel a new phase came up in Exodus 1:13-14: Now the forced labour was hardened and oppressed by regular „violance“. In this time the contemporary biblically and archeologically evidenced Hebrew midwife Shipra is together with Puah commanded by Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis to kill all Hebrew male newborns. In the next passage about the Brooklyn Papyrus we will investigate the outcome, the historical background and the archeological evidence of this story.

1686 BC:

In the last reign year of King SakirHar/ Apakhnas he orders the killing of all Hebrew male children. This time the order is given to the entire people (Exodus 1:22) of Egypt. The thousandfold massacre ends with Pharaoh‘s death after 10 months in the year when MOSES was born (Jubilees 47:2-4, 48:14). Manfred Bietak confirms c. 50% infant or newborn deaths in that time (Avaris Eastern Town layers F/E3). Rosalie David (in „Pyramide Builders of Ancient Egypt“ p.180-210) confirms many several months old infants‘ sceletons buried beneath the floors of the houses in the Semitic Slaveworkers‘ town Lahun (Phytom).

After Hyksos King Aphaknas' sudden death, the less anti-hebrew Hyksos King Khayan stopped the by Aphaknas ordered mass murder of Hebrew male babies and young children. As we will later learn, Khayan was the father of the biblical „Pharao‘s daughter“ and sowith adoptive grandfather of Hebrew MOSES and father-in-law of the Hebrew Southern King Sobekhotep IV. There is an archeologically evidenced increasing exchange with and mutual influence between Canaanite Northern and Hebrew Southern Egypt in this time. All these interconnections speak for a phase of reduced oppression of the People of Israel in Northern Egypt between 1686 and 1658 BC. 

1658 BC: 

The essential re-worsening of Israel's situation after 1658 BC is documented for 1646 BC by MOSES' biblical visit of his 'brethren' to inspect their "struggling of forced labor" in Exodus 2:11 after anti-Hebrew Canaanite 'Hyksos' King Apophis in 1658 BC usurped the throne. 

A comparison of the amount of hairline cracks in the Semetic sceletons of the Hebrew Easter Town of Avaris in the different phases
a) 1729-1710 layer G1
b) 1710-1697 layer F
c) 1697-1686 layer E3/E2
d) 1686-1658 layer E2
e) 1658-1617/1618 E1
f) 1617/1618-1606 layer D2

Phase d) should reveal lower amounts of hairline cracks.

1821-1729 in the Bible is 1821-1645 in Egyptology including 75 non evidenced & non existing years, therefore 1729-1606 in the Bible is 1645-1530 in Egyptology. Israel’s Ensettlement in Avaris happens 1821 BC according to the Bible as also to Leading Egyptologists. The 13th Dynasty counts 92 years according to the Bible and 176 years according to the highly speculative assumptions of Leading Egyptologists without evidence for 75 years.

Semitic Slaves under Pharaoh
Ahmose Founder of the New Kingdom
(see slave haircut/suncap)

Pharaoh Ahmose I 

slaying a Semitic Slave
(same slave haircut/suncap)

1625 BC:

When Southern Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaoh Kamose waged war against Hyksos Pharaoh Apophis, he managed to conquer a part of Northern Egypt which could have been a used opportunity of the Ahmosides to become the owner of an essential part of the Northern Hebrew slave workforce. But the most plausible probability is that the majority of Hebrew slaves were simply rented by Ahmose I who ruled 1618-1581 BC (‚1542-1506‘ BC) from the Canaanite Hyksos ruler Khamudi: King of Egypt Khamudi 1617-1606 BC (‚1542-1531’BC) had no essential archeologically evidenced Northern building projects thus mainly used his Hebrew slaves for the biblical mentioned fieldwork (Exodus 1:14) while Pharaoh Ahmose I stringly needed a huge amount of slave workforce for a necessary mud brick production in order to make his archeologically evidenced huge mud-brick building projects all over his Southern Empire possible (c. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs, London 2009, page 11) including the Last Egyptian Pharaoh's Pyramide of History biblically evidenced in Exodus 1:14. All these Southern-Egyptian building projects - mainly mud-brick building projects - archeologically evidenced had to be canceled abruptly (c. Grimal 1988, p.200) in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, more precisely in the biblical year 1606 BC of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. The locations of these huge building projects were Karnak/ Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis/ On, Buhen, and in Abydos Ahmose's Pyramid.  The Pyramid finally had to be filled makeshift with sand and soil without any inner mud-brick structure due to the sudden mud brick production collapse in 1606 BC ('1531 BC'). The reason for this sudden mud-brick production collapse was biblically evidenced for exactly this year; the sudden Exodus of its strongly needed huge Hebrew slave workforce.

In addition to the Rehkmire tomb painting showing Semitic slavework mud brick production, a leather scroll in the Louvre which dates to the time of Ramesses II mentions forty stablemasters (junior officers) who each had a quota of 2000 bricks to be made by the slaves under them. Two further Egyptian papyri (Anastasi IV and V) record that “there are no men to make bricks and no straw in the district". This highlights the importance of straw as a binder in brickmaking. It also confirms the biblical dismay the Israelites must have felt when Pharaoh stopped the supply with straw, but still required the same number of bricks to be made (Exodus 5:18-21). Thus Egyptian ancient records clearly affirm the biblical description of the process of making bricks (Bryan Windle, Top Ten Discoveries related to Moses and the Exodus in: Bible Archeology Report Sept24 2021).

The modern Egyptologists' claims that Pyramids and huge building projects of ancient Egypt were not built by slave work but solely by paid skilled Egyptian workers are revealed as misleading dualistic thinking by the fact that the necessary biblical and archeological evidenced mud brick production is a typical nonskilled primitive work every unskilled person could be forced to do; This irrational claim of non existing contemporary slavework detects clear evidence for its antibiblical motivation behind it because without the Bible there would obviously be no reason for this weird attempt having come up in Egyptology. Its origin is rooted in the opposition against the legendary tale the Israelites would have built the Pyramids of Egypt which is not a 100% wrong because they indeed built the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh in history as we will investigate further on later …

1606 BC:

The strictly biblical year of the Exodus 1606 BC (‚1531‘ BC according to the outdated Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period) is also the Radiocarbon proved year of the Santorini/ Thera Eruption. It is also the strictly biblical year of the following Ten Plagues evidenced on the contemporary Ahmose Stela and in the later Ipuver Papyrus. And it is finally the year of the loss of the complete Canaanite army of the Hyksos which enabled Ahmose’s I Hyksos Expulsion in the same year.
Manfred Bietak‘s excavations deliver the archeological evidence for Avaris having been abandoned abruptly by its Semitic population in the same year. Rosalin David confirms the the archeologically evidenced sudden abandonement of Lahun by its complete Semitic population. Everything is archeologically evidenced for the strictly biblical year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. 

“I am I AM your God,
who brought you
out of the land of Egypt,
out of the abode of SLAVERY.“
‭‭Sh'mot/ Exodus20:2‬ ‭CJB

The Last Page of the Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446 
listing Hebrew and Biblical names of domestic slaves working for a Theban Palace 
(David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth of History? Page 772)




The Bible mentions Shiphra, a Hebrew midwive who had not obeyed Pharaoh's command to kill the male Israelite newborns. It is written that G'D did well to them afterward by ‚basah‘ making up a ‚bajit‘ Kingpalace for them as the Exodus 1:21 literal old Hebrew translation reveals.

The famous Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 from Thebes consists of slaves escaped from an institution called Large Prison / Labor Camp ḫnrt-wr. Differences in handwriting and in described historical events show that  new inscriptions were added over many decades in the 18th century BC. It owns an extra list from the end of this time on the back page with 37 Hebrew names; At least nine are even biblical names of 95 names in total. This attests that there were actually many people with Hebrew names living in Egypt before the Canaanite Hyksos Expulsion which is also the strictly biblical time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. A "Lady of the House Senebtisi in Thebes" tries to establish legal ownership of them as official "Palace" household servants; For „Shipra“ on the list this meant salvation from otherwise hard escape-related punishment, hard slave work, or even death. According to Quirke (Quirke, Administration, p. 148-149) the list of Hebrew slaves relates to the household of Vizier Ankhu and later his son Vizier Resseneb. According to R.B. Parkinson (Reading Ancient Egyptian Poetry, page 155), these slaves were being given (or arranged) to Senebtisi by her husband Vizier Resseneb. Vizierking Resseneb (SHUTELAH) was the son of Vizierking Ankhu (EPHRAIM), who was the son of Vizierking Zamonth (JOSEPH) (see Chapter Joseph's Pharaohs). Thus the Palace of his Queenwife Senebtisi was part of a King’s Palace matching the biblical account. The Brooklyn Papyrus is one of the major objections against the claim of Leading Egyptology that there is no evidence at all for any Israelites having lived in Egypt in the time before the biblical Exodus. Leading Egyptologists reject this archeological proving evidence on the fundament of their Bible falsification based and by Jericho disproved Ramesses Time Paradigm for an Exodus that allegedly never took place and at the same time allegedly had to have taken place in the 13th century BC discarding the strictly biblical date 1606 BC …

The Enslavement of Israel started in the strictly biblical year 1729 BC (Jubilees 46:12), initiated by the first Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis. The finally successful killing of all male newborns took place in the biblical year 1686 BC, ordered by Canaanite Pharaoh SakirHar/ Apakhnas to all Canaanites and Egyptians. Exodus 1:12,20 observes a tremendous population growth between Pharaoh Samuquenu/ Salitis failed newborn killing command to the Hebrew midwives around 1720 BC and the same much later successful command by Pharaoh SakirHar/ Apakhnas to his own people and the Egyptians. Around 1720 BC is the estimated time of the Papyrus according to Kim Ryholt (1997 page 128/129) but because of the 75 non existing years of the 13th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology Year 1606 BC The Ten Plagues) Ryholt calls 1720 BC the time of the „mid-Thirteenth Dynasty“.

Conclusion: We have here, as a matter of fact, archeological evidence clearly PROVING the Bible claiming the people of Israel were slaves in Egypt around 1720 BC and Shipra received a Kingpalace to live in. The only thing Egyptologists admit in this case is, that the presence of so many foreigners in a single household speak for a Semitic population that increased rapidly in the 18th century BC of Egypt.

It is not just possible but indeed probable and most plausible that the Hebrew biblical name Shiphra in the Brooklyn List is as a matter of fact the biblical (Exodus 1:12) midwife Shiphra, G'd provided a "Palace" for: namely Vizierking Resseneb's Palace in Southern Thebes, safe and far away from the Canaanite Pharaoh and Northern King, who's command Shipra had not obeyed. This rescue was led by JOSEPH's grandson and EPHRAIM's son SHUTELAH named Vizierking Resseneb of Southern Egypt. This is the first but not the last rescue list prepared by an Israelite to save his brothers and sisters from oppression, cruelty, and death in Israel's history as the famous Schindler's List reveals …


The Brooklyn Papyrus is contemporary scriptural evidence 
of Hebrew slaves with biblical names in the time 
when the unfalsified Bible says the Enslavement of Israel took place.

 Shipra is archeologically and biblically evidenced 
a Hebrew slave maid, saved through JOSEPH's grandson SHUTELAH, the Southern Vizierking Resseneb by receiving contemporary best working conditions in his Royal biblical mentioned Palaces of Thebes in the time of Israel's Enslavement. 


Sinai 349 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert

Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey

At the beginning of Chapter Joseph, we learned already about the first Alphabet coming up in the biblical time of Israel's arrival in Egypt. In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 as Hebrew identified inscriptions of Ancient Egypt. One of them, called Sinai 349, says: 

"He (the King of Egypt) sought occasion to cut away to barrenness 

our great number, our swelling without measure. 

They yearned for Hathor (Mother goddess & Turquoise Mine goddess), 

but the quiver of our brothers was thoroughly despised. 

He (the King of Egypt) performed terror against their quiver 
& brought about a cry of wailing." 

Hathor was the Egyptian female deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and of promiscuity. According to several scholars, Hathor as Cow-Godess has to be identified with the by Canaanites and Israelites worshipped Baalath, the female equivalent of Baal, often represented as a bull.

One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it after the murder of all Hebrew male newborns (Exodus1:22) in 1686 BC. This is archeological evidence confirming, and strongly indicating the Sojourn of Israel in Egypt, the idolatry of Israel in Egypt, the Enslavement of Israel in Egypt, and the command of the King of Egypt of the mass murder of all male Hebrew firstborn and its execution. 



According to the complete unfalsified Biblical time data MOSES was born 1686 BC. That is 64 years after JOSEPH's death and 43 years after the Invasion of the Canaanite Hyksos and the Enslavement of Israel. The Canaanite Kings of Egypt in the North in the time of MOSES in Egypt were Apachnas, Khayan, Apophis. And finally, 1606 BC at the time of MOSES‘ return, it was the last Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khamudi; They were all Canaanites and self-announced Hyksos. Furthermore they were ruling as an occupation force from the North over Egypt suppressing the Egyptians and holding the people of Israel under enslavement through Egyptian slave drivers. MOSES was born into the 4th generation of Israel in Egypt. He was the son of AMRAN, son of KAHAT, son of LEVI which already proves the biblical 215 years and disproves the 430 years of Israel in Egypt theory as inadmissible. He was born 3 years after his father AMRAN returned from Hebron in Canaan. There AMRAN and his brothers had buried his 11 forefathers during the second campaign against the Canaanites 1729 BC (Jubilees46:9). He most plausibly went a second time from Egypt to Canaan in the time of his son MOSES' birth in order to prevent being forced to throw him into the Nile as described in the Book of the Yasher Chapter 65, in Jubilees 47:2 and in Acts 7:18. 1000 Hebrew male newborns were murdered that time. So only MOSES' mother Jocabeth and MOSES' sister MIRIAM are biblically present at the time of his birth. MOSES' birth happened in the seventh month of murder on all Hebrew male newborns commanded by Canaanite Pharaoh Apaknas (Exodus 1:16-22, Acts 7:23.30.36, Jubilees 47). According to rabbinical traditions the birth of the saviour of Israel out of bondage had been foretold before to Pharaoh by his soothsayers. The complete story turns out to be a foreshadow of the Messiah; In Pharaoh issued the cruel command to cast all Hebrew male children into the river (Exodus 1,22, c. Matthew 2). It was in the biblical year 1686 BC (1605 BC) when Hyksos King Apaknas initiated 7 months of murdering 1000 male newborn Israelites (Exodus 1:16-22 Jubilees 47,48:14). Bietak confirms an extremely high mortality of male newborns in Avaris around 1686 BC evidenced by a tremendous increase of newborn skeletons. The excavated contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40% thereafter.

MOSES was born (Exodus 2:2) after these seven months of male newborn mass-murdering. He was hidden at home for three months. Then he had to be hidden in a basket at the River Nile for seven days until according to Josephus and rabbinical traditions (Josephus, l.c. and Jubilees, l.c.) a great heat came over Egypt and all the royal and noble searched for refreshing in the Nile as like also Pharaoh's daughter. MOSES is found by Pharaoh's daughter MERIS/ Merestekhi/ Mereryt: Pharaoh Apaknas dies the same day and the new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan, the father of MERIS, will reign for 28 years.

Jubilees 47:2 says that even the Hebrew fathers themselves were forced to throw their own sons into the Nile full of crocodiles. Greek Jewish Saint Stephanos in Acts 7:18 relates on this tragedy in the Book of Jubilees, that Pharaoh "mistreated the fathers, so that they had to abandon their babies, so those didn't stay alive." In the Book of Jubilees they hid MOSES for three months at home and then for seven days in a basket at the Nile: In the night his mother breastfed him and in the day his sister guarded him. And because of the great summer heat the Canaanite elite who did not need to work regularly took a bath as custom in the cool river Nile. This led into the finding of MOSES by Pharaoh's daughter initiated by MOSES' sister Miriam; Like all Israelites she plausibly knew that  Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan’s daughter Tarmut/ Meris/ Mererit was very Hebrew friendly. This is already indicated in the Ethiopian Book of Jubilees 47:5: She was accompanied only by Hebrew maids as contemporarily known by the Israelites.

(Exodus 2:9) In MOSES' first 20 years his real mother Jocabet had been paid by his adoptive mother for raising up MOSES. ".. when the child was grown up, Jocabet brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and Moses did become her son." (Exodus 2:10) And Pharao’s daughter "called out his name". This is literally a legal act to be the entitled owner of the child. And she "called out his name Moses, saying 'for I have pulled him out of water.’" Thus the literal old Hebrew translation of the Bible reveals MOSES as being primarily an Egyptian name-calling. (In contrast, certain Egyptologists claim, they would have been the ones who allegedly revealed that MOSES would be an Egyptian name instead of a Hebrew name. They misuse this as an argument against the trustworthiness of the Bible allegedly claiming Moses would be an original Hebrew name.) MOSES in Egyptian means "child of" or "born out of". In Hebrew, it means "pulled out of" which reflects MOSES having been pulled out of the water as a newborn. MOSES is Israel's biggest hero and thus certainly became a popular Hebrew name up until today. For twenty years, from 1666 BC to 1646 BC MOSES lived a Prince's life first at the Palace of Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV and his first wife Meris/ Mereryt in Southern Egypt Thebes. "He was educated as the Queen's son" according to ancient historian Georgios Kedrenos. MERIS became Queen over complete Egypt. Holy Stephanos in the New Testaments confirms "MOSES was taught in all wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22).

(Picture above)
Avaris Northern Egypt - "late Hyksos period":
(Exodus 2:5)
Pharaoh's Daughter/ Canaanite Hyksos King Khayan's Daughter MERIS depicted with a princess diadem finds MOSES in the River Nile. She was a Canaanite Princess of a Hebrew friendly Hyksos King, she had Hebrew maidservants, she became the wife of a Hebrew Pharaoh, and she became the loving adoptive mother of a Hebrew slaves‘ son making him Prince of Egypt. So we can assume Pharaoh (Khayan) and his daughter (Meris) were Hebrew friendly.

(Picture below)
Avaris Northern Egypt - The "late Hyksos period":
A by Egyptologists so-called "Canaanite Hyksos"
Princess Diadem.
JOSEPH's wife
ASENATH was worshipped by the Egyptians as Zeneneth/ Inuit/ Henut, wife of Month/ Khnum, and she sometimes was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns. She was also merged with Isis, wife of Osiris (see Chapter Joseph): Was this diadem ASENATH's former Queen-Diadem later becoming the Diadem of MOSES' adoptive stepmother, biblical Pharaoh's daughter?


The Canaanite Hyksos King Apakhnas died directly the day MOSES was found and saved; then the 7 months of murder on one thousand male newborn Israelites ended. The next Canaanite Hyksos King Khayan reigned from 1686 until 1658 BC before Hyksos King Apophis usurped the throne and reigned for 41 years. The Hebrew Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV achieved a co-rulership role over complete reunited Egypt together with his father in law Pharaoh Khayan after he had married his princess daughter Meris.

The balance of power between both is revealed by Sobekhotep's IV titles and the contemporary Temple of Amun donation inscription in Thebes regarding his father-in-law Hyksos King Khayan: "the Ruler of the North has come to Thebes". 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location have been confirmed by the Egyptologists Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers as archeological proof for the simultaneous rulership of Khayan and Sobekhotep IV. They furthermore confirm Sobekhotep IV is also named Khanephere or Chenephres which is the name of MOSES' Pharaoh stepfather; Sobekhotep IV is the King Chenephrês of whom ancient historian Artapanus 1 BC says that he was "king of the regions above Memphis (for there were at that time many kings in Egypt)" in the lifetime of Moses (Euseb., Praepar. Evang. IX.27: see also Clement of Alexandria, Strom. I.23, 154). Sobekhotep IV and his brothers were placed timely behind Sobekhotep III in the Turin King List because Sobekhotep‘s III Brother-Quatro and Sobekhotep’s IV Brother-Trio have in common to call themselves Kingsons while none of their brothers being any son of a Pharaoh. Only the placement of the reign time of Khayan within the 15th Dynasty is debated between the Egyptologists; Logically without any success ... Only Robert Porter proposes a second option "that Sobekhotep IV reigned much later - eg. in the 17th Dynasty - than previously thought - in the 13th Dynasty." (Robert M. Porter: The Second Intermediate Period according to Edfu, Goettinger Mizsellen 239, 2013, p. 75-80).

Khayan was the last Canaanite King of Egypt who called himself officially Hyksos: He changed this as soon as he reunited and ruled over complete Egypt together with Sobekhotep IV. From then on he used Egyptian Pronomen and Nomen like the Southern Pharaohs (Kim Ryholt 1997, 124) already had done from the beginning of the 13th Dynasty on. Egyptologists mostly call his time the “15th Dynasty domination of Thebes” or the time when Thebes was "sacked by the Hyksos" in the time of change from
Khayan to Apophis. Kim Ryholt has to reduce this time to 2 years (compare Kim Ryholt 1997 186/189/190) in order to make his 17th Dynasty Chronology (without Neferhotep, Sithator and Sobekhotep IV, V, VI) work out somehow. The reason of Leading Egyptologists' for preventing a revision and correction of the order of Pharaohs of the 13th/ 17th Dynasty by repositioning Sobekhoteph's IV is their staying stuck in traditionally fixed not yet realized incorrect orderings, reign lengths, lacunae, and fictitious kings in the Turin King List  (compare Ryholt 1997 10,12,13,17). 

It is 1666 BC. 20 years after the mass murdering of all Hebrew male firstborns and his birth MOSES becomes officially the Son of the Queen's and Prince of Egypt. According to the ancient Historian of the 3rd century BC Artapanus, the adoptive mother of MOSES was Pharaoh's daughter called Meris/ Mereryt. She became the first wife of Pharaoh Khanephere already identified as Sobekhotep IV in the time of the northern Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan who is called by Artapanus in Greek "Palmanothes".

According to Stephen C. Meyer, Artapanus additionally confirmed the 17th and parallel 15th Dynasty as the time period when Egypt had the highest number of changing and parallel Pharaohs: "... for at that time there were many kings (more accurately translated: rulers) of Egypt ...". Artapanus clearly distinguished between a Northern Pharaoh who "treated the Jews badly" meaning the ongoing enslavement of Israel and a Southern Pharaoh "over the regions beyond Memphis" which mirrors exactly the situation of the Canaanite 15th Dynasty and the Southern Hebrew 17th Dynasty where all Hebrews were free. Sobekhotep IV is identified as Southern Egyptian Pharaoh "Chenephres who was King over the regions beyond Memphis." (Charlesworth 1985, p. 898).

Other name forms of MOSES' adoptive mother's name MERIS - a Greek form of the Egyptian name Mererit - in ancient sources are Mouthidis, Thermouthis (Josephus), Thermuthi, Ra'usa, Thermouth, or Termot (Book of Jubilees). Her body maids, who carried infant MOSES out of the water, were identified as "female Hebrews" in the Ethiopian translation of the Book of Jubilees. Mereryt was also the name of famous Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter, who married Ankhu/ EPHRAIM over one century earlier. MERIS' father’s ending of the 7 years enduring mass murder of Hebrew male firstborn infants, his daughter's name of a Hebrew King’s Queen, her Hebrew body maids, her falling in love with the Hebrew baby MOSES and her marriage to a Hebrew Southern Pharaoh altogether strongly speak for a phase of relief for Israel.

According to David Rohl's book "The Exodus" the first of Pharaoh Sobekhotep's IV sons is called Sobekhotep Miw spoken as "meow" which would also be a pet name for a cat. David Rohl thinks this is a probable hypocoristic for the fuller name MOSES. Kim Ryholt identifies Mio with Prince Sobekhotep on the Wadi el-Hudi stela. The ancient historian Josephus cites Queen MERIS saying to her husband King Sobekhotep IV "I have brought up a child who is of a divine form... I thought proper to adopt him for my son, and the heir to thy kingdom!". The marriage between Khayan's daughter MERIS and Sobekhotep IV was obviously connected with a deal: The power-seeking Vassall Pharaoh promised the inheritance of his kingdom to his career enabling wife's adoptive son (MOSES) Miw. He publicly presented him as his first and eldest Kingson and successor: Miw is confirmed as eldest Kingson and successor on the Wadi Hammamat stela according to Kim Ryholt (Ryholt 1997, p. 230). Later on Sobekhotep IV and MERIS had two own blood children together. They were called Sobekhotep/ Djadja and Haankhef/ Ikarnofret. However Sobekhotep IV married after his 8th regnal year (compare Ryholt 1997, p.230) a second now fully Hebrew wife and had a son Amenhotep and a daughter Nebtiunet with her. Her Egyptian name was Tjin or Tjan. Nebtiunet will be later identified as second named Tetisheri in the passage explaining the period of the 17th Dynasty of the Ahmosides.




(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the start of Chapter Moses and Joseph in order to be able to easier follow the coming textual pieces of information.)

We have to jump back now to the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion and the beginning of Israel's Enslavement in the year 1729 BC:

According to Hayes in the time of the Hyksos Invasion in Avaris at the end of the 13th Dynasty in Avaris, the Hebrew royal court fleed to Thebes in Southern Egypt (Hayes JNES 12, 31-39; Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, 71-78). The time between JOSEPH and MOSES was a time of doom for the people of Israel. Furthermore it was a tough challenging time for EPHRAIM (Ankhu) and his sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH (Resseneb and Iymeru-Aya); They tried to save whoever and whatever can be saved fleeing with their royal court to EPHRAIM's brother MANASSE’s (Senebefni’s) sons. In the three years of battle against the besieging Canaanite Hyksos EPHRAIM’s sons took over the 16th Dynasty.

Since the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion of 1729 BC Vizierking Ankhu’s name (EPHRAIM) is inscribed as Thebes palace official namein the Papyrus Boulaq 18 of 1750 BC; Furthermore there is a letter and a royal decree addressed to "Ankhu, the office of the reporter of the Southern City Thebes" mentioned in the Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 of 1743 BC. Ankhu (EPHRAIM) appearently died within the decade of the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion. Resseneb (biblical SHUTELAH) and therafter his brother Iymeru-Aya (biblical BERIAH) become his Vizierking successors. Much later in the time of MOSES as Egyptian Prince 1666-1646 BC MOSES' stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep's Vizier was called Neferkare Iymeru or Ayameru II. His Hebrew name was REFACH (1 Chronicles 7:25). He was the first son of BERIAH (Iymeru Aya). EPHRAIM’s second son BERIAH is archeologically evidenced as a King by his second son Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh (RESEPH according to 1 Chronicles 7:25) who is inscripted as a "Kingson"; He is the grandson of the archeologically attested Vizier “King” Ankhu “Senowsret” (EPHRAIM). Therefore he was the great grandson of the archeologically authentificated Vizier “King Zamonth”/ “King Khnumhotep” (JOSEPH). According to Genesis 50:23 JOSEPH's great grandson REFACH back when he was a baby still belonged to the children who were sitting on JOSEPH's knees. Growing up he still fulfilled in line with his forefathers the prophecy of Father JACOB on EPHRAIM and his seed in Genesis 48:19. So JOSEPH's Vizierking's 13th Dynasty Line of Shepherd Kings did not end with the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion and the Enslavement of the people of Israel in Northern Egypt; It went on as a parallel counter later even cooperative Dynasty of Southern Pharaohs in Thebes. Finally REFACH (Neferkare-Iymeru or Ayameru II) was the last Hebrew Vizierking of JOSEPH's line in Egypt. He later lost his weakened Kingship and was reduced by Pharaohking Sobekhotep IV to the King's Vizier. His lifetime latest ended in the time of MOSES fleeing to Midian 1646 BC.

Regarding the different Vizier names of EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH and BERIAH's son REFACH Egyptologists have not yet realized (like already explained for JOSEPH names in the last Chapter) that the Viziers in these times as a matter of fact were the real lifelong rulers in other words the real Kings of now Southern Egypt instead of the yearly rotating Hebrew Pharaohs of JOSEPH's family clan. Therefore they naturally like every real King in other words lifelong ruler of Egypt owned several different names. This is plausibly recognizable in BERIAH's two Viziernames Iymerew and Aya which melted together into the Viziername Aya-merew (if Iy and Aya are not the same hieroglyphic writing anyway). Aya-merew also became his son's Neferkare Iymerew's (REFACH's) second name (if not written the same anyway). He was secondly called Ayameru II. The same thing had happened to JOSEPH's names ZaMonth and KhnumHotepwhich melted together into MonthHotep. Long single names like Amenemhet melted down into Ameny. Sowith EPHRAIM's Viziernames Senwosret Ankhu and Ameny Ankhu (inherited from his father JOSEPH named Senwosret Ankh or Amenemhet Ankh in the 12th Dynasty) most plausibly had melted down into one of his archeologically evidenced contemporary Viziernames Ameny. (compare with the start of Chapter Joseph).

According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies),
MANASSE's (Senebefni-Ibiaw's) son's are derivable by Numbers 26, Joshua 17, and 1 Chronicles 7: Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead. So the author proposes primarily the Joshua 17 names corrected a bit by 1 Chronicles 7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. This understanding of all three biblical sources is mostly confirmed by archeological evidence. (In order to prove things check https://www.thetorah.com/article/manassehs-genealogies-why-they-change-between-numbers-joshua-and-chronicles)





According to Kim Ryholt the second Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti: His wife was called Montuhotep. This way she revealed indications belonging to JOSEPH's lineage. Actually EPHRAIM‘s not biblically named further brothers counted as belonging to EPHRAIM according to Father JACOB's blessings and his dispensation of the Promised Land. Djehuti seems to be the second Pharaoh of Thebes or Southern Egpyt because the first Pharaoh’s name did get lost: He most plausibly was MANASSE’s third son ASRIEL. In that time (after JOSEPH's death and before the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion) Thebes was no longer ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier: MANASSE's son HELEQ called Vizier Senebhenef had become new Mayor and Vizier of Thebes. MANASSE and his other sons settled after JOSEPH's death for 8 years in Avaris in order to gain compensation for MANASSE's lost birthright of Kingship: this happened in form of Pharaoh reign times for his sons. They tried to take over the Kingship medium term (see Chapter Joseph headline JOSEPH'S DEATH AND MANASSE'S BIRTHRIGHT CLAIMS).

Thus the first by Egyptian name known 16th Dynasty Pharaoh of Thebes was Djehuti the son-in-law of Thebes' new Mayor and Vizier Senebhenef (HELEQ). The time came that HELEQ could realize, that his brothers in the North did not seem anymore to become successful in trying to take over the rulership over complete Egypt in order to fight back the birthrights of their father: HELEQ decided as Mayor and Vizier of Thebes to additionally announce himself as Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt Sobekhotep VIII. This way he was able to avoid any claims of his brothers onto the throne as former Pharaohs as soon as they had returned from Northern Egypt.

1729 BC:
The year of the Hyksos Invasion was also the year of EPHRAIM's flight with his 13th Dynasty Family Clan to Thebes to his deceased brother MANASSE’s clan. MANASSE's son HELEQ  meanwhile obviously had lost his power as ruler of the town Thebes either in the battles against the Canaanites or simply by his natural death as he was already over 80 years old.

It takes 24 further years for MANASSE's lineage to get back on the throne of Thebes again.

This leads into the rough Pharaoh order 
1) Further grandsons of JOSEPH
2) SHUTELAH's sons & grandson 
3) BERIAH's son & grandson and
4) MANASSE's sons & grandsons.




1774-1714 BC
Inscription translational options: 

a) Speaker of (the) Vizier

 (He is named) Senwosret 

b) Speaker of Vizier Senwosret

This man is wearing the outfit and the wig of a Vizier introduced as standard by Zamonth (JOSEPH)  who like his son Ankhu (EPHRAIM) was additionally named Senwosret

a) Ankhu’s son Resseneb most likely followed this tradition 

b) However Egyptologists presume Ankhu to be the meant Vizier (Oppenheim, Ancient Egypt, p. 260).

So in all probabilities together we are seeing here Vizier Senwosret Resseneb (biblical SHUTELAH), son and speaker of Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu (biblical EPHRAIM) and later even himself Vizierking over Southern Egypt.

c. 1750-1700 BC

Neferhotep son of Resseneb 

(BERED son of SHUTELAH) and OsirisKing Monthuhotep (biblical JOSEPH) may give offerings for the Ka of Neferhotep …

Neferhotep is dressed in a Vizier‘s robe. So in all probability we are seeing here Vizier Neferhotep (biblical BERED), the son of Vizierking Resseneb (biblical SHUTELAH) who’s Viziership counts 26 years and who’s parallel rulership as Pharaoh Nebiryraw I counts 10 years. (See table at the start of this chapter)




1729 BC:

The year of the Hyksos Invasion was also the year of EPHRAIM's flight with his 13th Dynasty Family Clan into Southern Egypt to his brother MANASSE’s clan ruling in Thebes. The last northern Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty Pharaoh Djethotepre Dedumose was enthroned by Vizierking Ankhu (EPHRAIM). As the new Pharaoh of Thebes he was newly named Djedneferre Dedumose. Another option would be that Pharaoh Djethotepre had been killed by the Canaanite invader Samuquenu and his son Djedneferre became his successor in the 16th Dynasty of Thebes. 

The next two Pharaohs were Neferhotep III and Monthotepi. Pharaoh Sekhemre Sankhtawi Neferhotep’s III inscriptions „adorned with the Kephresh (the blue war crown)“, „saving from famine“ "my city … victorious Thebes", and „having been sunk through strife with foreigners“ speak for him having defended a Northern Hyksos siege war. Succeeding Pharaoh Seankhenre Monthotepi inscribed claimes himself as "King within Thebes ... my city" who was „driving back the foreign lands“ = the Northern Canaanite Hyksos. Furthermore Neferhotep III insribed claimed: "Thebes is my city" andMonthotepi even evidencedc claimed "I am the KING within Thebes".
These are clear indications of claiming their right for Kingship as successful war winning Pharaohs; Therefore in contrast Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu (EPHRAIM) had to take care that his father Zamonth’s (JOSEPH's) idea of a strong Vizierkingship Dynasty with weak Pharaohs was saved somehow …

It seems plausible that when EPHRAIM had fled to Thebes with his royal family clan, Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Samuquenu with his army chased after them in order to conquer Thebes by a siege war. Interesting and remarkable enough however this evidence for the Southern 16th Dynasty NOT being an Egyptian Dynasty but instead being a Foreign Dynasty: Manetho (cited by Josephus) states Hyksos Pharaoh Salitis „found a city very favourably … called Auaris after an ancient religious tradition. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier. Here he would come in summer-time, partly to serve out rations and pay his troops, partly to train them carefully in manoeuvres and so strike terror into FOREIGN tribes.“

So these appear to be the last life years of 100 years old EPHRAIM (Vizierking Ankhu) trying to ensure his firstborn son SHUTELAH's throne succession by reestablishing his yearly Pharaoh rotation system of the 13th Dynasty. After EPHRAIM had died in 1726 BC SHUTELAH became Vizierking Resseneb and stabilized his new kingship by announcing his son Neferhotep (biblical BERED acc. to 1 Chronicles 7:20) as lifetime long Vizier and by enthroning him as parallely co-ruling Pharaoh for the next 10 years: BERED is named Pharaoh Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I. Seals of him in Northern Lisht speak for a meanwhile established diplomatic relationship with the Canaanite Northern Hyksos. Furthermore Resseneb's (SHUTELAH's) list of from Canaanites purchased Hebrew escaped and recaptured slaves (see Brooklyn Papyrus passage) speaks for meanwhile established diplomatic relations with the Canaanites.

The two last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 16th Dynasty 
are most plausibly grandsons of JOSEPH's grandson BERIAH

1697 BC
Pharaoh Senwosret IV

His king's beard is a token for lifelong highest rulership and reveals his ambitions to take over the kingship of his dying grandfather in rivalry to his uncle Vizierprince Neferkare Ayamerew II (REFACH)

1696 BC 
Pharaoh Monthotep VI 




In the last two years before his death, SHUTELAH (Vizierking Resseneb) ensures that his brother BERIAH becomes his successor as promised to his father EPHRAIM. He reestablishes the yearly Pharaoh rotation system to weaken the power of Pharaoh: His grandsons, BERED's sons TAHATH (1 Chronicles 7:20) named Pharaoh Nebiryraw II and ERAN (Numbers 26:36) named Pharaoh Semenre are allowed to "rule" as Pharaohs for one year each before their grandfather dies and their brother becomes his successor. BERIAH (Iyumeru-Aya) repeats the stabilizing actions of his brother SHUTELAH: He stabilized his new kingship by enthroning his son RESEPH (1 Chronicles 7,25) as co-ruling Pharaoh for the next 12 years. RESEPH is named Pharaoh Sewoserenre Bebiankh. He is archeologically evidenced as "Kingson". This evidence corroborates his father Vizier Iyumeru-Aya or Ayameru being Vizierking of Southern Egypt. BERIAH (Iyumeru-Aya) repeats the same stabilizing action of his twin brother SHUTELAH in his last years before his death: he destabilizes Pharaoh's power by reestablishing the traditional Pharaoh rotation system. His grandson, RESEPH's (Pharaoh Bebiankh's) son THELAH (1 Chronicles 7:25) becomes the first yearly Pharaoh and three more yearly Pharaohs suceed until BERIAH's death.

Nevertheless all these precautions cannot avoid the troubles which occurred with BERIAH's death. The troubles are rooted in the one decade earlier deceased twin brother SHUTELAH's widow Senebtisi. Senebtisi was the archeologically evidenced "Lady of the House" who employed biblical midwife Shipra in her palace. Shipra had disobeyed the Hebrew male firstborn murder commandment of first Canaanite Hyksos Pharoh Samuquemu. In 1750 BC JOSEPH gave Senebtisi as wife to his son SHUTELAH (Resseneb). She had been the young widow of MANASSE's illegitimate firstborn son of an Aramean concubine (1 Chronicles 7:14). He was biblically called MACHIR.
MACHIR was named Nehy in Egyptian. He most likely was killed in the first battle against the Canaanite Hyksos 1530 BC. His firstborn son of Senebtisy was named Haankhef. He is biblically named PERESH. PERESH (Haankhef) first fails to assert his resulting claim to Pharao’s throne against his stepbrothers the sons of SHUTELAH (Resseneb). Secondly he fails to his resulting claim to the Vizierkingship's throne when BERIAH (Iyumeru Aya) dies; BERIAH's son REFACH (Neferkare-Iyumeru or Ayameru II) avoids PERESH’s attempts to take over the throne by an alliance with MANASSSE's legitimate lineage: The deal is REFACH becomes Vizierking and MANASSE's legitimate lineage become Pharaohs.  For a second time in Israel's history this leads into the dilemma of EPHRAIM's king's lineage standing again in rivalry to MANASSE's Pharaoh lineage. And the king's beard of the sculpture (see next photo) of first Pharaoh Sobekemsaf I, MANASSE‘s 5th son SHEMIDA (Numbers 26:32) reveals already that he is standing in rivalry with the Vizierking …

According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's sons are derivable by Numbers 26, Joshua 17, and 1 Chronicles 7. Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua 17 corrected marginally by 1 Chronicles 7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Therefore MANASSE would have had one son with an Aramean concubine called MACHIR and five other sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible but evidenced by his statue: MANASSE’s five sons are AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA.

In the timetable at the start of this Chapter, You can see the biblical identification of the Pharaohs of the 16th and 17th Dynasty according to 

A) Archeological evidenced relationships according to Kim Ryholt (1997 Second Intermediate Period tables 42/45 pages 202/024) 
B) Established enthronement order traditions of the 13th Dynasty according to Chapter Joseph 
C) Biblical orders & relationships.

This leads into the rough Pharaoh order 

1) Further grandsons of JOSEPH

2) SHUTELAH's sons & grandson 

3) BERIAH's son & grandson and

4) MANASSE's sons & grandsons.

Vizierking Neferkare Iymerew also named Ayamerew II (REFACH)
in the biblical Egyptian standard Vizierking outfit since Joseph 

Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the first third of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes:  

MANASSE's legitimate lineage of his Egyptian wife
(1 Chronicles 7:20.25)

1694-1691 BC:
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Sobekemsaf I
is MANASSE‘s 5th son SHEMIDA (Numbers 26:32). His king's beard reveals his obviously failed attempt to claim REFACH‘s (Neferkare Iymerew‘s) kingship for himself.

1684-1683 BC:
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Antef VI
is a grandson Sobekemsaf I

1682-1677 BC:
17th Dynasty Pharaoh 
Antef VII
is the brother of Antef VI

1677 BC:
17th Dynasty Pharaoh
Antef VIII
is the brother-in-law of Antef VII



We are discovering and learning in the following passages about three different phases of the 17th Dynasty and how EPHRAIM’s lineage’s Hebrew theocracy (already polluted with Egyptian idolatry) was taken over by MANASSE‘s lineage‘s Hebrew-Egyptian fully idolatrous „Anti-JHWH“ and „Pro-Amun“ religious rulership: Chapter Joseph headlined passage JOSEPH‘S SON MANASSE reveals the historical roots of this apostasy: The decline of JOSEPH‘s originally established Vizierkingship is also the decline of Israel’s theocracy in the 13th Dynasty later becoming the 16th Dynasty of Egypt; The faith in JHWH declines more and more into a suppressed underground faith of last parts of enslaved Israel …

Archeologically excavated destroyed temples in and around Thebes are interpreted by leading Egyptologists as proving evidence for Hyksos attacks on the 17th Dynasty and the 17th Dynasty being "sacked by the Hyksos": It will later in this Chapter be revealed as archeological evidence for the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Biblical Plagues at the end of the 17th Dynasty destroying their temples and idols confirmed by the Ahmose Storm Stele and the Ypuwer Papyrus.

The descendants of MANASSE's son HELEQ (Vizier Senebhenef, later Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII) and of his son SHEMIDA (Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I) were dominating the first half of the 17th Dynasty as Pharaohs: They were the first 7 Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes and represented MANASSE's legitimate lineage according to 1 Chronicles 7:20.25. They had a more far reaching Egyptian female lineage than EPHRAIM's lineage and were  physically, religiously, and culturally more "egyptianised". They demonstrate strong ambitions for power through their marriages into the royal lineage of EPHRAIM and through archeologically evidenced cooperations with the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaohs always seeking for the highest power. This finally resulted in success in the second phase of the 17th Dynasty, the time of MANASSE's great grandson ULAM named Pharaoh Sobekhote IV. In this phase the downfall of the Vizierkingship of Ephraim's lineage was introduced and hence the downfall of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings of Egypt at all ...

Antef VII or VIII, in a decree deposing an official traitor in Coptos, gives an unvarnished picture of the intrigues of that time; He curses any future pharaoh or king in Egypt who should pardon the traitor’s guilty and adds to the curse that no such pharaoh ever shall become “master of the entire country” (cf. Breasted 1957 p. 145). ULAM later Pharaoh Khaneferre Sobekhotep I and fiancé of Hyksos King Khaya’s daughter is the only contemporary candidate to ever become “lord of the whole country” of Egypt in the future and is therefore heavily suspected of having been the adressed initiator of this intrigue …

The last Hebrew Pharaohs or Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty:

MANASSE's illegitimate lineage of his Aramean concubine 1 Chronicles 7:16

REKEM & ULAM (Pharaoh Neferhotep I & Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV) are self-acclaimed "Kingsons" of PERESH (Haankhef) son of MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR (Nehy). 

1677-1666 BC 

REKEM (Pharaoh Neferhotep I) of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage

1666-1641 BC 

ULAM (Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV) of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage

1641-1638 BC

ULAM’s firstborn son of his wife Meris Sobekhotep Djadja later named Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep V of MANASSE‘s illegitimate lineage receives the promised throne.

1638-1633 BC
ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan is named Amenhotep and biblically called BEDAN and archeologically evidenced as Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI.



In 1677 BC nine year old MOSES grows up as adopted son of Pharao’s daughter in his own Hebrew family in the huge Hebrew slave town Avaris in Northern Egypt under the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Kingship of Khayan until he becomes 20 years old: 1666 BC MOSES becomes the official first son and heir of Southern Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV. This was the precondition of Sobekhotep‘s career-enhancing marriage with biblical Pharao’s daughter Meris; This marriage made him son-in-law of Canaanite Hyksos Pharao Khayan and co-ruling Pharaoh over complete Egypt. Hence the time of the second third of the 17th Dynasty is the time of MOSES as Prince of Egypt and here comes the historical background of this biblical time phase:

The Bible mentions in 1 Chronicles 7:14 an Aramean concubine as first but illegitimate wife of MANASSE: Her son is called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons are PERESH and SHERESH. Their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, which is the region, their tribes later lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM. ULAM has a son called BEDAN. All three will be identified as the Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty. Sobekhotep IV (ULAM), the son of Haankhef (PERESH) was a grandson of Nehy who following the archeologicall evidence in Chapter Joseph appears to be the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE called MACHIR. His lineage shows strong ambitions for power and the explicit claim for the King's throne as natural birthright of MANASSE ...

ULAM (Hebrew Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV) made sure that an inscription attests that EPHRAIM‘s grandson REFACH the former Southern Vizierking meanwhile degraded to King Sobekhotep's Vizier Neferkare Iymeru "sacrificed before him as his King". This is the latest evidence for the intrafamilial old rivalry between EPHRAIM and MANASSE and their lineages. Following JOSEPH's footsteps EPHRAIM (Ankhu) appointed both of his sons as Viziers: This way biblical BERIAH (Iymeru Aya) succeded his older brother biblical SHUTELAH (Resseneb). BERIAH (Iymeru Aya) appointed his own son REFACH (Neferkare Iymerew) as succeeding Vizier and obviously NOT the first son of SHUTELAH’s (Resseneb’s) wife Senebtisy with her first husband MANASSE's illegitimate son MACHIR (Nehy) who was called PERESH (Haankhef). Haankhef's mentioned strong ambitions towards the King's throne can be deduced from his sons‘ later attempts to honor him by proclaiming themselves Kingsons. Haankhef's mother is also identified as the Lady of the House Senebtisy in the already mentioned Brooklyn Papyrus (c. Ryholt 1997, p. 226). After her first husband MACHIR (Nehy) had fallen in the first war against the Canaanite Hyksos JOSEPH took care for her and remarried her with his son SHUTELAH (Resseneb).

This is further evidence of the rivalry between EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's lineage, this time between  Haankhef's (PERESH's) son Sobekhotep IV (ULAM) and Iymeru Aya's (BERIAH's) son Neferkare Iymerew(REFACH).
The rivalry conflict resolution compromises of Neferkare-Iymerew or Ayamerew II (REFACH) did let the sons of Haankhef (PERESH) become Pharaohs. This lead to mid-term Dynasty weakening power struggles and to the shift of power from Vizierkings back to the Pharaohkings with Haankhef's (PERESH's) son Sobekhotep IV (ULAM). Haankhef was obviously seen by his sons as legitimate successor of JOSEPH’s firstborn son MANASSE and his firstborn son MACHIR and sowith as legitamite birthright lifelong ruler and king over Egypt revealed by naming themselves "Kingsons". Father Haankhef was also called "Royal Sealer" by his sons. This means he was the only archeologically evidenced Royal Sealer of Thebes since MANASSE (Senebefni) who inherited this title from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR (Khnumhotep II): MANASSE and PERESH both owned the title Royal Sealer in combination with the title Highpriest. So Haankhef (PERESH) has to be the grandson of Senebefni Ibiaw (MANASSE). Haankhef's title Father of Gods “it-ntr” is already known from Monthhotep (JOSEPH) the by Egyptians hero-worshipped Ruler over Egypt in inscriptions of his son Wepwauthotep later named Pharaoh Sobekhoteph III. It is also known from Ankhu (EPHRAIM) as Father of Gods in his biographical inscriptions (Blumenthal ZAS 114, 35, Nachträge A). So JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE (Senebefni-Ibiaw) was viewed by his illegitimate son MACHIR (Nehy) and his grandson PERESH (Haankhef) as only legitimate heir of JOSEPH's title Father of God's in contrast to JOSEPH's second-born son EPHRAIM (Ankhu) who in fact archeologically evidenced contrawise proclaimed this title for himself: And indeed, EPHRAIM did NOT become a direct blood father of any "godlike" Pharaoh: SHUTELAH and BERIAH became Vizierkings and his two further sons ESER and ELEAD died early in a fight against JOSEPH’s brother GAD's lineage (1 Chronicles 7:21). ESER’s early death is archeologically matching the early death of Vizier Ankhu’s son evidenced by a small sculptural figure. However according to Father JACOB's blessing all further sons of JOSEPH had to be counted as belonging to EPHRAIM. These brothers and their sons indeed became  "godlike" Pharaohs in view of the egyptians. Nevertheless PERESH (Haankhef) obviously claimed the title Father of God's for HIS grandfather MANASSE and sowith furthermore for himself. Because of MANASSE having been the first son of JOSEPH, he always must have rejected Israel’s divine blessing, prophecy and order. He must have always claimed to be the natural and thus real legal heir of JOSEPH's kingship and this claim obviously went on through all generations of MANASSE's lineage: The sons of PERESH (Haankhef) then finally managed to transform their traditional claim to the King's throne into a switch from a Vizierking Dynasty back into a Pharaohking Dynasty latest when ULAM (Sobekhotep IV) managed to marry MOSES' Canaanite-Hebrew adoptive mother MERIS daughter of Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan: This way he was able to arise as co-ruling Pharaohking over complete Egypt. The beforehand already also self-called Kingsons are named Pharaoh Neferhotep I (Pharaoh Sobekhotep's IV brother) and Pharaoh Sihathor (Neferhotep's I son). Their title Kingsons claims MANASSE's lineage to be due to the original birthright of the firstborn the only true legal lineage of King JOSEPH's throne contrarily to EPHRAIM's lineage.

Latest when Sobekhotep IV became Khayan's co-ruling Pharaoh over complete Egypt and EPHRAIM's grandson REFACH (Neferkare Iymerew) was degraded to his Vizier, the balance of power had finally fully switched: Now the Hebrew Vizier had archeologically evidenced to sacrifice before the Hebrew Pharaoh, the self-acclaimed "godlike" Pharaoh and King. This owned a bitter taste of humiliation and forced idolatry for REFACH. According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226), archeological evidence suggests that Sobkehotep's IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun (like his great grandfather MANASSE); For instance one of his sons is evidenced named Amun-hotep. As Highpriest of Thebes Senebefni Ibiaw (MANASSE) was also the leader of the cult of Amun so there seems to be sufficient archeological evidence consequently resulting in the conclusion that Haankhef's father Nehy has to be the biblical illegitimate son of Manasse called MACHIR.

As already explained in the passage revealing the enslavement phases the end of the Book of Genesis  unveals JOSEPH‘s prophecy that G‘d will let afflictions come down on Israel before he will lead Israel out of Egypt to the Promised Land; JOSEPH must have haf a vision of this future affliction while EPHRAIM‘s grandson REFACH and MACHIR‘s twin son PERESH are brought as newborns upon his knees in the time before his death in Genesis 50:23. This leads to the question why does MOSES the writer not simply talk about EPHRAIM‘s & MANASSE‘s grandsons? Why does he explicitly point to MANASSE‘s illegitimate firstborn son MACHIR‘s lineage? The answer is, because JOSEPH did not only forsee the affliction (up into the fourth generation according to Exodus 20:5 and Deutoronomy 5:9) of his people by their future enslavement due to their committed idolatry; He also saw all rivalry conflicts and finally the future downfall of JOSEPH‘s royal lineage and its kingship in Egypt. This downfall is caused by the rivalry and fight for the throne between the lineages of MANASSE and EPHRAIM. It culminates in the fight between MACHIR’s son PERESH (Haankhef) and EPHRAIM’s grandson REFACH (Neferkare) which is followed by the downfall of the Vizierkingship of JOSEPH‘s lineage (loyal to the G’d of Israel) in favor of the Pharaohkingship of MACHIR‘s lineage (lost in MANASSE‘s idolatry).
JOSEPH must have forseen this future holding the future opponents little REFACH
(Neferkare) and little PERESH (Haankhef) both on his knees and observing them. This way the tribes of JOSEPH‘s ten brothers who sold him into slavery became themselves afflicted through the yoke of slavery for their forefathers‘ sins and their own idolatry. JOSEPH‘s own lineage was contrarily spared from slavery. However the royal lineage of JOSEPH became afflicted by external and internal fights for the throne due to their more (MANASSE) or less (EPHRAIM) involvement in idolatry. The different afflictions of the people of Israel did not end before the fullfillment of the Lord’s judgement for idolatry and other hated sins like intrigues (see Zechariah 8:17); This judgement is proclaimed in Exodus 20:5, Deutoronomy 5:9, and especially in Deutoronomy 32‬:‭36:

„For Hashem shall judge His people,
and only then will take peaty for His ones,
when He sees that their power is gone and none left,
neither for slave nor for free.“
‭‭Devarim‬ ‭32‬:‭36‬ ‭
The Orthodox Jewish Bible 2011‬‬

After Sobekhotep‘s IV (ULAM‘s) death in 1635 BC his firstborn son of his wife MERIS called Djadja and named Sobekhotep  became Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep V. By this ULAM‘s marriage promise to MERIS originally related to MOSES namely to make her son heir to his kingdom was finally nonetheless fullfilled. After three years Djadja died all of a sudden making way for ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan. He was biblically called BEDAN and is archeologically evidenced as Amenhotep; He named himself Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI and ruled for 5 years.

The switchback from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty weakened Israel's 17th Dynasty extraordinary: After the Canaanite Hyksos King Apophis had usurped the throne and broken up the Canaanite-Hebrew Co-Rulership of Khayan and his son-in-law Sobekhotep IV in order to avoid a Hebrew takeover of the Canaanite Kingship over Egypt and finally after Sobekhotep‘s VI death, the Egyptian Ahmosides took advantage of the Southern Dynasty weakness and reestablished an Egyptian Southern Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs; They had been dreaming already for a long time of the reestablishment of the old Middle Kingdom of Egyptian Pharaoh Power over complete Egypt and over ALL the Semitic foreigners they meanwhile hated desperately after all. Since the Semitic Co-Rulership of the Canaanite and Hebrew Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV, the Egyptians latest made no distinction anymore between the two different Semitic peoples: They altogether had become meanwhile hated foreigners and the term Hyksos latest now had changed from Shepherd Kings into the meanwhile solely negatively connoted meaning Foreign Rulers. The Egyptians had finally become overall antisemites now, archeologically confirmed by nearly no 15th, 16th, or 17th Dynasty burials having survived as non destroyed graves. The only exceptions are the Egyptian Ahmoside graves (Ryholt 1997, p. 167).

Khayan's and his son and crown prince Yanassi's sudden disappearance in Egyptian History together with Apophis' sudden throne usurpation leads to the question if at least Khayan’s son died an unnatural death and if his death was connected with the successful coup of Apophis or rather with a previous failed coup of Sobekhotep IV to achieve the sole power over complete Egypt. Furthermore the crownprince and son of Sobekhotep’s IV brother standing in his way to power disappeared suddenly in Egyptian history. Crown Prince Sithathors sudden death after his coregency for one year made his father Pharaoh Neferhotep I (REKEM) letting his brother Sobekhotep IV (ULAM) become his coregent and finally his throne successor indicating his lost motivation to rule anymore or his also abrupt death …
And crown prince Sobekhotep Mio
MOSES also had to flee to escape death. This altogether leads to the question if Sobekhotep IV killed two crown princes standing in his way and also tried to kill a third rival crown prince - MOSES - who finally had to flee from death out of Egypt …

1666-1646 BC:
Former Vizierking now degraded to Vizier Neferkare Iymerew (REFACH) WITHOUT the King's beard. He was the grandson of Vizierking Ankhu (EPHRAIM), son of Vizierking Zamonth (JOSEPH), brother of LEVI, great-grandfather of MOSES.

(1732-1720 BC)
1666-1641 BC:
Pharaohking Sobekhotep IV (ULAM)
WITH the King's beard as the token 
for lifelong highest rulership.

He was a great-grandson of Senebefni (MANASSE) and the stepfather of Crownprince Sobekhotep Mio (MOSES). 



The time of the Canaanite Hebrew Co-Rulership above Egypt of Khayan and his son-in-law Sobekhotep IV (stepfather of Moses) is also counting the first eight years of MOSES’ Crownprinceship in Egypt. Then Khayan dies and the Cananite throne usurpator Apophis degrades Sobekhotep IV back into his Southern Egyptian Vasall Pharaoh position. And Israel’s slavework burdens (Exodus 2:11) reworsened again. After 12 more years Moses decides to visit his suffering people:

Lahun in Fayum is identified by old local rabbinical scriptures as the biblical Hebrew slave workers' town Phytom. Lahun owns an archeologically evidenced Semitic workers' ghetto separated by walls from the wealthy part of the town. Many male newborn skeletons were found buried under the house floors of the ghetto confirming Pharaoh Apakhnas commanded biblical killing of all Hebrew male newborns. Lahun was near the border between Northern Egypt and Southern Egypt. The North was ruled by Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Apophis and the South was ruled by Prince Sobekhotep Miw's (MOSES's) stepfather Hebrew Shepherd King Sobekhotep IV (ULAM) when MOSES was 40 years old. So Lahun was the most easily accessible Hebrew slavework place reachable for MOSES who was living in Southern Egypt. Thus it is the most plausible place where MOSES should have visited his "suffering brothers" to check their working conditions.

In Exodus 2:11 and Jubilees 47:10 MOSES was 40/41 years old when he went out to the "AH" the “belonging” of his people. While in the Greek Septuagint AH is translated as “adelphoi” itis biblically translated into english as “brothers”. However this can by no means be taken as proving evidence for MOSES having several different blood brothers; Because AARON is his only brother, a fact no Christian has ever been questioning up until today. In other biblical cases the potentially misleading translation into his brothers instead of into his belonging ones as a matter of fact had a crucial impact on Christianity one and a half millenia later what makes this knowledge critically relevant; Even the Greek translation of the Aramaic or Hebrew original his “belonging ones” into his “adelphos” does not lead into the unequivocal identification of anyones blood brother like it seems to do in English or German. In the Greek case adelphoi is still primarily used as a short term for any relatives. The English word brother (primarily meaning blood brother) like also cousin never existed as any word in the old Hebrew or Aramaic language and that was the mother tongue of biblical authors. The Hebrew word AH has to be translated depending on the case as belonging one or close one, close or distant relative, family member or familiar one, cohabitation member or close neighbour, tribesman or national comrade, close friend or allied comrade. Even familiar foreigners or believe community members were called AH. Similar in Greek. An unequivocal blood brother in the English or German primary but even also not exclusive understanding has to be confirmed by the term “Son of” followed by the name of the common father. The mother's name clarifies different mothers and the same father or different unexpected fathers. But in this case usually the different fathers' names follow (see Proverbs 30:4, Psalm110:1 and 109:1,3 and Mathew 22:41-46; 1:16; 27:56). An exception can be a hereditary adoptive son in law who married a sonless father's daughter as it happens in Luke 3:24. According to Torah based Jewish law a widow with sons could be adopted by no one else to accommodate her and care for her than only by her blood sons who have the exclusive duty and right to accommodate and care for her. Only a widow without living children could be adopted by relatives or close ones for shelter and care (compare John 19:26-27).

The Jewish expected Messiah is rabbinically also called the Son of Joseph, the Moshiach Ben Yoseph: JOSEPH is in Egypt is rabbinically seen as a Foreshadow of the Messiah's waging war against the evil forces and of his suffering, dying and arising in Psalm 89 & 22. BENYAMIN is the only full-blood brother of JOSEPH. Genesis 46:22 identifies them both as two of twelve brothers and as Sons of JACOB. But on the other hand, they are also identified as their mother RACHEL‘s two only sons. This way they are biblically identified as two full-blood brothers. The word AH or adolphoi is not able to clarify this matter. Then mother RACHEL is from her time up until today adored and praised as the matriarchal spiritual Mother of Israel and the most influential Advocate for jewish believers. She is called for intercession towards the Almighty for example in case of a mother's strong desire to have children (compare Luke 1:48). And King SOLOMON is the Son of DAVID and the Son of his Queenmother BATHSHEBA. SOLOMON‘s brother is called Adonia the “son of” Haggit in 1 Kings 2:13 in order to reveal their different mothers. This Adonia makes intercession to his King's Queenmother as the most influential advocate of the empire because he is knowing that the King will not refuse the advocacy of his Queenmother as the Word of G'd says in 1 Kings 2:16,20. The Kingdom of Israel - later seperated into Israel and Judah - lasted for half a millennium from 1096 to 586 BC. From King SOLOMON on (1016 BC) the King’s mother had always been the Queen of the Kingdom sitting on the throne next to the King until the end of Kingdom time (1 Kings 2:19, 2 Chronicles‬ 25:1‬, 2C hronicles‬‭ 29:1‬, Jeremiah 29:2, etc.). For Jewish believers their Messiah’s mother has naturally without saying always been considered as Queenmother of the Kingdom of the King of Kings; And like the King also the Queen always had to be adored and praised according to the Bible. Thus Israel always also knelt down in front of the Queenmother of their King. This leads especially for Messianic Jews to the question of what kind of treatment towards their Messiah’s, their King’s mother did the Hebrew Bible thus indirectly demand from the Jewish disciples of the Jew Yeshua and how did the very first Messianic Jews and Early Christians then most plausibly and consistently treat the Queenmother of their King of Kings?

The Messiah is the Son of David and also his LORD according to Psalm 110:1. He is the King of Kings according to Psalm 2:6 and the highest Prophet according to MOSES who prophesized about him in Deutoronomy1 8:19 (compare John 1:45 & 5:46). The Bible says true subservients of their King/ Messiah are fulfilling the Word's prophecies (check Luke 1:48) obediently throughout all generations (Greek: genea) and the future coming of the King of Kings, the Messiah, will fulfill the Tanakh‘s prophecies in the end of time (Zechariah 12:10-14).

The Messiah was also called the „Son of G’d“ in ancient Israel: Mark 14:61 says „… the Kohen Gadol Highpriest was questioning him and says to him, Are you the Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, the Messiah HaBen Hamevorakh the son of the blessed G‘d?“. The answer „I AM“ (“JHWH”) lead to the judgement „You heard him commit Chillul Hashem gidduf (blasphemy). How does it seem to you? And they all condemned Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach to be deserving of mishpat mavet death“ according to Leviticus 24:16. Exactly 100 years later Bar Kokhba was appointed as Messiah King by Rabbi Akiva, Chief of the Sages, Highest contemporary representative of Judaism. In https://jewsforjesus.org/jewish-resources/messianic-prophecy/the-messiah-would-be-called-gods-son we read „Psalm 2 speaks of the nations of the world plotting against both God himself and his ‚Anointed‘. Originally, this referred to the Davidic king, but the scope of what is described here, as well as later Jewish tradition, understood this to be referring to the Messiah, the Almighty’s Ultimate, the Anointed. In Vers 7, G’d specifically calls the Anointed ‚my Son‘ and promises worldwide rule in the face of the laughable opposition of the nations who counsel rebellion against G’d. Vers 12 is sometimes translated, ‚Do homage in purity,‘ or something similar, especially since the word in that verse for ‚son‘ is not the Hebrew ben as in verse 7, but the Aramaic bar, which seems out of place. Therefore, some have looked for an alternate translation. However, the switch to bar can be because (1) the psalmist is addressing the nations of the world, for whom Aramaic was the common language; and (2) otherwise, the Hebrew would have an odd-sounding phrase, ben pen (‚Son, lest‘), here made better by having bar pen.“
(Compare Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22, Acts 4:25-28, Acts 13:33, Hebrews 1:5, Hebrews 5:5).
In the Hebrew Bible Son of G’d is used about angels (Job 1:6), about the nation of Israel (Exodus 4:22-23), and about Israel’s king (2 Samuel 7:14). This lead to later different understandings of Psalm 2 between Jewish and Christian believers in the first millennium AD.


Only for Christians: There was more to Moses decision to visit his kinsmen and watch them struggling at forced labour as sparsely told by Exodus 2:11; The former Pharisee Shaul (PAUL) was also the former student of the famous rabbinical teacher of the law Gamiliel, highly honored by the people of Israel (Acts 5:34) in the time of Jesus. Thus Shaul (PAUL) was one of the most educated scribes and pharisees of his time: And he reveals in Hebrews11:24-26 that Moses visiting his “brothers” was much more than just a visit; Moses repented and turned back from his former „enjoying his passing pleasures of sin“ as Egyptian Prince and instead „chose being mistreated along with God’s people“ as Hebrew slave; He even „refused to be called the son of Pharaoh‘s daughter“ anymore. According to PAUL the reason of this radical change of mind and life was not primarily his turn back to his roots after having seen the suffering of his people but instead his beforehand deeper conversion regarding his faith in the one and only G‘d of Israel. Even his given awareness of being the chosen one, the redeemer of Israel out of bondage, can be already seen here in his fruitless attempts to speak with his brothers as ruler and judge in Exodus 2:14 one day after having killed an Egyptian as brutal suppressor and agressor against one of his brothers“. This is secondly confirmed by the greek jewish disciple and first martyr Stephanos who reveals that Moses erroneously „thought his ‚brothers‘ would realize that God through his (MOSES) hand wanted to redeem them but they didn’t realize it“ (Acts 7:25 Allioli Bible AD 1875 comment: „So Moses was already supernaturally instructed about his destiny“). Thus MOSES was indeed going to live the life of a Hebrew Slave instead of an Egyptian Prince when he reached Pythom (Lahun). His disappointing experiences as possible redeemer of Israel out of its bondage already in his first two days at the mudbrick production slavework center explains the motives for his hesitations in front of the burning Bush about fourty years later …




MOSES was 41 years old when he went out to his “brothers” to watch them struggling at forced labor. The Bible says in Exodus 2:11, it happened "when MOSES was grown up": the literal translation is "when MOSES was grown mighty or grand". The King James Bible Acts 7:22 says MOSES was then already "mighty in words and in deeds". Exodus 11:3 documents, that MOSES, as Man of the one G'd in the time of the environmental disasters of the Ten Plagues "was regarded by Pharaoh's servants and the people as a very great man in the land of Egypt" (Complete Jewish Bible). Several ancient writings confirm that already in his youth MOSES was a well-known great leader of his time all over Egypt. He was not only a popular Prince but also a famous Commander and the Savior from invasion as we will learn later in this passage. MOSES' popularity as Prince of Egypt increased so much that his name became one of the most popular fashion names in Southern Egypt already in his lifetime. In Thebes in the later Dynasty of the Ahmosides family clan, over 10 male and female members were called Moses (Ahmoses, Kamoses, Priest Moses, etc.). 

Egyptian artifacts of the Second Intermediate Period and the famous Brooklyn Papyrus deliver sufficient archeological evidence to show that also the Savior out of famine King JOSEPH and his son King EPHRAIM owned the Egyptian name Ankhu which was one of the most popular names to give to a son in Egypt in that time - for Egyptians as well as for Israelites! Similar evidence is given for the Egyptian names of Ephraim's sons Resseneb and Iyumeru. 30 Hebrew male slave names in the Brooklyn Papyrus show four times the name Ankhu and even five times the name Resseneb. Resseneb was also the one who rescued exactly these slaves out of the Northern 15th Dynasty. Further eight names are relating compound names like Ankhuemhesut, Ankhuseneb or Senebresseneb. Rohl identified these names as evidence for the names of JOSEPH and his King's lineage being popular hero names for Israelites. JOSEPH's name Ankh also delivers sufficient archeological evidence for having been a hero's name to the Egyptians: Egyptologists confirm Ankh as one of the most popular names of the Second Intermediate Period. (Rohl Exodus p.334 and Quirke Administration Middle Kingdom p.148). The second evidence for JOSEPH's King names having become cult figure names is the prevalence of variations of the name Monthotep in the Second Intermediate Period.


MOSES was not only a popular Prince but also a famous Commander and the Savior from invasion. The ancient historians Artapanos and Josephus identify MOSES as a successful popular Commander of war against the Kushites (Ethiopians), where "Tharbis was the daughter of the King of the Ethiopians" and saw MOSES fighting with great courage. She "fell deeply in love with him .. and Moses consummated his marriage with her". The description of the invasion into Southern Egypt of Josephus has been confirmed by deciphered inscriptions evidence of Vivian Davies in the tombs at El-Kab in 2003. In Numbers 12:1 over 50 years later in the desert his sister Mirjam accuses MOSES of his marriage with a kushitian woman because she belonged to a foreign people with foreign idols. Rashbam Rabbi Shmuel ben Meir calls her the Kushitian Queen Adonia, widow of King Kokinus, and states MOSES did not consummate his marriage with her. This is biblically corroborated by the missing evidence of any children together. Last but not least the “marriage” with the kushitian princess or widow queen was not valid in front of the G‘d of Israel because the Kushitians worshipped foreign idols. However his wife ZIPPORAH did convert to the faith in the G‘d of Israel evidenced in her circumcision of her yet uncircumcised son Gershom  (Exodus 4:25,18:1-4 and the rabbinical sources Mek.,Ytro,1[ed.Weiss,p.65b] and Ned.31b-32a;Ex.R.v.).


The slave workers' town Lahun in Fayum (Phytom) is the most plausible place where Moses, who had grown tremendously in popularity, visited his “brothers” and had to flee afterward. Lahun in Fayum is near the border between Northern and Southern Egypt; Here you could easily inspect how bad the situation for the Hebrews in Canaanite Northern Egypt in fact was. Furthermore you can quickly withdraw back into the Southern Vassall Pharaoh's terrain. From Lahun MOSES had to flee (Exodus 2:15) to Midian evidenced in Arabia beyond the Gulf of Acaba biblically called Yam Suf. He had to flee away from the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh and King of Egypt Apophis: Apophis death sentence was "death by manslaughter" after MOSES had man slaughtered an Egyptian who mistreated an Israelite slave. Literal old Hebrew reveals this as a juridically easy to justify reaction on MOSES’ deed; Not only according to the law of Egypt but furthermore to the Torah itself (Exodus 22:20, 21:12, 21:23-25). On the other hand rabbinical scriptures explain Moses did not commit murder in killing the Egyptian (Ex.ii.12) because this Egyptian merited death for he had forced a Hebrew woman to commit adultery with him (Ex.R.i.33).

In this time Sobekhotep IV already had been reduced to be only Southern Vassall Pharaoh of Thebes again like his predecessors; He was now paying Vassall tribute to the Canaanite throne usurpator Pharaoh Apophis (Almunecar Vase, Marie d'Almunecar-Molina, Fs Domas II, 517-524). According to Kim Ryholt, Apophis ousted not only Sobekhotep IV from his overall Egyptian throne but also would have ousted Pharaoh Khayan's eldest Kingson Yanassi (Ryholt p. 256). The author proposes an alternative mor plausible probability: Sobekhotep's enormous power hunger and tactical behaviors was evidenced by his marriage and his in ancient scriptures evidenced attempt to send his stepson and throne heir MOSES into death by an ordered military campaign against the Kushites. This lust for power brings him under the suspicion to be the (eg. poison) murderer of his brother Pharaoh Neferhotep I's son and throne successor Sihathor who is evidenced as Pharaoh without any reign time: This speaks for a sudden death breaking the heart of his father Neferhotep I and leading into the enthronement of Sobekhotep IV. This kind of power-seeking murder could have been repeated a second time by Sobekhotep against his father-in-law Khayan's beloved son Yanassi, who - as well as Sihathor - suddenly disappears regarding his historical evidence. This attempt to take over the sole rulership over Egypt the way he took over the southern rulership would also explain as a reaction the sudden usurpation of the throne by the Canaanite military commander and later Pharaoh Apophis who took advantage of this sudden opportunity against the plans of the hated Hebrew ULAM (Sobekhotep IV).

Because of the huge fame of MOSES especially in Southern Egypt, he had become an even more dangerous rival for his stepfather (ULAM)Sobekhotep IV. He thus could not expect any shelter from him but instead had to fear him too leading to even two reasons to flee out of Egypt. In the 3rd century BC, historian Artapanus writes Chenephre/ Chaneferre/ Sobekhotep envied Moses' virtues and "was looking for an opportunity to destroy him". So he had sent MOSES against the invading Ethiopians. But this had led to even bigger fame for Moses after his victory. Thus now a flight to Midian beyond the Egyptian-controlled Sinai Peninsula would have been the only locational chance to survive for him. Now Sobekhotep IV was finally able to break easily his promise to his wife MERIS to make MOSES (Sobekhotep Miw) the heir to his kingdom; MOSES/ Mio is archeologically confirmed as originally first listed son of Sobekhotep IV on the Wadi Hammamat stela. After his death ULAM’s own firstborn son of his wife MERIS Sobekhotep/ Djadja became Pharaoh Merhotepre Sobekhotep V. With his sudden death after only three years of reign ULAM’s only full Hebrew son of his wife Tjan called BEDAN/ BN Amenhotep became Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI. Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI also suddenly died after only 5 years of reign. The reader has to keep in mind that since Sobekhotep IV we are not talking any more about a Vizierking Dynasty electing its Pharaohs. So after two centuries we are back again in a classical Pharaoh Dynasty of lifelong ruling Pharaohs. Pharaoh Sobekhotep most likely had introduced a Dynasty full of murderous intrigues endeding at latest with the first Egyptian Ahmoside …

According to Josephus' account (see Moses in Hellenistic Literature), MOSES after his marriage to the daughter of the Ethiopian king did not become King of Ethiopia: He led his troops back to Egypt, where he remained. The Egyptians and even Pharaoh himself were envious of his glorious deeds. He feared that MOSES might use his power to gain dominion over Egypt. They therefore sought how they might assassinate him. MOSES learning of the plot fled to Midian; This narrative of Josephus agrees with two haggadic accounts, according to which Moses fled from Egypt to Midian and it also fits quite well to other  mentioned findings.


MOSES fled to Midian in Northern Arabia on the other side of the Gulf of Aqaba.  Wandering through Midian when he rested at a well the seven daughters of the priest of Midian came and drew water for their father’s flocks. When shepherds came to drive them away Moses helped the women against them. Their father Reguel/ Jethro invited him to marry his daughter ZIPPORAH and she gave birth to his first son GERSHOM. MOSES lived a 40 years long life as a Shepherd and family father in Midian near Mount Horeb.

If You visit today as an Arabian in this region the location Madyan (aramaic for Midian) You can inspect the famous “Caves of Jethro” with ancient (picture) tombs inside. This place has a long arabian tradition as the place of the tribe of Jethro, biblically also called Reguel. Only one kilometre away, close by, there is a well since ancient times called the “Well of Moses”. Tradition reports it to be the well where Moses helped Jethro’s daughters. Muslims from around the world come to see this archeological site preserved by the Saudi government. Ancient pottery of the ending mid bronze and beginning late bronze age confirms the strictly biblical time of Moses. This place where Moses lived is a 2 day journey or around 30 km east from the most discussed Mount Sinai candidate Jabal Maqla, one of the Jabal-al-Lawz mountains part of the Midian mountains. Saint Paul in the Bible and the ancient historians Eusebius and Josephus confirm that Mount Sinai is situated in Arabia and that it is the highest mountain in the land of Midian which matches Jabal Maqla. (A documentary about this mountain including an overwhelming amount of archeological evidence matching the Bible is mentioned and linked in Chapter Conclusions, simply search for the picture of its burned mountain peak.)

In 1606 BC The Almighty told MOSES (Exodus 4:19) "ALL" who wanted to kill MOSES had died; and indeed Apophis had died 1618 BC and Sobekhotep IV had died 1641 BC). MOSES returned from the Holy Mountain in Midian to Avaris in Egypt to initiate Israel's Exodus from Egypt back to Mount Horeb beyond the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically always called "Yam Suph" 1 Kings 9:26.

Moses and the burning bush:


1626-1621 BC:
Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao is the son of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose and his wife the Hebrew King’s daughter Tetisheri

Senakhtenre Ahmose‘s daughter Satibu (Hebrew name) becomes Queen Sidjehuti, sisterwife of Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao

1621-1616 BC:
Pharaoh Kamose is the first Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao and Queen Sidjehuti.





While MOSES lived for fourty years in his exile in Midian Arabia the Egyptian Ahmosides took over the throne of the former Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Southern Egypt.

The 17th Dynasty turns out to be in fact the combination of two different and on the same side similar Dynasties: First the Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage fought successfully step by step for MANASSE's original claim to the throne for him being the firstborn son of JOSEPH.
Second the Dynasty of the Egyptian royal lineage fought successfully step by step for their original claim to the throne for being descendants of the Egyptian nomarchs of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.

Sobekhotep IV was only Southern Pharaoh of Thebes again after his father-in-law Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan died and military commander Canaanite Apophis usurped the throne as new Hyksos Pharaoh of Egypt. 

So the Egyptian Nobility was able to observe how marriages into the 17th Dynasty Family Clan (and seemingly murder) successively lead into the takeover of the throne: MACHIR's (Nehy's) biblical son PERESH (Haankhef) managed to marry the evidenced "King's daughter" Kemi. And PERESH's biblical son ULAM (Sobekhotep IV) managed to marry the daughter of the northern Canaanite  Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan and this way became co-ruling Pharaoh over a reunited Egypt.

In the latest phase of the 17th Dynasty in 1633 BC the Egyptian Ahmoside's Clan Dynasty arose. The First Ahmoside Pharaoh of Thebes after the sudden death of Sobekhotep VI was Senakhtenre Ahmose under Canaanite Hyksos King of Egypt Apophis. Senakhtenre's son is Sequenre-Tao. His sister-wife was named Sidjehuti. Both were children of Queen Tetisheri. Sidjehuti‘s birthname Satibu is a Semitic name according to Polz (Daniel Polz, Der Beginn des Neuen Reiches: Zur Vorgeschichte einer Zeitenwende, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, p.350). This reveals the way how the change from a Hebrew to an Egyptian Dynasty evolved, therefore Satibu’s mother Tetisheri also must have been Hebrew. This way a marriage of the first Egyptian Ahmoside with a Hebrew Dynasty daughter into the Hebrew Dynasty Family Clan enabled the Egyptian takeover of rulership in Thebes.

The mother of Pharaoh Senakhtenre's wife Tetisheri is identified by egyptologists as a Neferu”. Her additional inscribed name - read asTjenna or Tjanna“ by Egyptologists - was assumed by them to be her father's name. But as far as it is read as „Tjin or Tjan“, he is indeed a she, and Tetisheri appears to be the daughter of Tjan, Sobekhotep's IV fully Hebrew second wife. As already explained in Chapter Joseph „Neferu“ is the most used additional name for the Great Royal Wifes/ Queen Mothers from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful and refers to the heart. For instance the name itiNeferu - inscribed in the Wpwauthotep Stele and examined in Chapter Joseph - became the prename for JOSEPH's wife ASENAT (tAhenut) to honor her as Great Royal Wife of King Khnumhotep and Queenmother of his four generations Dynasty Clan. Therefore Senakhtenre's mother-in-law was most plausibly named „the beautiful (neferu) Tjan“ as the most beloved Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV and Queenmother of her son Amenhotep and her daughter Nebtiunet. Amenhotep died abruptly a few years after his coronation which cleared the way to kingship for the Egyptian Ahmoside Senakhtenre through his marriage with Amenhotep’s sister Nebtiunet. After her marriage she was named Queen Tetisheri. The author’s conclusions are corroborated by commemorations of Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV in Pharaoh Ahmose’s New Kingdom: “his name was still commemorated … in the New Kingdom for reasons which remain obscure” (Ryholt 1997 p. 298). The reason for this was the maternal lineage of Ahmose’s family leads back to Sobekhotep’s IV second wife Tjan thus this way Ahmose’s family claimed its royal lineage back to Sobekhotep IV the first 17th Dynasty King over complete Egypt before Ahmose I became himself the first King over complete Egypt in the New Kingdom.

The Egyptian Ahmosides 
did reach the throne by marrying into the Hebrew Dynasty. 

Nebtiunet named Tetisheri must have been the „Pharaoh‘s daughter of a Hebrew mother [SC: Tjan]“ according to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (AKE 1774-1824 p. 108). She would have helped MOSES together with a midwife called Serah, daughter of the tribe of Asher, to find Asenath‘s and Joseph‘s mummified body which had been robbed by Egyptian priests who worshipped them. They would have found their both bodies including a holy secret in a tomb hidden in Joseph’s Canal after she had thrown a note with the name of G‘d into the water in the night of the Tenth Plague before the Exodus. Rabbinical traditions also confirm this story (Ex.R.xviii.8 and Sotah13a; Ex.R.xx.17; "D.Y."l.c.; "S.Y."p.126; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Genesis 1:26). 

Senakhtenre's son Sequenre-Tao already started the first open Egyptian battle against the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh followed by his firstborn son Kamose after hos death. They both ended up killed by King Apophis. Kamose was able to reconquest the District of Abydos and entered Avaris and probably got away back with an essestial part of the Hebrew slavework force.  At last Kamose's brother Ahmose I became the Pharaoh of the famous Expulsion of the Hyksos in 1606 BC (1535 BC). He initiated the New Kingdom as the next period of Egyptian History. 

Egyptologists still reck their brains if Kamose was Ahmose's extremely elder brother or simply his uncle and if Sapair was Ahmose's extremely younger brother or simply his firstborn son; Kamose has to be the firstborn son of Sequenre Tao and Sapair has to be the firstborn son of Ahmose because Sapair dies young in the Tenth Plague of death of all firstborn sons and Ahmose does not (as we will see later), thus Ahmose cannot be the firstborn son and thus Kamose has to be his elder brother.

During the lifetime of MOSES until his comeback to Egypt increasing throne rivalries in northern and southern Egypt seemingly reached murderous proportions indicating a moral downfall of both Dynasties; Archeological evidence around the crown princes Sihathor son of Neferhotep and Mio (MOSES) step son of Sobekhotep IV and Yannis son of Khayan and Apophis son of Apophis (Ryholt 1997 p. 288) reveal that all these displayed heirs of the throne abruptly disappeared from Egypt's history before they were able to succeed Pharaoh on his throne … Furthermore two heirs of throne Sobekhotep V and VI, both sons of Sobekhotep IV, reveal a remarkable short lifetime after they ascended the throne; This brings the Hebrew Pharaohs Sobekhotep IV and VI the Egyptian Pharaoh Senakhtenre and the Canaanite Pharaohs Apophis and Khamudi under suspicion of having eliminated their rivals before they usurped the throne themselves.

We are arriving now finally at the archeologically evidenced 19th reign year of Pharao Ahmose and the 12th reign year of the Canaanite Northern King of Egypt Khamudi: 1606 BC is the year of the Ten Plagues, the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, and finally the Expulsion of the Canaanite Hyksos out of Egypt by Pharaoh Ahmose …

1616-1606 BC:

 Southern Vasall
Second Son of Pharaoh Sequenre Tao 
Fourth Egyptian Pharaoh
Last 17th Dynasty Pharaoh
(wearing the Southern Egyptian Crown)

1606-1581 BC:
Pharaoh Ahmose
New King of Egypt
Ahmose becomes the first Pharaohking of the New Kingdom after his announced ‘Hyksos Expulsion’
First 18th Dynasty Pharaoh 


Up until today, there is no evidence PROVING 
the members of Thebes' 16th and 17th Dynasty 
(before the Ahmosides) being Egyptians. 

And up until today, there is no evidence DISPROVING 
the members of Thebes' 16th and first half 17th Dynasty 
being Israelites. 

The opposite is the case.


Sinai 361 of Serabit El-Kadim in the Sinai Desert

Deciphering Board: Enjoy Your Discovery Journey

This second inscription (Sinai 361) of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert (1606 BC) shows besides several Hebrew words unequivocally the Hebrew name of Moses: "Moshe" (see yellow alphabetical Hebrew letters M and Sh in the first picture above). It says:

"Our bound servitude had lingered.
MOSHE provoked astonishment.

It is a year of astonishment because of Baalath." 

Baalath was the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind, and lightning. Baal was depicted as a bull or as a ram like the Egyptian deity Amun and melted in Egypt together with Amun and Month. Some scholars say, Hathor the Egyptian Cow-Godess has also to be identified with Baalath in that time.

One of the Hebrew slave work miners of the Royal Turquoise & Copper Mine in the Sinai desert must have engraved it in the midst of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC because he explicitly focussed on one single year and 1606 BC as the year of all the Santorini eruption caused environmental desasters is geologically, archeologically and biblically evidenced „the year of“ the greatest „astonishement“ of Egypt in its complete history. This is archeological evidence confirming the historical existence of MOSHE in Egypt, the since around a century (see the first Sinai inscription in this Chapter earlier) ongoing slavery of Israel in Egypt until MOSES' return 1606 BC, MOSES' biblical evidenced provoking astonishment in Exodus 4:30, 7:9, 7:20, 8:1, 8:12, 9:8 and the biblical evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt in Ezekiel/Hesekiel 20:8.


Egyptian Deities 

Worshipping Centers of Egyptian Deities 



According to the Bible, Israel's Enslavement in Egypt was the Almighty's judgement for Israel's idolatry in Egypt (Hezekiel20:8). In Chapter Joseph headlined JOSEPH's SON MANASSE - IDOLATRY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT we have learned that Israel's idolatry in Egypt was introduced by JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE; After he was set behind EPHRAIM by his grandfather ISRAEL's blessing he decided to follow in his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's II footsteps and became Priest of Amun in Thebes and introduced the semimonotheistic worshipping of the deity Amun at least by his Hebrew tribe and by the Southern Egyptians. After the Ten Plagues Southern Pharaoh Ahmose changed his main worship cult to exactly this semimonotheistic deity Amun. Further Idolatry of Israel in Egypt was shown in JOSEPH being hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and even some Hebrews as Khnum, Month and Osiris and his wife ASENATH being hero-worshipped as Satis/Setet wife of Khnum, as Zeneneth/Iunit/Henut wife of Month and as Isis wife of Osiris. Month, Amun, Apis and the Canaanite deity Baal (syncretism) were all often worshipped as Bull-headed deities.

The archaeologically evidenced idolatry of Israel in Egypt in contemporary Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions in the time of MOSES mentions the Idols
Hathor and Baalath:

Baalath is the female form of Baal, the Canaanite deity of fertility, weather, rain, wind and lightning. Baal was often depicted as a bull or as a ram like also Amun and he melted in Egypt together with Amun, Month and Seth.
Some scholars say, Hathor the Egyptian Cow-Godess has also to be identified with Baalath, wife of Baal, the Bull-God:

Hathor, worshipped as cow goddess with the sun disc between her horns (like the „golden calve“), was the deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and promiscuity. She was seen as wife or mother of Horus (embodied by the living King), the son of Osiris and Isis; the Second Intermediate Period is the time of Syncretism of Isis with Hathor. Like Osiris was called the First of the Western, she was called the First Lady of the Western and the patroness of the western miners. Like Isis she was identified with Aphrodite by the Greeks.
As shown at the end of Chapter Joseph, JOSEPH’s/ZaMonth’s wife ASENATH/Henut was hero-worshipped as Isis in sycretism with many other goddesses. Her son Rensenebu being called son of Hathor Za-Hathor (CGC20102) and Zamonth giving sacrafice to Hathor for the Ka of his wife Henut (CGC42.034) speaks for ASENATH additionally having been hero-worshipped as Hathor; Hathor enables as wife and mother of Kings the reincarnation of the King as Horus, ASENATH/Henut as the King’s wife gave birth to 2 Kings and 4 Pharaohs.

Around '1700' BC acc. to Bietak a temple district to Canaanite deity Ashera and Egyptian deity Hathor was built in the eastern part of Avaris. As already explained in Chapter Joseph Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry towards Baal/Seth; Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non evidenced and nonexistent years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology Table Chronology of Israel & Canaan in Egypt) and because of unsafe excavation layer datings the author proposes a Seth Temple construction in the year 1729 BC which is the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, correctly described by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction and it is additionally confirmed by the "400-years-Stela" celebrating the Seth Temple 400st anniversary under Pharaoh Harembab around 1320 BC so that the construction time must have been around 1720 BC.

And now let's take a look at the Canaanite Idols and Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian Idols in Hezekiel20:8 who fell under the LORD's judgment (Exodus12:12, Numbers33:4) of the Ten Plagues so that Israel (Exodus6:7) and Egypt (Exodus7:5.17,8:10) may have the da'as/cognizance that "I AM the I AM"/ that HE is the real One and Only G'd (Exodus10:2).

First Plague - Nile Water turns into Blood:

Judgement over the Nile Floods Idols Bull-headed Apis Osiris, Month and Amun contemporary often melted with Baal and
Judgement over the Nile Idol Isis, over the Guardian deity of the Nile Khnum and over Satis/Setet the deification of the floods of the Nile River.

Second Plague - The Frogs:

Judgement over the Frog as Idol Heqet or as a manifestation of the Idol of promiscuity Hathor

Third Plague - The Mosquitoes or Sandflies &
Fourth Plague - The Dog Flies:

Judgement over Pharaoh as deity and incarnation of Re responsible for the well-being of his people

Fifth Plague - The Cattle Plague:

Judgement over Bull-headed Apis Osiris, Month and Amun and over Ram-headed Khnum, all of them often merged with the Canaanite deity Baal

Sixth Plague - The Ulcers:

Judgement over Isis who fails as Idol of Healing

Seventh Plague - The Hailstorm of Fire and Ice:

Judgement over Storm Idol Set syncretically mixed with Apis, Month, Amun and the Canaanite deity Baal - also his female form Baalath was an Idol for weather, rain, wind and lightning

Eighth Plague - The Locusts:

Judgement over Osiris, who fails as Idol of Harvest and Fertility. Osiris embodies the King‘s afterlife.

Ninth Plague - The Darkness:
Judgement over the Sun Idols Re and Horus and over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re and Horus, also
Judgement over Baal and his female form Baalath as Idols of lightning

Tenth Plague - The Death of all Firstborn:
Judgement over Pharaoh by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh as the incarnation of Re, Horus and Osiris.
Judgement over Isis who fails as female Idol of Child Protection and Hathor who fails as female Idol of maternal care and protection and wife of Horus.
Neither Roger Liebi who identified the Egyptian Idols falling under the judgement did know about the author's archaeological evidenced identified Egyptian idols worshipped by Israel nor did Douglas Petrovich know Roger Liebi's identification of the Egyptian idol Hathor addressed by the Almighty's Judgement through the Ten Plagues. This EXACT matching of the Ten Plagues addressed idols with the idols of Israel in Egypt archaeologically evidenced by the author and Douglas Petrovich is unrefutable precise Bible proving archaeological evidence.

In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and MOSES are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when MOSES told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba - in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.

Against this background the Ten Plagues (Exodus7:14-12:42) and the miraculous Division of the Sea (Exodus14:15-31) get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood like in Exodus7:20). The Ipuwer Papyrus description of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Khamudi and Ahmose I is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com. John von Peters 1966 confirms that the conditions, terms and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus dated to the Second Intermediate Period. Sage Ipuwer admonishes his Pharaoh for his failure to rectify the terrible situation. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as Hebrew eye whiteness report elaborated by David Rohl in his book "The Exodus":



In Exodus5 Canaanite Pharaoh Kahmudi, the last 'Hyksos' Pharaoh, living in Memphis and Avaris (summer residence) and MOSES are the greatest opponents in the time of the Santorini Vulcano Eruption with strong global environmental consequences, when MOSES told Pharaoh the King of Egypt in the name of the one G'D of Israel to let his people go. Moving earth plates cracks lead through the Nile Delta and the Gulf of Aqaba, in 1Kings9:26 called the "Yam Suf". The Santorini volcano mega eruption caused tremendous geological atmospheric and biochemical phenomenons and a sudden ripping open and closing of sea canyons where the Earth plates touch each other.

For finding connectivity evidence of the Ten Plagues with the Santorini Eruption watch minute 28-43 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqLsYonjvRY&t=4310s in English or minute 23-38 on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uns55sYkQ7U in German. 


Against this background the Ten Plagues (Exodus7:14-12:42) and the miraculous Division of the Sea in (Exodus14:15-31) get further documented evidence by the Storm Stele initiated by Ahmose and the Ipuwer Papyrus, describing an environmental disaster with storms, darkness, plagues, and further precise biblical people impacts (eg. the poor plunder the rich exactly like in Exodus12:35 or the river is turned to blood in Exodus7:20). John Van Seters (A date for the "Admonitions" in the Second Intermediate Period. In: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1964, n.50, p.13-23) estimates on his presupposition that it cannot be describing a historical event but just can be a sort of an allegorical poem, he concludes the conditions, terms, and people mentioned in the Ipuwer Papyrus have to be dated into the Second Intermediate Period, he roughly estimated it around 1674 BC but the precise Ipuwer Papyrus descriptions of the Ten Plagues and the situation of Egypt under Canaanite Northern Pharaoh Khamudi and Egyptian Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I at the end of the Second Intermediate Period is much more matching which is excellently examined and documented by Tim Mahoney in his film Exodus on www.PatternsofEvidence.com and by David Rohl in his book 'The Exodus'. Finally, if You look at the details, such as linguistics, you see all the words, names, and phrases that exactly suggest it was composed in the 18th Dynasty after the Exodus in 1606 BC confirmed by nearly all relating ancient writings. The author Ipuwer - whose name actually appears in a text from the period of Hatshepsut - admonishes his former Pharaoh (Ahmose I) for his failure to rectify the catastrophic situation of Egypt. Here are some matchings of the Papyrus as the Egyptian eye witness report and the Bible as the Hebrew eye whiteness report of the Ten Plagues in the time of the Santorini Eruption elaborated by David Rohl:


- The Nile turning into blood -

Exodus4:9 "YHWH said... You are to take some water from the Nile and pour it on the ground. And the water You have taken from the river will turn to blood on the dry land."

Ipuwer: "Behold, Egypt has fallen to the pouring water. And he who poured water on the ground seizes the mighty in misery."

- Destruction of crops and Death of livestock -

Exodus7:20 "And all the water in the Nile turned to blood. The Fish in the river died and the river stank so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile.

Ipuwer: "The river is blood! As you drink of it you Loose humanity and thirst of water."

- Ruination of Egypt -

Exodus9:31,9:6,10:15 "The flex and the bairly were ruined .. all the livestock of the Egyptians died... The locus covered the surface of the ground until the land was devastated .. and they devoured whatever was growing in the fields and all the fruit of the trees .."

Ipuwer: "Gone is the grain of abundance. Food supplies are running short. The nobles Hunger and suffer. Upper Egypt has become a wasteland. Grain is lacking on every side. The storehouse is bare. Women say 'Oh that we had something to eat'."

- Darkness covers the Land -

"For three days there was thick darkness throughout the land of Egypt."

Ipuwer: "Those who had shelter are now in the darkness of the storm." and "the power of Ra (sun god) is not seen"

- The Death of the Firstborn -

"At midnight the Lord did strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt - from the firstborn of Pharaoh, heir to his throne, to the firstborn of the Captive in the dungeon... And Pharoh rose up the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was great wailing in Egypt, for there was not a house without its dead... The Egyptians were burying those of their own people whom YHWH had struck down."

Ipuwer: Behold, plague sweeps the land; blood is everywhere with no shortage of dead. Children are dashed against the walls. The funeral shroud calls out to you before you come near. Woe is me for the grief of this time.  He who buries his brother in the ground is everywhere .. Wailing is throughout the land mingled with lamentations."

- The Plundering of Egypt's wealth by the Hebrew Slaves -

Exodus12:35 "The Israelites asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewelry and for clothing. YHWH had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians that they let them have what they asked. So they plundered the Egyptians."

Ipuwer: "The slave takes what he finds. What belongs to the palace has been stripped. Gold, Lapislazuli, silver, and turquoise are strung on the necks of female slaves. See how the poor of the land have become rich whilst the man of the property is a pauper."

Ahmose Storm Stela 16: "His Majesty set .. to cause the water (after the hail storm?) to evacuate without (the aid of) his (slaves?) .. to provide them with silver, with gold, with copper, with oil, with clothing, with all the products they desired .."

Especially the last passage of the Ipuwer Papyrus is used by leading Egyptologists as clear proof that this could not be a historical eye-witness report because it would not make any sense the poor becoming rich and the rich becoming poor. According to these self-called neutral, objective independent leading Egyptologists, it has to be imaginative prose and any connection with biblical content is rejected to be seen because it contradicts their dogmatic insisting on their by Jericho disproved Bible Forgers‘ Ramesses Time Paradigm which allegedly has disproved the complete Bible.

The Ipuwer Papyrus

The Ahmose Storm Stela


Another exciting archaeological example of biblical evidence is the Storm Stele introduced in the documentary of Simcha Jacobovici on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY. The Storm Stele of Ahmose I is seen as an eye-witness report and clear archaeological confirmation of the impacts of the Santorini Volcanic Eruption on Egypt by Radio Carbon Experts who date this biggest Volcanic Eruption of human history in the time around the biblical year of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC. This leads to the recommendation of Moeller and Ritter in 2014 to redate the time of Ahmoses I reign into this time which proves what also the Bible does prove in this work - that about 75 years of the Second Intermediate Period are highly speculative wrong time estimations and a misleading creation of non-existing time in Egyptian history (see Table Chronology in Chapter Chronology and Footnotes 2-6). The Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king.  It tells about evidenced Santorini Eruption effects like unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning, a great storm and Egypt enveloped in darkness. „God“ manifested his power is an unusual Egyptian formulation, obviously not meaning one of the many Egyptian deities, which are always concretely identified by their name if not used a general plural for them.



Bible: God passed judgement on the Gods of Egypt
Storm Stela: "Then His Majesty said 'How these (events) surpass the power of the great god and the wills of the divinities .. the God manifested his power."

Bible: YHWH says I will destroy all their gods
Storm Stela: A huge storm is destroying tombs, temples and Pyramids The statues of the Gods of Egypt were toppled to the ground
Geologists: Results of Santorini Earthquake Storm and Volcanic hail

Bible: Egypt was struck by a hail made up of fire and ice mingled together
Storm Stela: A great unique storm, unnatural rain, unnatural loud noises, thunder lightning
Geologists: Vulcanic hail rain would be a mixture of ice and burning ash
Ypuwer Papyrus: mentions raining fire and ice according to Simcha Jacobivici

Bible: A three days darkness "you can touch" comes over the land
Storm Stela: A great darkness of (not readable) days comes over the land with no one able to light the torch anywhere.
Geologists: The Santorini Volcanic Eruption Ash Cloud creates a darkness "you can touch"



The Ninth Plague is the judgement over Ra as the deity of the life spending sun - absolute Darkness.
The Tenth Plague is the judgement over Pharaoh as the incarnation of Ra by Death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh and all male Firstborn of Egypt except the Israelites. 


It's important to understand the up until today celebrated Passover Night of Exodus12 as the key event of the Exodus yearly repeated since 3600 years as a repeated REAL live event every Passover feast up until today all over the world where Jewish people live:

Believers in the G'd of Israel know HE did send the deliverer MOSES to free Israel from their enslavement. Their enslavement was the spiritual consequence of their archeologically evidenced idolatry in Egypt. MOSES had to lead them through the desert to the final Promised Land and they were accompanied by the presence of G'd in the Tabernacle. Before the Exodus - in order to achieve the Passover of the Angel of Death for every male firstborn in Egypt in the night of the Tenth Plague - they were commanded by G'd to kill an unblemished male lamb, slaughter it, spread its poured out blood on the doorposts for the angel of death to pass over, and eat the unleavened bread and eat the real flesh of the freshly slaughtered real lamb. This way it was the only by G’d accepted execution of their covenant with Him. Not any symbol for the flesh or symbol for the blood was accepted to save them from death. Only the REAL blood and eating the REAL flesh of the REAL unblemished male lamb ensured the Passover of Death. Any symbolistically reduced somehow similar act would have lost completely its necessary effect and would have led to death instead of life (compare 1 Corinthians 11:29-30). Later then in the desert, the People of Israel were fed with Supernatural Bread called Manna from Heaven and with Flesh from Heaven (quails) as a foretaste of the Promised Land.

Over two thousand years old rabbinical traditions fixed in the Talmud say that the Messiah will be a new Moses to free Israel from spiritual Enslavement in Sin leading them to the New Promised Land of peace and justice - a New Paradise - and finally to the eternal heavenly New Jerusalem. According to 2 Baruch 29:3-8 the Messiah will bring back the Miraculous Manna from Heaven to save their lives from eternal death. Through this, he will at the same time bring the New Supernatural Bread & Wine of the Presence of G'd Exodus 25:30; From the time of wandering through the desert on, the „bread of the presence“ of G‘d - the "lehem ha pannim" - did accompany the people of Israel: Each week, twelve fresh loaves of bread were placed before G’d in the Tabernacle and Temple. This bread did not get hard in this time proving its supernaturality; as fresh as the first day it was eaten by the priests at the end of the week. It was yearly at Pesach lifted up by the highpriest on a golden tablet as a sacrifice to G'd. It was presented in front of the Tabernacle to the people with the words "Behold, the Love of G'd!"

Only for Messianics/ Christians:

Thus the question if the New Manna from the Messiah to be eaten is natural or supernatural (the greek word „epiousious“ meaning supersubstantial, supernatural, and daily - is used in the Our Father Prayer in Matthew 6:11 "Give us our supernatural daily bread") and the question if it is earthly or heavenly, ordinary or extraordinary, symbolic or real (compare John 6:53-55, 6:60-67 & 1 Corinthians 11:29-30) is a deciding question of belief for the eternal salvation of Israel, the Children of G'd, when the Messiah has come. These explained rituals and beliefs were renewed by Yeshua/ Jesus in his Last Supper before his sacrificed death at the cross. They were recelebrated by his Jewish followers as told in this exact only by him accepted way. And they were continued through 2000 years of Christianity from the very beginning on according to the traditions. They were believed in, practiced and celebrated in their messianic orientation as the Center and the Climax of their gathering, in the beginning was the Word. This sacrifice has been made since two millennia recurrently up to this day and will be continued for heaven’s sake until His coming. (For observational evidence click on the youtube icon in the top right corner).


Ahmose's/ Pharaoh's firstborn son Prince Sapair
died 12 years young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion and thus
in the Time of
the Tenth Plague in the biblical year 1606 BC.

Prince Ahmose Sapair is the beloved first-born Kingson of Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose I. As Simcha Jacobovici firstly discovered in this context he died young in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion which is also the strictly biblical time of the Tenth Plague 1606 BC. How painful this loss was for Pharaoh Ahmose I is seen in his son receiving a King's Pyramide and extra Worship Cults: His Pyramidion shows the symbol of the former highest clan deity Khonsu, the moon. As half a moon crescent, for the very first time, the moon is shown lying on its back on the ground like dead or defeated ... Ahmose I then changed the highest deity of Egypt after the Ten Plagues to the hidden invisible deity Amun meaning "the invisible g'd" became the chief deity: Amun was established as semimonotheistic deity by JOSEPH's son MANASSE as Priest of Amun who lead the Amun Cult of Egypt in Thebes for over 80 years c. 1800-1720 BC (see Chapter Joseph). Thus the Egyptian semi-monotheism regarding Amun was as a matter of fact an "egyptianised" virtual monotheism introduced by a Hebrew - JOSEPH's son MANASSE. MANASSE's descendants as Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty continued this kind of Amun worshipping and the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty took it over. Pharaoh Ahmose enhanced the worshipping by the manifestation of Amun and Ra in Amun-Ra. The later following Egyptian climax of virtual monotheism was finally the re-separation of Amun and Ra by Pharaoh Akhenaten: Ra the sun became the only God of Egypt and in contrast worshipping Amun became forbidden. After the Santorini Eruption and the biblical Ten Plagues archeologically precisely evidenced by the Ypuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose Storm Stela, the Egyptians fell away from their belief in the divine power of their naturalistic deities and Pharaoh: Celebrating Pharaoh's godlikeness ended abruptly after the Hyksos Expulsion in the biblical year 1606 BC ('1530 BC')



Ahmose's Pyramid was the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh as symbol of Pharaoh’s divinity. The time of the Hyksos Expulsion has been proven in Chapter Chronology as the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt. In this time ALL Egyptian huge building projects abruptly broke off. The Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm for this time striking Egypt, destroying the tombs, temples, and Pyramids. This storm matches exactly the biblical descriptions of the impacts of the Ten Plagues and the impacts of the Santorini/ Thera Mega Eruption both evidenced exactly or roughly for 1606 BC. The sudden missing of the huge amount of slave workforce after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt - especially for the biblical and archeologically evidenced production of huge necessary amounts of mudbricks - is the obvious only plausible reason for these immense project aborts. Ahmose's Pyramide was afterwards finished by an extraordinary poor emergency solution: without any substructure it was only filled up with sand and soil. So it did not even last for the duration of one single Dynasty. This is unique archeological evidence for the sudden absence of the huge necessary slave workforce to finish all the huge building projects. Thus it is also additional striking evidence for the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt at this time. 

Pharaoh Ahmose I built the last Pyramid of an Egyptian Pharaoh. Its construction was abruptly canceled & filled up solely with sand & soil 

The Ruins: The Pyramide without any inner mudbrick substructure collapsed within a short time

Pyramids were standing for the alleged divinity of Pharaoh.
In the generation after the Ten Plagues, that humiliated and disproved the divine power of Pharaoh, Pharaoh was not worshipped as divine anymore:

"But everyone who heart these words of mine
and does not act on them
will be like a stupid man

who BUILT his house ON SAND.
The rain fell, the rivers flooded,
the wind blew and beat against that house,
and it COLLAPSED -
and its collapse was horrendous!"


At the same time, Avaris was abandoned by its complete population: Excavator Manfred Bietak concluded a sudden mass extinction. Exactly the same for the same time is archeologically evidenced for the Semitic Slavetown Lahun in Fayum: It was all of a sudden abondened completely. As we know already the year of the Expulsion of the Hyksos 1606 BC ('1525 BC') is also the biblical year of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt (see Chapter Chronology).

Since the sudden abandonment of Avaris in the biblical year 1606 BC is discussed as archaeological evidence of Israel leaving Egypt antibiblical Avaris excavator Manfred Bietak tries to relativise his own excavated discovery by insisting on some Canaanites who now allegedly have sporadically evidenced stayed in and around Avaris in the century after the historically evidenced 'Hyksos Expulsion' and are allegedly occurring again sporadically evidenced after one or two centuries. He tries to prove this claim by archaeological evidence of not by the 18th Dynasty destroyed left Canaanite pottery or buildings after the Expulsion, and by Canaanite cults adopted by Egyptians in the Delta after the Expulsion. This would allegedly prove "returned" Canaanites in the Delta generations later evaluated by the author as turned out weak affair nothing proving but his antibiblical bias (see Chapter Hyksos headline THE HEKASHASUT and Chapter Conclusions).


According to the Strict Bible Chronology and according to nearly all ancient relating writings the Exodus of Israel out Egypt took place in the time of Pharaoh Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion.

Exactly in this time a huge Semitic Population abandoned Egypt archeologically evidenced for the Semitic Mega City Avaris and for the Semitic Slave Town Lahun.

Exactly in this time the complete Egyptian biblical evidenced mud brick production for all huge building projects including Pharaoh Ahmose’s pyramid abruptly archeologically evidenced broke off and ended.

This is disproving and debunking the modern myth of the alleged missing of any slightest evidence for the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.




In the time of MOSES always at two different Pharaohs were ruling in Egypt. On the one hand, the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh who was the Foreign King of Egypt, biblically called "King of Egypt" and on the other hand the less powerful tributary or counter Southern Egyptian Pharaoh of Thebes certainly not being called King of Egypt; The 'Hyksos' Pharaoh as Lifelong Ruler/ King of Egypt is biblically evidenced only at three different times:


1.) First in Exodus1:8.15.18 at the beginning of the Book of Exodus Canaanite Pharaoh Semquem/Salitis "a Foreign King who does not know Joseph arises in enmity over Egypt" (see Chapter Hyksos). Foreign King/Ruler means translated into Egyptian Hekashasut or into Greek Hyksos

2.) Second in Exodus5:4,6:11.13,7:29 at the beginning of the Exodus Story when Moses before the start of the Ten Plagues is sent to ('Hyksos' Pharaoh Khamudi) the lifelong Ruler of Egypt biblically called "King of Egypt" to tell him to let his People go. This took place in spring and thus in Memphis and not in Avaris, the summer residence of the 'Hyksos'. 

3.) The third and last time is in Exodus14:5.8 in the end when Pharaoh (Khamudi) as "King of Egypt" in Memphis commands his army to chase after Israel until he sinks with his army in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba, biblically unambiguously identified by its contemporary name Yam Suph.


Instead, while the Ten Plagues are coming over Egypt there is just talk about a "Pharaoh" who is not being called King of Egypt in the Bible thus Southern Pharaoh Ahmose had to be meant as the biblical Pharaoh who archeologically evidenced lost his firstborn son in the Tenth Plague. There is no evidence for contemporary huge building projects of the 'Hyksos' in the time of Khamudi and Ahmose for which the Foreign lifelong Ruler over Egypt Khamudi would have needed hundreds of thousands of slaves; Only Southern Pharaoh Ahmose's huge building projects needed such a huge amount of slave workforce. And these took mainly place between Memphis and Thebes. Additionally, the Ahmose Storm Stela describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples, and pyramids in the Theban region. Furthermore the Ypuwer Papyrus describes the Ten Plagues and especially the Tenth Plague of the sudden death of all firstborns taking place in Southern Egypt. And the Bible in Exodus 9:26 says that in the Northern Delta "in the land of Goshen, where the people of Israel were, there was no hail" and they were not affected by any of the Plagues. This all leads to the conclusion that the Biblical Story of the Ten Plagues mainly takes place in Southern Egypt the land of Pharaoh Ahmose and not in the northern region where most Israelites lived.


Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi has to be identified as the biblical "King of Egypt" of the beginning and the end of the Exodus story while Thebes' Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose needing and using the main slave workforce is the only plausible direct first contact Pharaoh for MOSES during the Ten Plagues in the Bible in the time when no King of Egypt is biblically mentioned. This is finally confirmed by the biblical night of the Tenth Plague in Exodus 12:29 in contrast to Exodus 14:5.

After Exodus 12:29 it is clearly explained how „Pharaoh“ (Ahmose) after he has lost his son in the night tells MOSES to leave with his complete people and cattle and sheep. He even asks for his blessing. And all the Egyptians are described as fearfully sending them away giving them all their fine clothes, silver, and gold. So far their departure is described. For the pyramid building Israelites and all other between Memphis and Thebes working Hebrew slaves, this meant that they first went back to their wives and families in Avaris biblically called Ra-amezes. From there they started out from Egypt via Sukkot in Exodus 12:37.

Then two whole biblical passages follow explaining how to celebrate the Pessach night of the Tenth Plague and the Exodus until the end of time. Then the complete journey through the desert to the Yam Suph the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba is described. And then oddly enough in Exodus 14:5 the same "Pharaoh" who as everybody always assumed had already sent MOSES and his people away and had seen them leaving now again had to "receive the message that the people have fled" so that "him and his servants" turned their hearts against the people? That does make no sense. But it does make sense that this Pharaoh is biblically identified as the "King of Egypt" in Exodus 14:5 in contrast to the non King „Pharaoh“ of the Ten Plagues; Because this is not the dead son mourning southern Pharaoh Ahmose like he is biblically described in his farewell to MOSES and his People; It is now the Canaanite Pharaoh the only real "King of Egypt" who extra needs a message to realize in his palace in Memphis that the People of Israel have left Heliopolis/ biblical On, Lahun/ biblical Phytom and even the home base of their families Avaris/ biblical Ra-amezes and the complete country: Pharaoh Khamudi, the King of Egypt. He is the Pharaoh who does make sense in the first contact with MOSES asking him to let his complete People, spread throughout complete Egypt, go; This took place in Memphis because it was biblically and archeologically evidenced spring and not summer, the time of their residence in the Palace of Avaris. And Khamudi is the only Pharaoh who makes sense to command the complete Canaanite charioteers and the Egyptian charioteers and the complete Egyptian footsoldier army to hunt after the people of Israel as distinguished in the Bible. He is the only historical Pharaoh who makes sense to have drowned with his complete army in the Yam Suph, the biblical evidenced Gulf of Acaba; His corpse/grave was never found anywhere in contrast to Ahmose, Amenhotep or Ramesses. He is the only historical Pharaoh making sense to be identified in these three biblically mentioned situations as the "King of Egypt".

Interestingly enough the Bible says that certain regions were spared by certain plagues (eg. Exodus 8:18, 9:26): the Israelites in Goshen at the Nile Delta, Avaris/ Ra-amezes, Lahun/ Phytom and Heliopolis/ On were spared from dog flies, ulcers, hailstorm, absolute darkness and death of all male firstborn. The Ipuwer Papyrus does confirm as historical most of the plagues for complete Egypt. The Ahmose Stela for Southern Egypt archeologically confirms especially the pyramids, temples and idols destroyed by a storm of “unnatural rain” and the Ypuver Papyrus mentions the biblically confirmed unnatural „rain of fire and ice“. Also the darkness is mentioned by both sources. The death of all firstborn is scriptively evidenced in the Ipuver Papyrus and archeologically corroborated by the death of the firstborn son of Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I. There is no evidence for any son of the King of Egypt Khamudi confirming again the biblical distiguishment of both Pharaohs.

Khamudi's Southern Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose with his huge building projects is related to all slave work issues and the Hyksos capital Memphis is located near the border of the Northern and Southern Dynasty. Thus Memphis was easy to visit for the Southern Pharaoh Ahmose. It is very plausible to assume that he had also been present during the first meeting of MOSES with Khamudi ... This invites the reader to an even deeper biblical text analysis of the first meeting of MOSES with "Pharaoh" AND „Pharaoh King of Egypt“ in other words Southern Vassall-Pharaoh Ahmose AND Northern Pharaoh Khamudi King over complete Egypt ...

Enjoy Your research discovery adventure!



Are there any remains of ancient Hebrew campsites in the desert? In the latest biblical archeological discussions one of the main settlement locations of Israel in the 40 years of wandering through the desert is discovered: The mountain Hashem El Tarif in the Sinai desert near Timna at the ancient contemporary travel route from Egypt to Mesopotamia and Canaan; The first Sinai stations after Israel came back from Midian in Northern Arabia into Sinai are the lustgraves (Numbers33:16) and Hazerot (Numbers11:35-12:16). The last Sinai station before crossing the sea was Etham at the edge of the wilderness (Exodus13:20). Hashem El Tarif at the edge of the Sinai desert matches with most biblical data as archaeological evidence for rather years or months than weeks or days of settlement, including graves of possible tribe leaders, the great grandsons of the 12 tribefathers. In the linked documentary on https://youtu.be/DqLsYonjvRY, the place is not recognized one of the desert stations in the 40 years of Israel in the desert. Instead it is confused with the Holy Mountain in the land of Midian. But according to all ancient scriptures including the Bible, Midian always was in Northern Arabia and the wilderness Sinai was not limited to the peninsula in ancient times. If You are looking for evidence for the biblical Sea Division Miracle and the real Mount 'Sinai' - actually the biblical Mount Horeb - study the documentaries on www.patternsofevidence.com. Explore the evidence for the real Mount 'Sinai' in Midian always having been in Arabia (Galatians4:25) beyond the biblical Reed Sea "Yam Suf" (1Kings9:26), today called Gulf of Aqaba (Exodus2:15.3:1): The fascinating Gebel El Lawz with overwhelming evidence for remains of Hebrew campsites on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y-uiccIiSY&t=354s. The wilderness of the east called Sinai was geographically reduced to the peninsula up to 2 millennia later.

"Moses spent forty years 
thinking he was somebody; 

forty years 
learning he was nobody; 

and forty years 
discovering what God can do 
with a nobody."

D.L. Moody



Canaanite Pharaoh Khamudi and his army never returned from their chase after Israel. The remaining Egyptian-Canaanites in Avaris were left on their own: Ahmose I sees his chance to turn the doom of the 'Hyksos' army into his victory wiping out the shameful memory of Egypt under the foreign Semitic rule. Ahmose I claims after having taken Heliopolis and Sile to have won a siege battle against Avaris (see picture below).

Historian Manetho (in Josephus) however states, after a composition between the Egyptians and the Hyksos was made, the Hyksos surrendered to the Egyptians in return for a safe passage back to Canaan and all of them left Egypt. Avaris Excavator Bietak states that there is no evidence for any violent destruction of Avaris: "The archaeological material stops abruptly with the early 18th Dynasty in '1534 BC' (the biblical year 1606 BC). The most likely interpretation is that Avaris was abandoned. No conflagration layer or corpses of slain soldiers have been found so far in the large and widely separated excavation areas."

Picture: Ahmose's I Avaris Victory Propaganda as After Desaster Shock Confusion Coping: Pharaoh allegedly defeats ALL Foreigners - black-skinned white-clothed Southern invaders and light-skinned lengthways striped clothed Semites (Israelites) mixed up with transversely striped clothed Semites (Canaanites). Now compare the distinguishment between Canaanites and Israelites at the end of Chapter Hyksos with this picture: This is archeological evidence for the indifference of Egyptian grown hate against all foreigners - Canaanites and Israelites are chaotically mixed up and their distinguishment gets lost in history. The memory of the brutal Canaanites being erased in the floods of the Gulf of Acaba (biblically identified as Yam Suph) by the one G‘d of Israel instead of Ahmose is from then on suppressed and the peaceful Israelites now become the main Semitic invaders and object of Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion. Israelites instead of Canaanites are sinking in the waters. All this confusion is manifested in priestly traditions in the following millennium and leads to ancient historian Manetho’s confusing the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion and Expulsion with the Hebrew Ensettlement, Enslavement and Exodus; This again leads two millennia later to the antibiblical successfull attempts of leading egyptologists to discard Manetho’s and 10 other ancient historians’ historical evidence of Israel in Egypt completely as allegedly „corrupted“ … 

Ahmose I Expulsion of Hyksos


“The past was erased, the erasure was forgotten, the lie became the truth.”

In order to save his life and existence as Pharaoh, 

  1. Ahmose had to delete and compensate the defeat of the Egyptians Gods under the Santorini Eruption Impact on the Ten Plagues and the loss of Egypt‘s complete slaveworkforce.
  2. He had to delete the glorious history of Egypts savior out of famine Vizierking Joseph and his Dynasty and the two Vizierking Dynasties of his sons, grandsons and greatgrandsons. One century earlier Canaanite Hyksos King Samuqenu already destroyed all statues and artefacts revealing JOSEPH‘s grandness. Only tattered apart puzzle pieces of evidence in Southern Thebes survived thanks to the 16th/17th Dynasty. JOSEPH and his 5 Viziernames became dispersed into 5 more or less unknown Viziers. Ahmose did do the rest regarding the Vizierkingships of the 16th and 17th Dynasty.
  3. Ahmose had to delete the shameful history and memory of the Egyptians having co-comitted the enslavement of their saviour’s people together with their brutal invaders and opressors. Especially his propaganda confusion picture of his alleged victory over all foreign peoples of Egypt effectively served this purpose up until today.

To delete and twist disadvantagous history into advantagous glorious history was common practice of Pharaos in ancient Egypt as commonly known in Egyptology.

Ahmose’s first attempt has already been shown in the propaganda victory picture of his „Hyksos Expulsion“.

Ahmose’s second attempt was to declare all Semitic Foreign Past Dynasties as illegitimate and non historical: The resulting archeological evidence is still seen three centuries later in the Saqarra King List and the Abydos King List: Joseph‘s 13th Dynasty of Hebrew Shepherd Kings is omitted together with his lineage’s 16th and 17th Dynasty Hebrew Shepherd Kings. ALL three Dynasties (13/16/17) had been omitted as illegal foreign Dynasties together with the Canaanite 14th and 15th Dynasty of Egypt’s brutal oppressors. Nevertheless Egyptologists still proclaim up until today the 13th/16th/17th Dynasty as to be “Egyptian” which only holds 50% true for solely Pharao Ahmose’s I family clan the “Ahmosides” who married into the Hebrew Dynasty at the end of the 17th Dynasty.

Exceptions partly unveiling the truth: 

a) Only the inscriptions of Ahmose’s I granddaughter Pharaoh Hatshepsut reveal a clear distinction between the by the Egyptians called (Hebrew) Hekashasut since Amenemhet III and the later upcoming (Canaanite) “Barbarians” in the midst of them: “I do not sleep forgetting, (but) have made form what was ruined. For I have raised up what was dismembered beginning from the time when the Hekashasut were in the midst of the Delta, (in) Avaris, with barbarians in their midst, toppling what had been made. They ruled without the Sun, and he did not act by god’s decree down to my (own) uraeus-incarnation.”

b) Only the Karnak List of the 15th century is honoring ALL Pharaohs who were involved in building any parts of the Karnak Tempel Complex and thus mentions some Pharaos of the Second Intermediate Period.

c) Only the informaly in hiratic written down unofficial Turin King List on the back of an older Papyrus reveal the names of the rotating Hebrew Shepherd Kings under Joseph’s Vizierking lineage. 

d) Only ancient historian Manetho’s 3rd century BC list of the five different Dynasties and his list of the 15th Dynasty Pharaos from “Phonecia” or “Arabia” (namely Assur, corroborated by excavated evidence of Manfred Bietak) unveils partly the truth about the Second Intermediate Period.

Nearly the complete history of all Hekhakhasut/ Hykso Dynasties had been erased by Egyptian pharaohs. “Even today, in particular, there are not found any Hyksos written texts, inscriptions and bas-reliefs, tombs, frescoes or sculptures,” confirms historian Evgenii Misetskii. “Everything that could somehow remind of the power of the Hyksos was destroyed in the country by order of the New Kingdom pharaohs” (Misetskii, “From Joseph to Moses: The Key Time of Interaction Between the Cultures of Egypt and Israel”).


Pharaoh Khamudi is nowhere mentioned as defeated or killed, neither in Sharuen, the old 'Hyksos' home base in Canaan and target of the Expulsion of the Hyksos nor in Avaris or Memphis. There is no evidence for him having survived the year 1606 BC ('1535 BC'). No grave and no skeleton had ever been found - but many chariot wheels with axles, reinforced with metal and rests of many other chariots are found on the ground of both sides of the sea Yam Suf, the Re(e)d Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba near the land of Midian (Psalm 136:15, Exodus 14:28). 

 "The Lord our God threw them into the sea
to the depths of the Abyss
in place of the Israelites,
just as the Egyptians had thrown their sons into the river.
He took revenge on one million of them:
1000 men, strong and also very brave,
perished for one infant of your people
whom they had thrown into the river."

Jubilees 48:14

Explore the evidence for the Canaanite Pharaoh and his Egyptian-Canaanite army sunk in the Sea of Aqaba on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HM7njJuarrg in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weaBUUqfPoI&list=PLEA7Bvb3a7XJErk7Bwi-wj0TDtftJkrQZ&index=4&t=38s in German. 

"The Lord our G'd threw them into the sea
into the depths of the Abyss"
"the earth swallowed them"
 Jubilees 48:14 and 
Exodus 15:12

"The water came back and covered all the chariots and cavalry
of PHRAOH's army who had followed them into the sea -

Exodus 14:28

Different successful highly creative and speculative attempts of Ramesses Time Paradigm devotees (c. 1260 BC Exodus) and 'Early' Date devotees (1446 BC Exodus) to reinterpret and heavily change the meaning of these and several other cristal clear Bible cites led into the dominant antibiblical hypothesis that the Pharaoh (and even essential parts of his army) allegedly had "biblically indicated" survived the Sea Miracle (fixed in the brains of the world by the most famous Exodus movies). This is necessary to make their Bible contradicting dating hypotheses work because their identified Pharaohs Ramesses II and Amenhotep II never lost their army, died a natural death, and left their skeletons behind in their tombs in contrast to Khamudi, King of Egypt until 1606 BC ('1531'BC), who is lying with his army on the ground of the Yam Suph, the biblically evidenced Gulf of Acaba: This enabled Ahmose I to easily expel the Canaanite people of the Nile Delta, Avaris, and Memphis out of Egypt after the ten times bigger people of Israel - most of them having lived in the Nile Delta/Avaris/Ra-amezes, Fayium/Lahun/Pythom, and Heliopolid/Leontopolis/On - already had left Egypt, had crossed the Sinai and the Sea and already had reached Mount Horeb in Midian Arabia.







The ancient Egyptians feared nothing more than CHAOS. The Santorini Eruption Impacts on Egypt, Ahmose's Storm Stela, and the Iypuwer Papyrus precisely confirm the CHAOS in Egypt in this time; The time of the Hyksos Expulsion, the biblical time of the Ten Plagues and the Exodus in 1606 BC ('1534 BC').


Hate is one form of confusion - confusion of fear, sorrow, grief, jealousy, and other emotions. But for sure always set on fire by egoism and hurt narcissism. The story of the Egyptians’ relationship with the Israelites and Canaanites is also the beginning history of antisemitism with all its contradictions and confusions inside. Antisemitism always had a spiritual dimension: Hate towards believers in their ONE and only G’d always has been mixed with jealousy towards blessings through many descendants, prosperity, and success - antisemitism always had an evil, antitheistic part. The forerunner of Egyptian antisemitism was a simple antipathy towards foreigners due to cultural differences; For example Egyptians disliked herding sheep and shepherds and did not have meal together with foreigners thinking them unclean. No later than 1666 BC the Egyptians did not differentiate anymore between the peaceful Hebrews from Canaan and the brutal martial Canaanites themselves. They were both now simply seen as hated „HekaShasut“, foreign rulers from the East. This title meanwhile had turned into a negative term like the other term for people from Canaan „Retjenus“. Even up until today the Israelites of the so-called Early Hyksos Period are confused with the Canaanites: nowadays by leading antibiblical Archeologists. They mixxed up the Mesopotamian, Syrian, and Canaanite Abrahamian archeological echo in JACOB's palace in Avaris (Rohl) with other Avaris indications of the later Canaanite brutal invaders from Assur. Thid also can be easily misused to foster further


The upcoming Egyptian hate against Semites was radically evoked by the brutal invasion, massacres, destructions, and suppression of the Canaanite Foreign Rulers from Assur since 1729 BC. Israel’s role in the "Golden Times" of the 13th Dynasty suddenly changed back from foreign ruler to foreign slave; This was the other way round than in JOSEPH's Egyptian career. The Egyptians loved and hero-worshipped JOSEPH as their savior and they also "honored the children of Israel all days of Joseph's lifetime" according to Jubilees 46:2. But they never really loved his people. They were disgusted as shepherds (Genesis 46:34, Jubilees 46:16). The Egyptians abreacted their grief to the suppressor Canaan through backsuppressing Israel: they recommended their enslavement to the first Canaanite Pharaoh (The Book of Jubilees 46:12; Klaus Berger 1981, page 539 footnote 12b).

1666 BC the phase of a Co-Rulership of a Canaanite and a Hebrew Pharaoh (Kayan & Sobekhotep) began. The Egyptian differentiation between Hebrew and  Canaanite Semites had come to its end. From then on Egyptian antisemitism against Eastern Semites from Canaan was branded into Egyptian memory for millennia up until today; Egypt rejects archeological discoveries confirming any rulerhsip of Israel in Egypt. Egyptologists who would publish to have discovered confirming evidence would risk to lose their excavation site; this has an essential impact on scientific independence, neutrality, and objectivity in Egyptology today. It is the main reason for the "Dark Second Intermediate Period" having become such a helpless speculative guesswork (Compare Manfred Bietak's lectures linked at the start and end of this work). And again and again it’s causing new


Finally, the Ipuwer Papyrus from the time of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC claims distraught "Foreigners have become OUR PEOPLE 'rmt' everywhere!" The term 'rmt'="people" normally was reserved only for describing Egyptians themselves (Charlotte Booth. The Role of Foreigners 9. in Ancient Egypt: A Study of Non-Stereotypical Artistic Representations. in Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005). This way it precisely and accurately described the faced historical situation:

A) Thousands of Canaanite elite warriors took Egyptian wives; This lead to an "egyptianised" mixed lineage with an Egyptian female line through four generations resulting in over two hundred thousand Canaanite Egyptians
B) Over biblically 3 million Israelites spread all over Egypt
C) A 15th Dynasty of Canaanite Egyptians/ Egyptian Canaanites ruled over Egypt
D) A 13th and 16th Hebrew Dynasty of four generations, rooted in Egyptian marriages of EPHRAIM, MANASSE, BENYAMIN and other Hebrews
E) The Hebrew-Canaanite marriage between Sobekhotep and Khayan‘s Daughter Meris - MOSES' adoptive mother -supported the declining Egyptian distinction between these two different Semitic Foreigners.
F) The 17th Dynasty of Ahmosides, based on the Egyptian takeover of the Hebrew throne through Egyptian marriages into the Hebrew royal family clan finally expelled the Canaanites out of Egypt after their Pharaoh and his army had sunk in the floods of the Gulf of Acaba.
Manfred Bietak’s newest research results at the end of Chapter Hyksos confirm the mixture of Egyptians,  Israelites and Canaanites with each other by a wide range of istope values in Avaris.
Even the Book of Jubilees talks about the army of the King of Egypt hunting after Israel "with all the VARIETY of the Peoples of Egypt" instead of calling them Egyptians; It talks about (the King's) "his people" (Jubilees 48:6) and about "men of Egypt" (Jubilees 48:14). The reader is able to realize now why these peoples weren't directly called Egyptians. Leading Egyptologists‘ Ahmose Storm Stela and Ipuwer Papyrus evaluation conclusions turn out to be a reducement of essential historical eyewitness reports into „symbolic poetry“ based on symbolism paradigms; As a matter of fact Ahmose's Storm Stela does not only precisely describe from an Egyptian viewpoint the biblical plagues and the biblical plundering of gold, silver, and fine clothes by Hebrew slaves; It additionally describes the historical situation of the 15th/17th Dynasty including 35 different Canaanite, Hebrew and Egyptian Pharaohs and their constantly changing unbalanced power dynamics. There was such a strong mixing of Semites with Egyptians that the Egyptians realistically had to fear to lose their complete original identity and existence as Egyptians. This caused a terrifying


The sudden abrupt disappearance of both former Semitic foreign  rulers out of Egypt in the same year 1606 BC after a series of evidenced shocking deadly environmental disasters (Ten Plagues) altogether must have been strongly disturbing for the affected people's mentality: The Confusion holds on even over one thousand years later revealed by Josephus' Hebrew and Manetho's Egyptian ancient attempt to describe this shocking interruption and spectacular intervention into human history. Like all other ancient writers, they consequently both failed in clearly differentiating the Exodus of Israel from the Hyksos Expulsion - both taking place in the same year. From the Egyptian perspective, both foreigners had ruled over Egypt for about a century each. And Egypt was left by all these meanwhile hated foreigners in the same year. So the Egyptians suppressed the uncomfortable truth that they had helped enslaving the people of their former savior out of gamine and guarantor of peace and stability in Egypt in the time of the "Golden Age". They tried to cope this together with their ashaming memories regarding their suppressors the Canaanites. Their Pharaoh erased the past, the erasure was forgotten and the lie became the truth. This way the Israelites and the Canaanites - both being Semites from Canaan mostly called Hekashasut - were mixed up, melted together and confused with each other. This was also a typical Egyptian pattern of behavior in their world of deities. The confusion of the Israelites with the Canaanites from then on has not been resolved by any ancient or modern historian up until today. This confusion is even enforced by today’s leading Biblical Archeologists and Egyptologists (see Finkelstein's & Bietak's lectures against the Exodus linked at the beginning and the end of this work). The confusion is only resolvable by the Word, the Bible itself as we have seen in this work.


Dr. David Ben-God HaCohen describes Manethos' and Josephus' confused attempts to describe history as follows: “Manetho, the Egyptian priest from the third century BC, in his book Aegyptiaca, identifies the Israelites with the Hyksos. Manetho offers the following outline as quotes coming from Josephus 'Against Apion':

‘These people, whom we have before named Kings, and called Shepherds also, and their descendants, kept possession of Egypt ... After this composition was made (SC: Canaanite 'Hyksos' surrender to Pharaoh Ahmose in return for a safe passage back to Canaan) they went away with their whole families and effects, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand. They took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for Syria.“

Many scholars believed that Manetho is preserving an authentic ancient tradition. So they identified the Israelites with the Canaanite rulers of Egypt and as the only ever existing Hyksos. If this were actually the case, then on the one hand the Israelites claimed that they were enslaved in Egypt, and on the other hand, the Egyptians claimed that they brutally conquered Egypt: These contradicting claims are in direct tension with each other. As we have seen both of these traditions are somehow ancient. Josephus responds harshly to Apion, who used the identification of the Israelites fleeing Egypt with the Egypt oppressing Hyksos to undermine the biblical account. He paints „the Jews" as aggressors hiding behind false claims of victimization; Now Manetho, in his other book seemingly confirms this saying “That this nation, thus called Shepherds, were also called Captives in their sacred books.” Realizing that this perspective undermines the biblical account entirely, Josephus spends almost a quarter of his book refuting it to fight against this up until today ongoing 


This ancient confusion up until today is called the Hyksos Controversy.
However there are additional last open questions regarding the Canaanites; They also seem to be mixed up or confused - this time with the Egyptians in the eyes of Israel: In Genesis 1:13 the Egyptians are named as the ones, who force the Israelites to hard work - Why are they called Egyptians and not Canaanites? The answer is because the Egyptians were the ones who recommended the Enslavement of Israel to the first Canaanite Hyksos King. The Egyptians were deeply involved in the Enslavement of Israel and they took primarily advantage of it. As already explained in the 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees the Egyptian elites are the ones who convinced the Hyksos Pharaoh to enslave Israel (The Book of Jubilees 46:12 Berger footnotes). This happened as a revenge a long time ago after having become dispossessed slaves of Pharaoh Amenemhet through JOSEPH one century earlier (Genesis 47:19); This translation option was not recognized as the most plausible one by experts regarding the Book of Jubilees but after having examined this work it becomes in fact the most plausible one. Nevertheless, the Canaanite Pharaohs were the decisionmaker, commander, and leading initiator of the Enslavement of Israel and finally of the chase after Israel to the Red Sea. All these mixed up populations of Egyptians, Canaanites, and Hebrews - obviously also in the eyes of Israel - left a certain


Exodus 14 calls the Pharaoh's army at the sea several times Egyptians - why not Canaanites? The answer is, the Canaanites were primarily a male army of warriors; mixing up with Egyptian females was a typical colonial behavior. In their 123 years of Rulership - that’s at least three generations of mixing up with Egyptian females -they became more and more (50%, 75%, 87%) Egyptians - not only culturally but also physically. This is evidenced from Egyptian perspective in the Ipuwer Papyrus as already mentioned. But also from Israel's perspective: The huge number of foot soldiers were Egyptians and not Canaanites. Thus also a reluctant description of ethnic differences in the Bible and the Book of Jubilees is one reason for the millennia ongoing


However: How and why could the essential fact, that Israel was originally and initially enslaved and oppressed by Canaanite rulers get lost and forgotten in Israel's history at all? Possible reasons are shame, repression, and a simply confused neglected differentiation between Egyptians and Canaanites comparable to the Egyptian perspective regarding Israelites and Canaanites over one millennium later still traceable in Manetho‘s attempts to describe history. Everyone who has read through the Bible, does know how much more humiliating and shameful it must have been for Israel having been slaves not only of the Egyptians but also of their historical arch enemy Canaan. Canaan's role in the Bible is the role the Conquered Land and defeated enemy; The painful memory that Israel beforehand in Egypt was themselves conquered, defeated, and even enslaved by these Canaanites must have been a memory very likeable to be suppressed. The Jewish biblical scholar and psychoanalyst Immanuel Velikovsky was the first one who identified the eyewitness report of the Ten Plagues in the Ipuwer Papyrus; Furthermore he developed a theory about such an obvious "Cultural Amnesia" of a complete people - in our case even two amnesia: the one of the Egyptians and the one of the Israelites.
In Israel‘s daily life experience of slavery the Egyptians were the daily visible slave drivers and slaveowners of the Israelites. The Hebrew slaves hardly met or even saw any Canaanites in their daily work-life. Furthermore the Southern Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose used the Hebrew slave workforce for his archeologically evidenced huge mudbrick building projects. All the huge building projects of Pharaoh Ahmose were abruptly left unfinished in the year of the Exodus of Israel and the Canaanite Hyksos Expulsion. One example is Ahmose's Pyramide, the last Pyramide of an Egyptian Pharaoh in history. New patterns of evidence in Chapter Hyksos - the foreign ruler who arose in enmity above Egypt in the Bible and the Canaanite Invasion in the Book of Jubilees - have lead to the additional conclusion that relating informations also became veiled more and more in some „fog“ of translation losses. This is asking for a new focus in further explorations of yet unidentified original Qumran Scripture Fragments; As already shown the 1500 years old Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees confirms that the Egyptians convinced the Canaanite oppressor to enslave Israel (46,12 footnote b Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees). Cultural amnesia and translation losses altogether caused further



The History of the Hyksos Controversy 
is up until today 
a 3600 years old history of confusion.

The History of Egyptology 
regarding the Second Intermediate Period 
is up until today
a history of confusion.

The History of "Biblical" Archeology 
is from its beginning on up until today 
a history of confusion.

The History of the Bible 
is also a history of thousands of adversaries
trying to destract and destroy the trust
in the most reliable ancient history book
based on trustworthy eyewitness reports
never disproved in one single verse.


The last explaining background for the Canaanites of Egypt getting lost in biblical history is the repressed story of a forgotten book, lost for centuries, evidenced as a strikingly relevant part of the Hebrew authoritative scriptures and seen by an essential part of the Jewish population as inspired Scriptures in the time of the Second Temple in Israel from at least the 3rd century BC until the second century AD: It claims to be written in the time of MOSES and it clearly and precisely identifies the Canaanites as the brutal invaders and oppressors of Egypt and as the decision-makers of the enslavement and male firstborn mass murder of Israel. But the book had been dismissed too often. First by the Hellenistic Jewish translators of the Tanakh in Alexandria around 200 BC because of its anti-Hellenistic messages and then after the first century AD by most Jewish religious officials because of the first Jewish followers of Yeshua/Jesus having 'occupied' it for their messianic message. And later, when the first 'messianic' Jews or Jewish 'Christians' had vanished, it was dismissed by the initially 'pagan' Christians, this time because of the Hellenistic Jewish Greek translation of the Pentateuch logically having become the canonical authority as the oldest Greek Old Testament; First in Greece and then in the complete Roman Empire for the Christians in the time of the first developing strict official canonization of the Old Testament and the New Testament in the contemporary Greek speaking world.

The Book of Jubilees has turned out to be an arrow rain
towards the adversaries against the credibility of
the Torah - the Tanakh - the complete Bible
and Scientists have to learn that
there is no serious evidence
that can disprove
the Word of God.

"Adonai thundered from heaven .. he sent out arrows"
2Samuel22:8-16 CJB

The Book of the Divisions of the Times.
MOSES' written down Chronology of the books of Genesis and Exodus.
Dictated by the Angel of the Face.
The Angel of the Lord
The Savior of Israel.

"I stood between You, the Egyptians and the Israelites"

"And the Angel of G'd
who goes in front of the camp of Israel
moved and went behind them .."


In relationship to the New Testament, the book of Jubilees contains one of the earliest references to the idea that God gave the Law to Moses through an angelic mediator, the Angel of the Face; This (Klaus Berger Jubilees1:28.28,2:1) is likewise confirmed in Paul’s epistle to the Galatians (Galatians3:19) and leads like other OT verses about the Angel of the LORD to the question if God himself is meant with this person as another person of G‘d - also discussed by the Ethiopean Jewish and Christian believers in the Book of Jubilees. Paul does hint here to these two different persons seemingly being one and the same G‘d: 

„Why then the Mattan Torah (the Giving of the Torah)? The Torah was added because of transgressions, until the descendant Zera (Messiah/Moshiach) should come to whom the promise havtachah had been made (Bereshis22:18). Now the law Torah was administered through an angel/angelos and mediator/mesites. Now the mesites is not mediator for only one, but God is only one.“ Galatians‬‭3:19‬-20 TheOrthodoxJewishBible2011‬‬

Also King David hints in Psalm 110 to the Messiah adressing him as his LORD Adonai in the same way as he adresses JHWH as his LORD Adonai. The reader is invited to also prove and deeply analyse: Genesis21:17.22:11.31.11,48:16.32.25 Exodus3:2,14:19 Numbers22:23 Joshua5:12-6:2 Judges2:1.5,23,6:11.13.3 2Kings1:3 1Chronicles21:12 Psalm15:10,34:8,35:5,109:1,109:3,110:1 Proverbs8:22,27:30,30,4 Isaiah9:5,52:13,53,53:8 Lamentations4:20 Daniel9:25,9:27 Micah5:1 Zechariah1:7,3:1.10,12:1,12:8,12:10

Whatever conclusion the reader draws, he has to answer himself following questions: In Judaism it leads to the question „Is the citation of the Book of Jubilees that JOSEPH was sold by his brothers on Yom Kippur and are other citations in the Midrasch Tadsche holy truth and instructions of Hashim?“.
In Christianity and also in Messianic Judaism it leads to the questions „Did Paul by citing the Book of Jubilees also proclaim it as G‘d breathed? Did nearly all Holy Writers of the Second or New Testament cite the Book of Jubilees as up until today valid Word of G‘d? Did even the Lord himself cite the Book of Jubilees as G‘d breathed Word?“. In Biblical Archeology after having delivered so many matchings of the Bible with Archeology in this work it leads believers to the question „Is the Book of Jubilees really a heretical apocrypha without any historical value I should discard seeking for the truth?“.


For our elder Jewish brothers: The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" and to the Children of Israel "Write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" and as seen contemporary Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions in Egypt prove the Israelites were able to easily learn to read and write: Ex 17:4, 24:4, 34:27, Deut 6:9, 11:20, 18:15-19, Lev 13:14, Num 33:1, Deut 31:9, Jos 1:7, 8:31, 1Kings 2:3, 2Kings 14:6, 21:8, Ezr 6:18, Neh 13:1, Dan l9:11

For the Christians: Yeshua/ Jesus himself clearly believes in Moshe/ Moses and the Torah as his personal writings: Mt 8:4 & Num 13.14, Mt 19:7 & Deut 24, Marc 1:44, 10:3 Lk 5:14, 20:37, Jhn 7:19-40, 6:14, 10:35

"For if you really believed MOSHE, you would believe ME; because it was about me that he WROTE. But if You believe not HIS WRITINGS, how shall You believe MY WORDS?"
John 5:46-47

When a rich hard-hearted man died and woke up in the painful underworld, he shouted over the deep canyon onto the other side in Paradise to Father Avraham to send someone back from the dead to life to warn his brothers about this place of pain. Avraham answered "They have MOSHE and the Prophets. Let them hear on THEM." When the rich man said "NO, they will not! Only if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent!" Avraham said unto him
"If they hear not on MOSHE and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead."  

Luke 16:31, 24:34, John 11:43-44


There is no evidence PROVING the Semites in Egypt 
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty 
being Canaanites.

There is no evidence DISPROVING the Semites in Egypt 
of the 12th, 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty  
being Israelites.

There is no evidence PROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty 
- before the Ahmosides - 
being Egyptians.

There is no evidence DISPROVING the Pharaohs
of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty 
- before the Ahmosides -
being Israelites.

Leading Egyptology's and Leading Biblical Archeology's 
postulated hypothesizes against any Israel in Egypt 
stand and fall with the by themselves 
disproved Bible falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm.

It's their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without ever having DISPROVED them. 
Nearly all these ancient writings reveal 
the time of Foreign Rulers in Egypt 
as the time of Israel in Egypt and 
the time of the Exodus of Israel 
as the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.

Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence, 
and nearly all relating ancient writings 
confirm all comprehensive strictly biblical time data
in the timeframe 1830-1606 BC.

The complete self-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period 
 enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings 
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt. 

It had been darkened for repression 3600 years ago by the Egyptians as defeated adversaries of the G'd of Israel and
it has been re-darkened by modern Leading Archeologists
as Zeitgeist dependant adversaries of the Bible.

The Bible has to be primarily acknowledged as a reliable Book of History based on archeologically evidenced eyewitness reports that by no means has ever been disproved in any way.

The Book of Exodus turns out to be a fully reliable 
archeologically evidenced  eyewitness report of Moses and a history book that never has been disproved.

“… their minds were hardened …
to this day whenever Moses is read
a veil lies over their hearts.“

‭‭2 Corinthians‬ ‭3‬:‭14‬-‭15‬ ‭ESV‬‬

Despite the best efforts of ancient propaganda-driven pharaohs 
and modern, agenda-driven scholars, 
a convincing solid frame of Egyptian evidence for Israel in Egypt 
has been unveiled in this work.

- The Veil Removed -

      "… There are stories … about a time of Israel in Egypt and what happened back then … - …?"

             "… It's true. …” 

             “… All of it! …"

The Bible is an archeologically proven History Book.
It is the most reliable ancient history book of all because it is based on trustworthy eyewitness accounts. Nevertheless furthermore it has always been the most faught book of all.
And this is the REAL reason why:

ALL Scripture
is GOD breathed

is valuable for teaching 

the TRUTH,
convicting of SIN, 

correcting FAULTS, 

and training in RIGHT LIVING,

so that the Man of God 

may be PERFECT, 

having been trained for every GOOD WORK.

And Moses spoke to the people of Israel:

Hashem Eloheicha The LORD will raise up unto thee a Navi Prophet from among thee, of thy achim kamoni kinsmen like me;
unto him ye must listen;
According to all that thou desiredst of
Hashem Eloheicha the LORD in Chorev in the Yom HaKahal on Horeb in the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of Hashem Elohav the LORD, neither let me see this eish hagedolah great fire any more, that I die not. And Hashem the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken.
I will raise them up a
Navi Prophet from among their achim kinsmen, like unto thee,
and I will put My words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.“
‭‭Devarim‬ ‭(Deuteronomy) 18‬:‭15‬-‭18 ‭TOJB, c. Acts 3:22, 7:37

„But against anyone who is not willing to listen to his words,
which he will speak in my name,
I will stand forth as the AVENGER.“
Deuteronomy‬ ‭18‬:‭19‬ ‭CPDV‬‬, c. Luke 10:15-16



Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.



*2111-1936+ BC


& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR



Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


*2011-1831+ BC




*1951-1804+ BC

& Wife LEAH

Brother ESAU

Pharaoh Senwosret III

JOSEPH Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Khety Khnumhotep Zamonth

*1860-1750+ BC
1830-1750 BC

The Egyptians named him 
God Sealer, Gate of Foreign Lands, Pharaoh's Real Friend, Overseer of the Fields & Hunters, Arm of Month, Mayor and Mouth of Nekhen.

His early Viziernames were

Senwosret Ankh, 
Amenemhet Ankh, 

A-Henut or Henutsen

She was the daughter of POTIPHERA named Khnumhotep II. The Egyptians called her Priestess,

Queenmother, and

Mother of Gods.

She was mother of the two Viziers
EPHRAIM named Senwosret Ankhu and
MANASSE named Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw.
Furtheron she became mother of six Pharaohs:
Rensenebu named Imyrmashaw,

Wepwauthotep named Sobekhotep III,
Kingson Khakaw named
Kingson Sonb named Ined and 10 Kingdaughters two are evidenced called Seneb and Satamun. 

12 Brothers &

Leah's sons are called
LEVI was Pharaoh Amenemhet V. Three of his sons became Pharaohs. His grandson became Pharaoh Amenemhet VI.
Pharaoh. LEVI is the father of KHAHAT, father of AMRAM, father of


Rachel's sons were called JOSEPH and BENJAMIN.
BENJAMIN became Pharaoh Amenemhet IV. All of his ten sons became Pharaohs. His great-grandson was Pharaoh Amenemhet VII.

Bilhah's sons were called AN and NAPHTALI.

Zilpah's sons were called AD and ASHER.

Amenemhet III 

Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his own father and JOSEPH Therfore he was not memorized. Amenemhet's adopted son in law Amenemhet IV is biblical BENJAMIN.

His daughters: Nofrusobek became Pharaoh,

Nubheteptikhered became the wife of Amenemhet IV  (BENJAMIN). His daughter Mereret became the wife of (EPHRAIM) Senwosret Ankhu.

Further  daughters are Nofruptha, Hathorhotep, Sithathor and evidenced Kingdaughter Hatshepsut.

Vizier Senwosret Ankhu 

*1828-1726+ BC

He co-ruled together with his father JOSEPH
1798-1750 BC.

He was also named
Vizier Senwosret
Speaker of Vizier Zamonth

Senwosret Mayor of Lahun  under Vizier Khety.

He ruled as Vizierking over Egypt 1750-1726 BC.

& Wife Mereret

She was Pharaoh Amenemhat's III daughter.

Furtheron she was the mother of SHUTELAH 1 Chr 7:20 named Vizier Senwosret Resseneb and
BERIAH 1 Chr 7:23
called Sonbhenaf and named Vizier Iymerew Aya.

Her daughters were called
Senebhenas and Aya.

Two of his sons died in an attack of the sons of DAN & GAD: They were called ELEAD 1 Chr 7,21 and ESER named Nebankh.

Vizier Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw

*1828-1726+ BC

He is also deciphered as Dedwen- or Dedu Month Senebtefi.

He became
Mayor of Thebes, Vizier,
Royal Sealer and
Highpriest of Amun.

His illegitimate first son
1 Chronicles 7:14 of an Aramean concubine was called
1. MACHIR and named Nehy

His legitimate sons in
Joshua 17, 1 Chronicles 7 of an Egyptian mother called Nebetka are 

2. AVIEZER named
Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ called
Vizier Senebhenef
later named
Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL's name is lost
5. SHEMIDA named
Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER named
Pharaoh Khendjer 

Vizierking Monthotep = (Za)Month + (Khnum)hotep

1830-1750 BC

He was the First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut = Hyksos).

He is archeologically evidenced as
King Khnumhotep,
King Zamonth and
King Monthotep.
The Egyptians named him

Father of the Land and Father of G'ds. They

worshipped him as
Month, and

He was the brother of BENJAMIN the first Hebrew Pharaoh Amenemhat IV.

Vizier Senwosret Resseneb 

*1794-1714+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:20

He was the assistant of his grandfather JOSEPH and the entitled Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Khety.

He co-ruled as Vizier
with his father EPHRAIM
and his brother BERIAH
1750-1726 BC.

He ruled as 16th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1726-1714 BC.


She was HUPPIM's sister
Genesis 46:21 and granddaughter of BENJAMIN. 

Furthermore she was the evidenced King's Daughter
of BENJAMIN's son IR
1 Chron 7:12 named
Pharaoh Hor.

She was entitled as

Lady of the House“. 

She was the former widow of (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR
1 Chronicles 7:14 named Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites in the year of JOSEPH‘s death.

Brother BERIAH
Vizier Iymeru Aya

*1786-1698+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:23

He co-ruled as Vizier together with his father EPHRAIM and his brother SHUTELAH 1750-1726 BC.

His sisters were called Aya and Senebhenas. His wifes were called ZatJan and Redinetes.

His son REFACH 1 Chronicles 7:25 was named Vizier Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II.

BERIAH rules as 16th Dynasty Vizierking Ayamerew over Southern Egypt 1714-1698 BC.

EPHRAIM Vizierking
Senwosret Ankhu 

He rules as 13th Dynasty Vizierking over complete Egypt 1750-1726 BC.

He is archeologically evidenced named King Senwosret the King of Pharaoh Wegaf.


*1752-1658+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:16

He was the son of (SHUTELAH's) Resseneb's wife and former widow (MAACHAH) Senebtisi and (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son (MACHIR) 1 Chr 7:14 Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death.

PERESH named Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne and died early before his sons' kinghship. His sons proclaimed him as Royal Sealer, Father of Gods and Father of Kingsons.

& Wife  Kemi

She died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep. She was the mother of two self-called Kingsons:

1.REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I.

2.ULAM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV.

Vizier Neferkare Iymeru  or Ayameru II 

*1752-1646+ BC

He was the son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1 Chronicles 7:23 named 
Iymeru Aya.

His mother was called Redinetes.

He co-ruled together with his father Vizierking Iymeru Aya 1716-1698 BC.

He was 17th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1698-1666 BC.

Finally he was degraded to Vizier under Pharaohking Sobekhotep IV 1666-1646 BC. 

Samuqenu  (Salitis)
First Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh

1729-1710 BC:
He was the first 15th Dynasty self announced HYKSOS = Foreign King who arose in enmity over Egypt Exodus 1:8.

Parallel Southern
Hebrew Shepherd Kings in his time were:
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:20 named Vizierking Senwosret Resseneb
16th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:23 named Vizierking Iymeru Aya and Ayamerew.
17th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:25 named Vizierking Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II. 

ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV

*1720-1626+ BC

He was the second son of PERESH 1 Chr 7:16 named Haankhef.

Furthermore he was the husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris.

This way he co-ruled together with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt
1666-1658 BC.

He was the stepfather of

Sobekhotep Mio =


1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan

1. His first wife was Canaanite and called 
MERIS or Mereryt. She was Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan.

She became mother of Pharaoh Sobekhotep V (BN Sobekhotep Djadja) and Haankhef Iyhkarnofrat.

But beforehand and first of all she became the
doptive Queenmother of
crownprince Sobekhotep Mio  =


2. His Second wife was Hebrew and called Tjan:
Her son became Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI BN Amenhotep.
Her daughter Nebtiunet
became Queen Tetisheri, the wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose.

Brother REKEM/
Neferhotep I

REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I. He was the father of Pharaoh Sihathor who as a nephew of Sobekhotep IV had no reign time and suffered an early death.

Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV

1666-1658 BC:

He co-ruiled as Hebrew son in law together with Canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC.

1666 BC was the year of the switch back from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover by the Ahmosides 1627 BC.

Pharaoh Ahmose I

Reign Years: 
1618-1581 BC 

(1562-1525 BC)

Ahmose built his temples and Pyramid with a huge Semitic slavework force. During the impacts of the Santorino mega vulcanic eruption on Egypt/ the biblical Ten Plagues Ahmose was the main pharaonic opponent of


His grandfather Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose had married into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty clan. His Hebrew mother in law was (ULAM’s) Pharaoh Sobekhotep’s IV Hebrew wife Tjan who’s daughter Nebtiunet became his Hebrew wife named Queen Tetisheri. Their son is Ahmose’s father Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao who ruled 1626-1621 BC. One of his sisterwife‘s was Queen Sadjehuti. Her birthname was the Hebrew name Satibu. She was Ahmose’s aunt so his female lineage was Hebrew.

Pharaoh Ahmose’s wifes

were called 
1. Ahmose Nefertari
2. Ahmose Sitkamose
3. Ahmose Henut Tamehu
4. Kasmut
5. Thenthapi

Ahmose became father of at least eight children. His firstborn son was named Ahmose Sapair. He abruptly died as a young boy in the time around 1606 BC probably in the time of the impacts of the Santorini mega vulcano eruption on the Ten Plagues in Egypt.

Brother Pharaoh Kamose

Reign Years:
1621-1618 BC

Ahmose’s brother Pharaoh Kamose was the firstborn son of their father Sequenre Tao. He died in a battle against the Canaanite Northern Hyksos King Apophis.

Canaanite Hyksos King of Egypt Khamudi

Reign Years:
1617-1606 BC

Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khamudi in greek called Archeles is the biblical King of Egypt: During the time of Israel’s flight through the desert of Sinai and the biblical Sea Miracle Khamudi is the pharaonic opponent of 


Notes and References

Berger Klaus, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981 

Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press

Breasted, J.H., The History of Egypt, London 1957, Reprint Köln 2001 into German by Hermann Rankes.

Emmerick Anna Katharina, Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Emmerick Anna Katharina, The life of Holy Virgin Mary, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Emmerick Anna Katharina 1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Volume 3, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.

Grajetzki Wolfram, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, pp. 136-138, 160-161, 36, pl.3.

Haag Herbert, Bibel-Lexikon, Einsiedeln 1956.

Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16.
Yael Ehrlich, Lior Regev, Elisabetha Boaretto, 2018 Radiocarbon analysis of modern Olive Wood Raines doubts concerning a crucial piece of evidence in dating the Santorini eruption in researchgate.net 

Eruption around 1600 BC

Hayes JNES 12, p. 31-39; von Beckerath, 2. Zwischenzeit, p. 71-78

Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.

Quirke confirms Cypriot White Slip pottery ... provides no convincing argument against an eruption date of around 1600 BC.

Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.

Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.

Mieroop, Marc van de, "A History of Ancient Egypt", 2021, p. 124-5.

Oppenheim, Adela et al., Ancient Egypt Transformed. The Middle Kingdom, 2015, p. 260-261.

Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018), Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption, in: Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241.

Quirke, S., The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom: The Hieratic Documents (Surrey, 1990), p. 148-149.

Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela'. Thera and Comparative Chronology", in: Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi: 10.1086/ 675069.).

Rohl, David M., Exodus: Myth or History? - St. Louis Park, MN: Thinking Man Media, 2015, p. 334.

Ryholt Kim, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 BC, Copenhagen 1997 (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20).

Saadia Gaon, Tafsir (Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch), Exodus 1:11; Rabbi Saadia Gaon's Commentaries on the Torah (ed. Yosef Qafih), Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1984, p. 63.

Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.