Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?
The 13th Dynasty
The real Chronology of the 13th Dynasty according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (leading egyptologists' highly speculative estimations in brackets):
acc. to Kim Ryholt 1997 Table 36,46,48,52
() = duration in years, BN = Birthname
1798 BC ('1815 or 1795 or 1773' BC):
The ancient Story of Joseph & Asenath states that "Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) left his dominion and his crown of the kingdom to JOSEPH and died." JOSEPH rules over Egypt as Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep Month(u)hotep together with his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret.
The early HekaShasut are archeologically identified as Semites by Egyptologists and are identified by (Josephus) Manetho as Hebrew Shepherd Kings. Bietak calls them first Proto Israelites but then changes his mind: "They may be called for convenience sake Canaanites."
EPHRAIM's Vizier Ankhu's archeologically evidenced Uncle *BENJAMIN is adopted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III as his son-in-law. After 3 years of co-reign, he becomes sole
* Pharaoh Amenemhet IV (9)
After 9 years Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter becomes
- Pharaoh Sobekneferu (4)
1785-1765 BC ('1803/1783/1761' BC):
JOSEPH rules over Egypt as
Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep Month(u)hotep:
He is archeologically evidenced not only as Vizier but also
as King Zamonth (Stela CGC 20102)
as King Khnumhotep (Stela CG 20690) and
as King Monthuhotep (Stela Sobekhotep III)
JOSEPH and EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret establish a yearly Family Pharaoh rotation system in order to weaken Pharaoh's power and avoid Egyptian Pharaoh worshipping. The family stabilizes Israel's Rulership as Shepherd Kings evidenced in many ancient writings.
The first 15 Pharaohs archeologically evidenced belong to the family of EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhew Senwosret (Ryholt 1997 p.209-211). There is no archeological evidence for any reign times of all 20 Pharaohs.
These are identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by the ancient historians Africanus and Syncellus citing the c. 200 BC Egyptian historian Manetho.
Senna & Kumna Nile water level marks provide the evidence for around 7 decades between Amenemhet's III and VII first reign years 1842-1769 BC (Collier + Ryholt p.197)
20 Yearly rotating Pharaohs
JOSEPH's brothers' (*BENJAMIN & °LEVI) archeologically evidenced lineage:
* Amenemhet's IV BENJAMIN's son
1Chron7,6 *BELA is
Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
* his brother 1Chron7,6
*BECHER is Pharaoh Sekhemkare Sonbef
* his brother 1Chron7,6
*YEDIAL is Pharaoh Nerikare
° ZaMonth's JOSEPH's brother
°LEVI is Pharaoh Sekhemkare Amenemhet V
° his son Gen46,11
°GERSHON is Pharaoh Quemaw
° his brother Gen46,11
°MERARI is Pharaoh Siharnedjheritef
(acc.to Bietak a Semitic name)
° his brother Gen46,11
°AMRAM is Pharaoh Jewefni
° Amenemhet's V LEVI's grandson Ex6:18
°JIZHAR is Pharoh Amenemhet VI
son of °KAHAT Antef, brother of AMRAM,
father of MOSES' Ex6:18
°JIZHAR is also the father of
MOSES' opponent KORAH in Ex6:21
* BENJAMIN's son Gen46,21
*ASHBEL is Pharaoh Nebnun
* his brother Gen46,21
*GERA is Pharaoh Sewesekhtawy
* his brother Gen46,21
*NAAMAN is Pharaoh Sewadjkare
* his brother Gen46,21
*ECHI is Pharaoh Nedjemibre
* his brother Gen46,21 *ROSH is
Pharaoh Khaankhre Sobekhotep II
* Pharaoh Ranisonb is the son of
Nedjemibre *ECHI or Sewadjkare *NAAMAN
* BENJAMIN's son 1Chron7,12
*IR is Pharaoh Awibre Hor I
* his son Gen46,21 *MUPPIM is
Pharaoh Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
* his brother Gen46,21
*HUPPIM is Pharaoh Djedkheperew
* BENJAMIN's son Jos17:7/Gen46,21
*ARD/ACHER is Pharaoh Seb
* his son
*SHUSHIM is Pharaoh Kay
* his son is BENJAMIN's great-grandson
Pharaoh Amenemhet VII
1765-1750 BC ('1757/1720'BC):
Vizierking JOSEPH is evidenced hero-worshipped by the Egyptians as Father of the Land,
as Father of Gods and
as Khnum, Month, and Osiris.
EPHRAIM co-reigns as Vizier Ankhu Senwosret and controls his Pharaoh brothers by marrying them with his daughters.
4 Kingsons of #JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Knumhotep Monthuhotep become Pharaohs for 15 years:
# Pharaoh Semenkhkare Imyremeshaw
# Pharaoh Sehotepkare Antef V
# Pharaoh Meribre Seth
# Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawi
Sobekhotep III BN Wepwauthotep (4)
(wifes: Heni & Senebhenas)
1750-1743 BC ('1754-1747'or'1766-1759'BC)
1750 BC: JOSEPH's sixth son
Wephauthotep Pharaoh Sobekhotep III is killed in the first battle against the Canaanites by King Makamaron.
JOSEPH dies in the same year.
EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret becomes the new Vizierking archeologically evidenced as King Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf, son of MANASSE and previous military commander of Thebes. Pharaoh Wegaf defends Avaris against the Canaanites and stops King Makamarons invasion attempt.
This leads to 3 sons of +MANASSE southern Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw becoming next Pharaohs:
+ AVIEZER becomes Pharaoh Wegaf (2,3)
+ HELEQ becomes Pharaoh Khendjer (4,5)
Jos17:2 (wife: widow Senebhenas)
First Semitic Pharaoh names in Egyptian history acc. to Kim Ryholt
EPHRAIM King Ankhu Senwosret is announced as Father of Gods without own Pharaoh sons. Manasse as Father of Pharaohs claims this title for himself as his lineage later shows.
1741 BC: MANASSE's family does not accept EPHRAIM’s reestablishment of the yearly rotation of Pharaohs and returns to Thebes.
The reign times of the 14 Pharaohs of this period are not safely evidenced. With exceptions, time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (Ryholt 1997 p.201)
1729 BC ('1649'or'1720'BC):
According to ancient historian Manetho, the War of Pharaoh Tutimaios (Dedumose) against the Canaanites leads into the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion of Egypt. Enslavement of Israel. The 13th Dynasty collapsed 70 (acc. to Ryholt approx. '80') years after Amenemhat's IV reign. EPHRAIM’s Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret's Royal House flees to his brother MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw, Vizier of Thebes.
14 yearly rotating Pharaohs BN: Birth Name
Lineages: +MANASSE #JOSEPH *BENJAMIN
+ Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw isVizier Ibiaw's
MANASSE's son ASRIEL Jos17:2
# Pharaoh Merneferre Aya
son of JOSEPH's son Pharaoh Antef & Aya
(LAST PHARAOH OF UPPER & LOWER EGYPT)
# Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini BN Amenhotep,
son of JOSEPH's son BN Wepwauthotep
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III & Ini/Heni
- Pharaoh Sankhnre Sewadjtew
- Pharaoh Mersekhemre Ined
* Pharaoh Sewadjkare Hor II,
grandson of BENJAMIN's son
*IR 1Chron7,12 Hor I
# Pharaoh Merkawre Sobekhotep,
son of JOSEPH's son Sonb
- Pharaoh Merkheperre
- Pharaoh Merkare
# Pharaoh Sewadjare Monthotep V,
son of JOSEPH's son Sonb
- Pharaoh ..mosre
- Pharaoh ..maatre Ibi
- Pharaoh ..webenre Hor..
- Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose "Tutimaios"
= The last Pharaoh according to Williams & Morenz - throne name change after having fled to Thebes ...
Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?
"Downturned mouths, bags under their eyes, worry lines, hollow eyes - unique facial expressions in Egyptian sculptural history - two 'kings' are showing every sign of hard times in their kingdom" (British Museum). Statues of Amenemhet III and his father Senwosret III as well as contemporary poetic literature show heavy burdens on the Kingship and Egypt of the 12th Dynasty: Pharaoh's Pyramid destruction and an impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by the increasing floodings of the Nile and by hot eastern desert winds.
Father Pharaoh Senwosret III worried face with out-turned ears and without the King's beard
Amenemhet III careworn face with open ears for his peoples' concerns and without the King's beard
Their Vizier Zamonth - History's only Egyptian Vizier evidenced wearing the King's Beard.
To better understand the background of this Chapter You can watch the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4aNyrrpSWA in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v64-PgRZrwM in german (movie pictures are shown on this page) or listen to the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8kPu7BY7_8&t=11394s in English or in German on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGuKFByG01g&t=10455s. Simply the best way is finally to read the First Book of Moses Chapter 37-50. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as a subtitle. To make life easier for all readers in this work sometimes Wikipedia is the referred source in case no other source is mentioned when citing in quotation marks; In the relating Wikipedia articles, You find the sources they refer on.
Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written, consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions and in two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes and letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables sometimes which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh Sjn Wrt can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; This way one person very easily disperses into many different persons in Egyptology. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is Joseph's Master Potiphar, Joseph's father-in-law Potiphera, and Joseph's Chief-of-Prison; Further examples are Potiphar's respectively Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath respectively Henut; most important examples are the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of Joseph and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson; They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were famous enough Rulers to own several different names. Joseph is Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep Mont(u)hotep with his first earlier names Senowsret Ankh and Amenemhet Ankh and his most early original and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea;Joseph's sons Manasse Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw and Ephraim Vizier Ankhu Senwosret, Joseph's grandson Beriah Vizier Iyumeru Aya, and his great-grandson Refach Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru Ayameru II are also evidenced examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two Centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the complete riddles of the officially so-called "dark period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You will learn and see in this work time after time.
THE FAMINE AND VIZIERKING JOSEPH
IN THE TIME OF THE PHARAOHS SENOWSRET III AND AMENEMHET III
The newest discovered or uncovered Evidence for this time of Israel in Egypt is lectured by Roger Liebi on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84, in David Rohl's book "Exodus Myth or History" and in the rentable documentary of Tim Mahoney 'The Exodus' on www.patternsofevidence.com roughly summarized in this work.
According to the first and only strictly biblical chronology, the Bible says (see Chapter Chronology) JOSEPH ruled 80 years as Grand Vizier from 1830 BC until his death 1750 BC. The biblical contemporary Pharaohs of JOSEPH are the Pharaohs of the end of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom to the mid of the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. After 13 years in slavery - according to Genesis37:2.41:46 10 years in "free" slavery and 3 years in prison Jubilees46:3 - in the Year 1830 BC Joseph rises suddenly up to become the Vizierking of Pharao Senwosret III and his son Pharaoh Amenemhat III Genesis41:46. He is given Rulership over all Egyptians by Pharaoh. The historical background is explained by David Rohl's lecture on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4C618MkFej8&t=4361s. Pharaoh's historically evidenced worries are about the Pyramid destruction and the impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by increasing floodings of the Nile. The complete harvest is additionally threatened by extremely hot eastern winds as Pharaoh's biblical dreams indicate; Biblical Joseph read the dreams the Pharaoh suffered of and recommended a solution against the deadly famine which was going to greatly burden Egypt and Pharaoh's rulership.
Pharaoh was so impressed by JOSEPH devine wisdom that he handed over his complete rulership over Egypt and all Egyptians to him so that Joseph as a totally new kind of Vizier became Grandvizier and King = Lifelong Ruler of Egypt - under Pharaoh only as long as Pharaoh lived as we will see later. The Bible describes the relationship of JOSEPH to Pharaoh Amenemhet III as being "a father to Pharaoh". Archeological evidence describes the relationship as Joseph Vizier Zamonth being the "real friend" of Pharaoh:
"You will be in charge of my household; all my people will be ruled by what you say. Only when I rule from my throne will I be greater than you." Pharaoh said to Yosef, "Here, I place you in charge of the whole land of Egypt." Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Yosef's hand, had him clothed in fine linen with a gold chain around his neck, and had him ride in his second-best chariot; and they cried before him, "Bow down!" Thus he placed him in charge of the whole land of Egypt. Pharaoh said to Yosef, "I, Pharaoh, decree that without your approval no one is to raise his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt." Genesis41:40-44 CJB
"And Yosef was the Shalit Al HaAretz the Ruler over the Land ..." Genesis42:6 CJB
Without the permission of Pharaoh Joseph can call his complete family to come to Egypt: „So it was not you who sent me here, but God; and he has made me a father to Pharaoh, Lord of all his household and ruler over the whole land of Egypt. Hurry, go up to my father, and tell him, ‘Here is what your son Yosef says: “God has made me Lord of all Egypt! Come down to me, don’t delay!“ B'resheet (Gen) 45:8-9 CJB
„Then Y’hudah approached Yosef and said, “Please, my Lord! Let your servant say something to you privately; and don’t be angry with your servant, for you are like Pharaoh himself.“ B'resheet (Gen) 44:18 CJB
Huge granaries and a reservoir sea with a canal to the Nile, up to today called "Bar Yusuf" Joseph's Canal are able to control the floods and ensure 7 years of plenty from 1829 to 1823 BC. According to David Rohl, there is also archeological evidence for a "major reorganization of the administration" to ensure these activities; A department of state was set up to take in the grain during for the 7 years of plenty before the famine. The Bible says, in order to save Egypt from the famine the Pharaoh hands over the complete rulership over Egypt to Joseph and sets every Egyptian but himself under Joseph; This is the biggest power of a Vizier in Egyptian history and it is archeologically evidenced by the King's beard of Vizier Zamonth and by also archeologically evidenced title King for Zamonth/ Khnumhotep. King is a middle ages word and means nothing less than Lifelong Highest Ruler, we will learn that JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep and his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senowsret were the only archeological evidenced Lifelong Highest Rulers of the 13th Dynasty in contrast to over 40 rotating Pharaohs.
In 1822 BC the dams begin to be flooded by further "3 meters" Nile level increasing in 3 years, the "17th to 20th reign year" of Amenemhet III followed by biblical worldwide 7 years of famine from 1822 to 1816 BC. In 1815 BC the extensions of Joseph's Canal reached sufficient size and the hot eastern winds ceased; 7 years of famine came to its end. One of Joseph's different Vizier names Kethy is found engraved together with the 29th reign year of Amenemhet III near his office at Joseph's Canal in 1810 BC. According to David Rohl the Nile flooding made plowing and planting impossible; the hot eastern wind burning the ears of wheat were the central causes of threat in the two dreams of Pharaoh according to Genesis41:18&23. Through the geological evidence proven concrete biblical year 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Plagues Science could now synchronize the chronologies of Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia thanks to the Bible as the most reliable historical source of this time; The Bible clarifies in Genesis41:57 that 1822-1816 BC these environmental phenomenons caused the 7 years of famine.
First discovered Oldest Alphabetical Inscription
by Flinders Petrie in Serabit El-Khadim in the Sinai Desert
Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board
Enjoy Your Deciphering Discovery Journey
THE FIRST AND OLDEST ALPHABET WAS FOUND IN EGYPT
IT WAS HEBREW AND FIRST CAME UP
IN THE STRICTLY BIBLICAL TIME OF JOSEPH
Alphabet researching David Rohl is convinced Joseph has invented the first Alphabet. 2200 years old Scriptures of Qumran - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees - confirm this by revealing Joseph to be the only Israelite in Egypt in the year 1822 BC one year before his family arrives in Egypt. Only he could have invented the in 1822 BC oldest found Semitic Alphabet with Hebrew fonts and words and with even uniquely biblical events and characters. They were discovered, examined, and proven by Douglas Petrovich. Paradigmatic followers of the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm and thus passionate adversaries of several biblical time figures like David Sharp tried hard but were not able to disprove Petrovich's results. The oldest Alphabet inscriptions were found by Egyptologist Flinders Petrie in an ancient slave work copper and turquoise mine site in Sinai called today called Serabit El-Khadim. More alphabetical inscriptions were found in 1999 by the Darnells close to Thebes in Today's Wadi El-Hol and in the Semitic slave worker's town Lahun in Fayum in upper Egypt; They date into the reign years 26 and 29 of Amenemhet. One alphabetical inscription was found together with an Egyptian inscription on the same rock from the 20th year of Amenmhet's III reign - the year 1822 BC - which is Joseph's biblical 8th year as Grand Vizier and the first year of the great famine. 1822-1812 BC is the biblical timeframe in which Joseph Genesis41,46 was traveling through complete Egypt preparing the country for the seven years of famine and the timeframe of the best datable alphabetical engravements. You can rent Tim Mahoney's exiting documentary "The Moses Controversy" with evidence for the first Alphabet being Hebrew on www.patternsofevidence.com. This archeological evidence for Joseph's sojourn in Egypt 1822-1813 BC and his authorship of the first Alphabet is also proving evidence for Moses obviously clearly being able to write the Bible in easily readable and for the people learnable alphabetical letters instead of complex cuneiform letters; Leading 'biblical' archeologists claim this would be impossible. The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" Exodus17:14 and to the people of Israel "write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" Deutoronium6:9,11:20.
In Chapter Moses, You will find a Hebrew engravement with his name on it and in this Chapter, You will later find a Hebrew engravement with ASENATH's name on it and You will be invited into the discovery journey to decipher them with the help of Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board. (In the top line of the board You can see his time estimations based on a 430 years instead of 215 years sojourn of Israel in Egypt leading into a period of time 1876-1446 BC instead of 1821-1606 BC. Compare with Chapter Chronology and the beginning of Chapter Moses.)
The Book of Jubilees explains, that before his death Jacob did let his son Levi RENEW and TRANSFORM the forefather's books of Genesis. It was written in cuneiform letters and transformed into alphabetical letters. One of the oldest Alphabet inscriptions was found in Lahun in Fayum as already mentioned. Tim Mahoney's documentary 'The Moses Controversy' on www.patternsofevidence.com reveals that the first Alphabet was created in Egypt and it was created distinctively for Hebrew words; The Hebrew alphabetical words came up in Egypt in the true biblical time when Israel came up in Egypt in 1821 BC. The Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions disappeared in Egypt in the true biblical time when the Exodus of Israel disappeared from Egypt and the Hebrew alphabetical words came up again in Canaan in the strictly biblical time after Israel had conquered Canaan.
It is also revealed by archeology that the world's first found scripture at all was the Cuneiform script in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Tanakh (Old Testament) says Henoch lived in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Book of Jubilees4,17 says Henoch was the first human being who learned to write and this would have happened in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC.
Scripture would have been taught from then on through generations over Noah to Abraham as the Book of Jubilees confirms. The Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees were part of the scriptures and they even remained holy scriptures for Jews and Christians in the land of Kush/ Ethiopia up until today.
Jubilees46:16 says Levi received all scriptures from his father Jacob and his forefathers before Jacob's death in the biblical year 1804 BC in Egypt in order to preserve and "RENEW" them in Egypt for the next generations.
Joseph was the only Hebrew person in Egypt when the Alphabet firstly came up in Amenemhet's archeologically evidenced reign year 20 which was 1822 BC one biblical year before the arrival of Israel/ Joseph's father Jacob and his family clan in Egypt. And as Grand Vizier over Egypt, only Joseph was able to combine his insights in the hieroglyphs superiority over the paternally learned Cuneiform with his Hebrew language: Easy recognizable phonetic spelling symbols reduced to a minimum of letters.
According to Jubilees8:2,11:16,19:14,47:9 Noah, Abraham, and Jacob learned to read and write Cuneiform from their forefathers; Levi's grandson Amram also learned to read and write Joseph's Hebrew Alphabet and he also taught scribing and scripture according to Jubilees47:9 to his son Moses before Moses lived as a Prince in Pharaoh's palace and learned the hieroglyphic scripture and everything about Egyptian culture.
As already explained the modernistic leading "biblical" archeologists and egyptologists are biased by their dogmatic faith in the antibiblical paradigm that all biblical facts confirming ancient writings are per se corrupted and nowadays forbidden as sources of evidence in science:
"Moses was the first wise man and the first
that imparted grammar to the Jews,
the Phoenicians received it from the Jews,
and the Greeks from the Phoenicians."
Eupolemus 150 BC
"Here we have the result at a date
some five centuries before the oldest Phonecian writing that is known ...
it finally DISPROVES the hypothesis that the early Israelites,
who came through this region into Egypt and passed back again
could NOT have used writing."
Founder of Egyptology
According to Jubilees4:17.19,2:1 the first Book of the Bible was written from 3400 to 1800 BC in Cuneiform by Henoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Levi before it was renewed into alphabetical scripture by Levi; the second and third book of the Bible and the Book of Jubilees was written 1606 BC at Mount Horeb; the fourth and fifth book was written from 1606 to 1566 BC in the desert. They were all written by Moses with the Alphabet introduced by Joseph.
Altogether these facts lead to ONE challenging QUESTION
towards modern "Biblical" Archeology and Egyptology:
HOW are the Torah and the 200 BC in Israel evidenced spread and read
Book of Jubilees with their oldest copies from (Qumran) the 2nd Century BC able to identify the correct archeologically confirmed centuries AND countries WHEN and WHERE scripture first came up (Cuneiform) 3200 years earlier and then was RENEWED (Alphabet) 1600 years earlier if they are allegedly just a compendium of invented political lies of the first millennium BC as Leading "Biblical" Archeology claims?
(Finkelstein versus Bible: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Z-7qKFTOys)
12 Garden graves at Joseph's palace - Austrian Archeological Institute
Joseph's grave in Shechem
JOSEPH'S ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCED
GRAVES IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL
Genesis50,26: Joseph's first biblical grave with his removed body was excavated by Manfred Bietak but recognized and thus discovered by David Rohl in the Garden of Joseph's Palace in Avaris at the Nile Delta. It is a little pyramid with a grand statue of a clearly identified foreign Semitic extremely high official, honored uniquely in Egyptian history. He owns a uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew property - a multi-colored coat like Joseph did in the Bible. Tim Mahoney's reconstruction picture of this Statue of Grand Vizier Joseph is shown as a portrait on the overview page of this book at the beginning and as a full statue in Chapter Hyksos. The digital reconstruction of the palace with 12 pillars and 12 garden graves mirroring the 12 tribefathers of Israel is shown in the rentable recommended documentary 'Patterns of Evidence - The Exodus' on www.patternsofevidence.com and in the lecture of Roger Liebi, who precisely proofs accordance with the strict biblical chronology and shows more evidence on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84.
According to Briand Windle he palace has the same layout as those typical of Israelite settlements in the later Iron Age,
Next to Josephs grave are 11 other graves of his brothers the patriarchs in different sizes and constellations, resulting from actual family roles and future roles in forefather Jacob's prophecies; Leas sons Ruben (2), Levi (5), and Zebulon (3) are buried together with Juda (1), who as most important brother owns the biggest grave, Benjamin's grave (4) stands between his brothers' pyramid (12) and Leas sons graves. The other graves (6-11) are standing further apart in one row. According to the Book of Jubilees, Father Jacob had already been buried by his sons in Israel in the time of the first battle between Egypt and the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur.
Genesis50,25: Joseph's final grave with his buried skeleton is up until today visited and honored in Shechem/Sichem in Israel. He did let his family promise to take his body with them into the promised land when they would leave Egypt. After this second funeral in 1560 BC in Israel in Joshua 24,32, a battle with Canaan follows in Judges 1,1. This is the third battle with Canaan in connection with a funeral of the forefathers: Recently before Joseph's funeral in Egypt 1750 BC, his Pharaoh had been killed in a battle with Canaanite King Makamaron according to Jubilees46,6. 21 years later during the funeral of the eleven forefathers, Canaanite King Sharek/Salitis defeats Pharaoh Tiatimos/Dedumose, conquers Avaris 1729 BC, and executes his plan to enslave Israel according to Jubilees46,47.
JOSEPH Vizier Senwosret-Ankh and his wife ASENATH Enutsen
on a 12th Dynasty limestone stele
Nizzoli collection, Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale number 2579 room 2
FIVE DIFFERENT ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED VIZIER NAMES
IN THE BIBLICAL VIZIERKING TIME OF JOSEPH
It can occur in millennia of history that a great person becomes dispelled into presumed different persons and so with his historical grandness erodes. Egyptology states that in the Middle Kingdom and the Intermediate Period always only one single Grand Vizier ruled the country under Pharaoh. Further occurring two Vizier names at the same time are identifiable co-reigning sons as successors of the Grandvizier. The two ancient Qumran Scriptures from about 200 BC, the Torah and the Book of Jubilees claim to be written in the biblical year 1606 BC by Moses and there has been no evidence so far able to disprove this or any other biblical date (see page chronology). So the Bible says Joseph ruled as Grandvizier over complete Egypt from 1830 BC to 1750 BC and that he traveled through complete Egypt after being announced as Vizier which is mirrored in the evidence of five different Vizier names at different locations in the time when only one Vizier ruled over Egypt. The time of his Pharaoh Amenemhet III (partly co-ruling with his father Senusret III) documents five different contemporary Vizier names:
Biblically Grandvizier Joseph was married to Potiphera's daughter. She was called Asenat/Esenut in biblical Egyptian. Contemporary Grandvizier Zamonth was married to a woman named Enutsen or Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing in hieroglyphs as in Hebrew scripture. Vizier Zamonth ruled under Pharao Amenemhat III in his 9th reign year according to Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. According to Grajetzki "He is perhaps the founder of the Vizier's family in which the office was held for at least three generations." (Wolfram Grajetzki: Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009 p.36, pl.3) There is no evidence like any grave or skeleton proving Zamonth is a real separate person and not only one of the several names of the contemporary Grandvizier of Egypt. More striking indications and evidence will follow. Looking at his sculpture (portrait photo at the beginning of this chapter, full-body picture in the middle of this chapter) leads to the question
Why is Zamonth the only Vizier in Egyptian history wearing a King's Beard?
The Bible's answer is because Joseph was made King over Egypt by Pharaoh!
2. KETHI/ CHETY
One contemporary Vizier's name is "famous" Kheti/Chety, his name was found near to the up until today called Bar Yusuf "Joseph's Canal" which leads water from the Nile into a storage lake as water to reduce the threatening Nile floodings. He held an office there in reign year 29 of Amenemhat III in the biblical and archeological year 1810 BC. He was regulating the Nile water level and so with securing the harvest, a task which matches exactly Joseph's biblical tasks as new Vizier. His name Khety also reminds us of the biography of his obvious name-giver Khety I the 13th nomos/nomarch of the 10th dynasty who was famous for realizing many new irrigation canals, maintenance of the old ones, and bestowing grain to also save his people from a famine. Vizierking Joseph impoverished in the 7 years of famine his elite "associates", the top elite of royal officials and nobles of Egypt. They biblically gave away their complete property as payment for grain to survive and Joseph gave it all to Pharaoh. In a later Papyrus about the history of Viziers, it says about the "famous" Kethi/Chety: "He impoverished his associates for the benefits of the others"; In ancient historian Artapanus' Fragment 2 in Eusebius pr ev IX 23,1-4 Joseph ensured a socially "fair distribution so that the weaker were not disadvantaged anymore".
There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Kethi that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply only one of the several different names of the contemporary Grandvizier of Egypt.
3. SENOWSRET-ANKH & AMENEMHET-ANKH
Senusret, Senuseret, Senowsret and Sesostris are same as Amenemhe, Amanemhat and Ameny different versions for one and the same names. The already mentioned female name (H)Enutsen is not only Vizier Zamonth's wife's name but also the wife's name together found with a further Vizier name in the time of Vizier Zamonth and biblical Vizier Joseph; Here he is called Vizier Senwosret-Ankh or Vizier Amenemhet-Ankh (on relief fragments in the art trade - List of Viziers German Wikipedia) meaning Enlivenment of Pharaoh Senewosret III and Pharaoh Amenemhet III or bringing new life to the two Pharaohs. That's exactly what Joseph did when he released the two from their main worries regarding their people and country in the year 1830 BC nine biblical years before his family discovered him being alive and settled in Egypt. According to Kenneth Kitchen the biblical Egyptian name of Joseph Gen41:45 - Zafenat Pa'Aneah - is a metathesis of Zatenaf Pa'Ankh which is a garbled form of Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh meaning "He who is called the enlivenment" of Senwosret and Amenemhet (compare David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, pp.604-612). Thus biblically and archeologically evidenced Joseph's earliest throne name as Vizierking was Zafenat pa'Aneah or Djeduenef pa'Ankh. Later - most plausibly around 1804 BC when Joseph's two sons are grown-up and Father Jacob died - JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM becomes his Co-Vizier and inherits JOSEPH's first royal names as Senwosret Ankhu and Ameny Ankhu as we will see later showing he was preferred by Pharaoh to his brother MANASSE Senebefni following grandfather Jacob's special blessing and prophecy. In Genesis41,42 the Bible says Pharaoh "put the gold chain around his neck" in front of his courtiers when he made JOSEPH "ruler over all the land of Egypt". Senewosret-Ankh's statue found at Ugarit shows inscriptions confirming "the gold of praise was given to him in front of all courtiers". This gold chain, Pharaoh's signet ring and the white garments of Byssus = finest linen all described in Genesis41:38,42 and Jubilees50:7 became from exactly that time on the three signs of a Vizier in Egyptian history.
There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Sesostris-Ankh or Amenemhet-Ankh that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply only one of the several different names of the contemporary Grandvizier of Egypt.
Vizier Mon(t)uhotep of the 13th Dynasty is archeologically evidenced by a seal (Mnw-htp, Martin, Seals, Nr. 555). His name's close connectivity with the name Khnumhotep has to be explained later in this Chapter after the reader has the necessary background knowledge. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Vizier Mon(t)uhotep that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply just one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizierking of Egypt JOSEPH.
One of Vizier Khnumhotep's (III) further titles in his "father's" Khnumhotep II biography is "Gate of Foreign Lands" which is exactly mirrored in the 7 years of famine, when all foreigners came to Joseph to buy grain and in his biblically mentioned expeditions through the complete country. Detlef Franke confirms him being Vizier under Pharaoh Senusret III and possibly under Amenemhet III which is the biblical time of Joseph. But he is confusing the eastern desert expeditions on the stele of Wadi Gasus from Senwosret's II first reign year with being Vizier Khnumhotep's ones in spite of his "father" Khnumhotep II being the dedicated responsible overseer of the eastern desert in that time which will be explained later further on. Khnumhotep (III) is the only contemporary Vizier name archeologically connectable with a grave found together with a skeleton, so we take now a deeper look into it:
COULD THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP III BE A THIRD TOMB OF JOSEPH?
Khnumhotep means "The deity Khnum is happy/satisfied". Khnum was usually depicted as a sheep ram-headed man assumed by many as the Egyptian oldest and creator deity, father of fathers, creator of men, breathing life into newborns, Lord of the created things. This deity is described like Joseph would have described his own G'D to an Egyptian and the Egyptian would have thought he is talking about Khnum; For example when he would talk to his biblical master and later adoptive father in law noble high royal official Potiphar/Potiphera of Genesis39:1,41:45. This deity Khnum later melted together with the deity Amun when Joseph's son Manasse most plausibly learned this "egyptianised" identification of the One God of Israel from his adoptive grandfather Potiphar and followed him in his footsteps as Egyptian highpriest transforming Hebrew monotheism into Egyptian semi-monotheism as we will later deeper examine in this Chapter. 'Khnum' is also the guardian of the life-spending river Nile. The Nile is the basis and place of Pharaoh's dream, unraveled by Joseph, which makes him the highest man below Pharaoh in Egypt Genesis41:15. So Joseph becomes the guardian of the life spending (and destroying) Nile water level. Thus the role of Khnum is mirroring the biblical role of Joseph in the eyes of Egyptians which makes this name a most plausible candidate for naming Joseph.
Vizier Knumhotep's (III) tomb stands attached to the one of Pharaoh Senwosret III. It plausibly was not built directly attached to his son Pharaoh Amenemhet's Pyramide because his Pyramide already showed troubles; It was built too near to the flooding Nile water and thus was damaged and unstable. Joseph's biblical diffidence is reflected by the noticeable small sizes of his tombs; Also the size of Joseph's grave pyramid built in his palace's garden in Avaris is small. On the other hand, the size of his statue in his small pyramid is impressive tall; And indeed, this statue was not manufactured by his own people like his grave pyramid but in Pharaoh Amenemhet's stonemason's workshop as a likely present from his grateful friend (David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth or History, 07 Joseph the Vizier).
The scientific identification of the skeleton in Vizier Khnumhotep's III grave to be Khnumhotep's own skeleton is strikingly questionable; all three graves (Senusret III, Amenemhet III, Khnumhotep III) were Kenotaphs, not selected for the real burial. And the rest of the later found grave inscribed biography reveals that not the original owner - who had already been identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep - but a later legal buyer of the grave was afterward buried here. In spite of these two strong indications for the skeleton not being Vizier Khnumhotep's body, the second grave owner is - as well as the first grave owner beforehand - again identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep. Thus the biography of the second grave owner (link to biography) is misleadingly mixed up by egyptologists with the biographical evidence of the original owner Vizier Khnumhotep. Conclusion:
The scientific biography of Khnumhotep III is polluted
- not only with Khnumhotep's II biography evidence (see 5. and later on) -
but also with biographical content of the later buyer & user of his grave.
Finally, there is no serious evidence for Vizier Khnumhotep's buried body, no evidence for any buried body or grave of Vizier Kethi, no evidence for any body or grave of Vizier Zamonth, and no evidence for Joseph's body in his small pyramid tomb with his statue in his palace in Avaris in Goshen.
There is only evidence of one grave together with the body of the former Grandvizier and King of Egypt Joseph; It is in Shechem in Israel, where Joseph told his people to bring his body when they would leave to the promised land. And except the name Montuhotep all names are standing for a Viziership in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhat III in a time when only one single Vizier at a time was the case according to Egyptology.
In the case of Vizier Khnumhotep (III) we can learn much better, who he was when we take a deeper look into the history of his by science interpreted as "father" Khnumhotep II:
JOSEPH'S SLAVEMASTER BIBLICAL POTIPHAR?
Khnumhotep II was born into one of the most powerful noble nomarch families of Egypt. His career biography is inscribed in his tomb. His predecessor and relative died early so that he had to build the tomb for him. Thus already in his young years, he became the highest member of the elite Irypat as Count and Hatya Mayor of his town Menat Khufu (today Minya), Overlord of the town Nekheb, and Governor/Overseer of the Eastern Desert in the biblical year 1881 BC (Egyptologists estimate '1895' or '1859' BC) which was the 19th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhat II as inscribed in his grave tomb. Time after time he became also appointed the "Sole Friend" of Pharaoh - most plausibly by the following Pharaoh Senwosret II as revealed later. Khnumhotep II was the Royal Sealer and the Treasurer of Pharaoh, so he was also responsible for products entering the Royal Palace and so he owned the most important positions at the royal court below the Vizier in case there was one at all in his best time. Most details of his tomb descriptions in Beni Hassan in this work result from the most commonly known article of Egyptologist Janice Kamrin which can be examined and checked here.
In his tomb inscriptions, Khnumhotep II is also called "Stolist Priest of Pakhet and Horus"; The High Priest of the deities Horus/Ra (Syncretism) was also the High Priest of the town Heliopolis/On. He is also called 'sar tabbah' meaning Chief Executioner and Highest of Court and Law Enforcement; The Highest of Law Enforcement was additionally the Chief of the Royal Prison (compare Genesis39:20 & Jubilees39:14) at that time as we will see later. According to Khnumhotep's II most famous tomb picture, Janice Karmin explains "He is the Priest of Pakhet, a lioness deity with links to the eye of Horus who is closely associated with the desert ... Directly in front of the scribes of Khnumhotep II - one of whom is a royal document scribe and thus associated with the royal central administration - are three officials, one of whom restrains a prisoner of some sort by holding him around the neck with a staff."; You can discover this Royal Prison official restraining a prisoner in the full tomb picture later shown in this chapter: The prison official and the prisoner are the third last and second last men standing in the lowest line in the lower right corner, You are invited to scroll down to the full tomb picture and check them; the officials of Khnumhotep's royal prison and of his ministerial offices are shown and listed in this lowest tomb picture line and in the second line above. Janice Karmin describes this scene of the prisoner but cannot explain it - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees give the explaining answer as You will see later ...
Janice Karmin also explains that Khnumhotep's II position as "Administrator of the Eastern Desert provided a direct connection with prospecting and mining activities ... Sydney Aufrere ... concludes that Khnumhotep II controlled the northern part of the Eastern Desert from the Wadi Hammamat to the southern Sinai and thus the route to Canaan from his seat at Menat Khufu."
You may ask Yourself why are all these facts about Khnumhotep II so strikingly relevant that You have to read them?
The answer is because they are all already telling the story of biblical POTIPHAR ... in Genesis37:36.39.
Gustavo Camps Picture: Beni Hasan Tomb North Wall BH3
Find the Semitic Family in the third line from above.
Find the Royal Prison Official restraining a Prisoner in the lowest line in the right corner. He is archeological evidence for Khnumhotep II Potiphar being Chief of the Royal Prison confirmed by the Book of Jubilees:
SLAVE MASTER - CHIEF OF PRISON - SOLE FRIEND - ADOPTIVE FATHER - FATHER IN LAW
THE BIBLICAL STORY OF POTIPHAR WITH JOSEPH
IS THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED
HISTORY OF KHNUMHOTEP II WITH KHNUMHOTEP III
In the biblical year 1843 BC, 17-year-old JOSEPH is sold by his jealous brothers as a slave to Medanites/Ishmaelites from Gilead/Shutu, who sold him most likely at the Egyptian border in one of the copper or turquoise mining slave worker towns. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II visits, as usual, the mining places in his eastern governance territory and inspects the new slaves, selecting some for his home palace. He chooses JOSEPH to test him as a home palace slave and takes him to his country residence in Men'at Khufu (today Minya). Genesis39:4 says JOSEPH was so tremendously blessed with successful work that he became highest under his master and managed everything - even everything Potiphar managed beforehand himself and Potiphar retired on his estate regarding all his former tasks and decisions.
POTIPHAR's Khumhotep's II role at Pharaoh's palace is biblically called Royal Court Official. His special task is being sar tabbah - meaning Chief Executioner or Highest of Court or Minister of Law Enforcement (see Genesis37:36,41:10.12) - and so he was also the Chief of the Royal Prison and its prison officials (see Genesis39:20 Jubilees39:14); These titles were biblically sometimes anachronistically translated as Eunuch instead of Chamberlain, as chief cook instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing, as chief of bodyguards or captain of the guard instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel and as chief prison keeper instead of Chief of the Royal Prison. These were all archeologically evidenced roles of Khnumhotep II as we learned already.
Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR was also archeologically and biblically evidenced as the High Priest of On/Elew/Heliopolis Jubilees34:11,40:10. In Genesis41:45 his name seemingly has transformed from POTIPHAR into POTIPHERA but in reality, it has stayed exactly the same if You take into account that Hebrew writing just as hieroglyphic writing did not have any vocals anyway; In the 1875 Allioli Bible he is still called Putiphare as father in law in Genesis41:45 and in its footnote (18) it says a shorter version of this name is Putiphar but without identifying both Putiphars explicetely as the same person. POTIPHAR was also JOSEPH's Master and his Chief of Prison at the same time. This is revealed in Genesis39:22,40:3. Jubilees39:14 reveals additionally the House of Prison being the House of the Chief Cook or Chief of Foodstuffs Purchasing, which is exactly one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II archeologically evidenced titles. Genesis40:3 reveals the House of Prison being the House of the Chief of Bodyguards or Captain of the Guard or Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel, which has been beforehand already explained as being one biblical title of POTIPHAR. Noble POTIPHAR was not only JOSEPH's Master but he was also the Priest of Heliopolis like noble Khnumhotep II archeologically evidenced was and he was also JOSEPH's Father in Law Potiphera at the same time; This is revealed by Jubilees34:11 (Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees 40,10a footnote) and in Origines' ancient writings. At last Jubilees40:10 reveals that JOSEPH marries the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis POTIPHAR - instead! of POTIPHERA - who is also the Chief Cook/ Overseer of ingoing Foodstuffs which is one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II official titles. And Jubilees34:11 reveals JOSEPH being sold to POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, the eunuch or better Chamberlain, the chief cook or better Overseer of the Royal Palace ingoing foodstuffs and finally the Priest of Elew/Heliopolis. This is altogether strong evidence confirming POTIPHAR is POTIPHERA is Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH's slavemaster and later JOSEPH's chief of prison.
Pictures: 1843 BC Joseph becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II slave for 10 years. After being accused of sexual harassment by his noble wife, JOSEPH becomes for 3 years his prisoner in the Royal Prison, POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II is Chief of. In both cases, JOSEPH's work is so tremendously blessed that he is appointed highest under him, takes over all his tasks, and gains his very most trust.
1843 BC JOSEPH arrives as slave at POTIPHAR's Palace
POTIPHAR's Wife accuses JOSEPH of sexual harassment
1833 BC POTIPHAR put's JOSEPH into prison
The biblical failed try of POTIPHAR's wife to seduce JOSEPH into adultery lead into the next step of JOSEPH's miraculous fate: After the high noble nomarch Lady accused the slave JOSEPH of sexual harassment, her husband was legally forced to punish his most competent and trusted man in the house; The Genisis39:20 footnote 14 comment in the Allioli Bible says the honor of wifes was legally protected, therefore Joseph had to be taken to the Royal Prison. As a slave without interrogation and without defense; Thus JOSEPH was taken away by POTIPHAR into the Royal Prison. The Royal Prison was lead by POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II himself as the Chief of Prison. In this way, POTIPHAR makes Joseph for the second time the highest under him but now in his Royal Prison and Joseph again manages absolute everything for him.
JOSEPH Khnumhotep III becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II only full trusted "sole friend" as the Beni Hasan grave inscriptions confirm. This was originally an honorarium given to Khnumhotep II by his most beloved Pharaoh Senowsret II, the last Pharaoh who strongly supported the noble nomarchs and Khnumhotep II was his highest and most beloved one - for a Pharaoh, it was hard to find a trustful man in the royal palace with enough integrity to always give an honest answer. Later on, JOSEPH becoming Grand Vizier Zamonth was announced officially as Pharaoh Amenemhat's III "real friend"; After JOSEPH had read Pharaoh's dreams and consulted him on how to save Egypt out of 7 deadly years of famine, Pharoh made JOSEPH the highest under him to let him manage and decide everything, the complete Rulership over Egypt, this kind of complete handover of tasks happens to JOSEPH now for the third time in Egypt. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II adopts JOSEPH as his son to make him an Egyptian. He gives to him his nomarch honorary name Khnumhotep (III) and his daughter ESENUTH Henutsen/ Henut as wife - a marriage biblically blessed and ordered by Pharaoh Amenemhat III as later archeological evidence will confirm.
JOSEPH'S BIBLICAL STORY WITH POTIPHAR
ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IN KHNUMHOTEP'S II BIOGRAPHY
JOSEPH's Story and further evidence for JOSEPH being Khnumhotep (III) is shown in Khnumhotep's II biography lines 1-17 in the inscriptions in his tomb translated by Kanawati and Evans (2014:31-36); They exactly mirror Potiphar's relationship story with Joseph:
He (Khnumhotep II) strengthed the name of his council
(through JOSEPH) being advanced according to his offices
and the most trusty one among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants
This story is told in the Beni Hassan tomb inscription not recognized and thus translated and interpreted by Evans and Kanawati as:
"He (Khnumhotep II) strengthened the name of his council
() being advanced according to their offices
and the trusty ones among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants"
This is an essential part of the biblical relationship story between JOSEPH and POTIPHAR told in tomb inscriptions as a part of the historical relationship story between Khnumhotep III and Khnumhotep II.
1830 BC: JOSEPH becomes Pharaoh Senwosret's III and his son Amenemhet's III Grandvizier called Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh or later Zamonth and he additionally becomes adoptive son in law of Potiphar/ Khnumhotep II and is thus also named Khnumhotep III. In his tomb pictures, Khnumhotep II calls him his "sole friend". 1826 BC Potiphar's daughter ASENAT/ESENUT Henutsen gives him two sons; The dizygotic twins EPHRAIM named (Senwosret-)Ankhu and MANASSE named Senebefni/Senebtefi Ibiaw.
JOSEPH becomes Vizierking of Egypt & Sole Friend of POTIPHAR
POTIPHAR becomes JOSEPH's Adoptive Father in Law
POTIPHAR's Daughter ASENATH becomes JOSEPH's Wife
Khnumhotep II and POTIPHAR are
archeologically and biblically evidenced
one and the same person.
POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was archeologically and biblically evidenced Royal Court official responsible for the royal personnel, Chief Executioner, Highest of Court and Law Enforcement and thus Chief of the Royal Prison, Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing and High Priest of Heliopolis.
The same as in the case of JOSEPH's different Vizier names
POTIPHAR became dispelled into different individuals
- Slave Master, Chief of Prison, and Priest of Heliopolis -
in the translation and copying processes of millennia.
JOSEPH RECEIVING HIS FAMILY
- ISRAEL IN EGYPT -
ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IN THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP II
Beni Hassan Tomb Pictures are shown above, several below, the logo in the left corner above and on the Homepage. The fourth grave in connection with JOSEPH is the tomb of Noble Nomarch Khnumhotep II identified as biblical POTIPHAR. It was completed no later than at the end of the 19th century BC most plausibly by his "son" Knumhotep III identified as JOSEPH, Vizierking under Pharaohs Sesostris III and Amenemhet III (see Chapter Chronology).
The key evidence for the tomb DATING
and the deciding refutation of the traditional datings is examined in
the following passage headlined HYROGLYPHES OF THE REAL BURIAL TIME OF KHNUMHOTEP II.
The funeral procession pictures inside the grave show a family of important Semites in the focus of the royal house as described by egyptologist Janice Karmin: They have light skin, are wearing an up until today unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut, throw sticks and compund bows, and wear uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew properties - White or lengthways striped filigree patterned multicolored clothing - bringing offerings to the deceased. The biography of the deceased confirms about Vizier Khnumhotep JOSEPH that he became Khnumhotep's II "sole friend" which would by no means be a plausible honorarium title for a blood son of his own. A blood son would have followed his father's footsteps as the nomarch of the 16th nome - like his son Khnumhotep IV indeed did. Egyptologists are not able to explain these circumstances but they recognize that Khnumhotep (III) must have received his name from Khnumhotep II thus they identify him as a blood son. Most plausible is the case that Vizier Khnumhotep had become as Khnumhotep's II "sole friend" also his adoptive son; As a foreigner, he was additionally married to his daughter and Khnumhotep II adopted him as his Father in Law. This way JOSEPH became an Egyptian citizen. Only in Khnumhotep's II tomb inscription Vizier Khnumhotep's name shows up the number III as part of his name; In all other inscriptions he only needed to be called Vizier Khnumhotep in order to recognize him which fits JOSEPH's biblically confirmed bigger fame than POTIPHAR's forner fame as second highest in Egypt in these times.
The funeral picture is showing two Egyptian officials coming together with an obviously highly relevant Semite Family as funeral guests who are bringing offerings to the deceased. The two Egyptian officials are identified as Neferhotep - the Vizier's royal scribe bowing down in front of Khumhotep II and presenting a poster with an announcement which will clarify later the tomb dating - and the second royal official bringing the Semite family, he is called Khety in his inscriptions above; Khety is one of the five different Viziernames 1830-1750 BC in the biblical Vizier Kingship time of JOSEPH as explained at the beginning of this Chapter;
On https://benihassan.com/dictionary/Khnumhotep+II+Tomb+3/A+procession+of+foreigners/ the madainproject describes Khety: "The second man is labeled jmj-r nww Htjj ‘the Overseer of Hunters, Khety’." As his best man as a slave and later as his sole friend JOSEPH - named Khety and Khnumhotep - logically accompanied POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II on his hunts in the desert; Such a hunt scene is also depicted in the tomb and deeper described later. In his role as the Vizier of Pharaoh, one of Grandvizier JOSEPH's Khety's common tasks was accompanying the Pharaoh's huntings in an official role called the "Overseer of the Hunters". This shows for the second time that Khnumhotep II is often honored in his tomb like a Pharaoh which is confirmed by leading Egyptologists.
In his analysis of the tomb pictures, Detlef Franke concludes that the “son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep" - mentioned on the poster of Neferhotep in the text "the Aamu (Semites) that the son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep, brought" - refers to Khnumhotep III who would allegedly "accompany the standing figure of his father on this wall".
(Franke 1991, 57–60 - click here to check on page 25 and check the full tomb picture above where You can see him in the upper right corner).
But the son that is accompanying the standing figure of his father on this wall is most plausibly Khumhotep's II blood son Khnumhotep IV and egyptologists like Franke have to explain why his real blood son and follower as nomarch is otherwise missing in the complete tomb of his father. Franke correctly identifies Khnumhotep III with Vizier Khnumhotep who brought the Semites called "the Aamu" to Khnumhotep II as clearly described on the poster. And the tomb picture unambiguously additionally shows how he brings the Semitic family to his adoptive father; The open question remains, why he is called (Vizier) Khety in the picture but (Vizier) Khnumhotep in the poster text and the obvious conclusion is, that two different Viziernames of Joseph in that time are archeologically evidenced Khnumhotep and Khety and both are mentioned in the tomb inscriptions; Thus described on the poster and visualized in the picture JOSEPH named Khnumhotep and Khety is bringing his Semitic family to his adoptive father in law POTIPHAR Khumhotep II.
This is only one of many following pieces of archeological evidence for the different Vizier names of JOSEPH in the biblical time between 1830 BC and 1750 BC.
The close relationship and loyalty of POTIPHAR Knumhotep II to the Royal House of Pharaoh is emphasized in inscriptions and pictures several times; This happens in the biblically stated time of JOSEPH as Semite Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut) over the Royal House together with his Semite family members as the King's Shepherds appointed by Pharaoh over all his sheep and cattle herds of Egypt according to Genesis47:6 as we will examine in the next passage ...
From the left to be proved: BENJAMIN, Father JACOB, JOSEPH named Khety Khumhotep and his royal scribe Neferhotep who's poster and further hieroglyphs are analyzed in the following chapter
Khnumhotep and Khety
are archeologically evidenced two different Vizier names
of the same Grandvizier over Egypt
1830-1750 BC in the biblical time of JOSEPH
ruling as Vizierking over complete Egypt.
The poster royal scribe Neferhotep presents towards Khnumhotep II
HYROGLYPHS REVEAL THE REAL BURIAL TIME OF KHNUMHOTEP II
SHORTLY AFTER 1819 BC
OVER TWO YEARS AFTER THE ENSETTLEMENT OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT 1821 BC
The first hieroglyphs which have to be taken a closer look at are the ones on the poster the royal scribe Neferhotep is presenting towards Khnumhotep II in the tomb picture (see picture above); He is the first in the tomb picture line of the Semitic family when You start on the right-hand side. The date on the poster is the used fundament of egyptologists trying to date the age of the tomb picture and the age of the tomb itself. The date is connected by egyptologists with the arrival of the Semitic 'Aamu' in Egypt. This means that egyptologists, denying strictly this family could be Israel arriving in Egypt, nevertheless are convinced that the year of the Semitic family's arrival in Egypt is the most important year worth mentioning in the whole tomb and in Khnumhotep's II whole life besides his first career year. As a matter of fact, the only really shown event in the tomb is their participation in an offering procession of the deceased and not their arrival in Egypt, which is a subjective baseless interpretation. There are further alternative egyptologists' examination results bringing more light to this date:
The egyptologists Kessler and Rabehl assume the tomb wall picture is related to an anniversary festival celebration and "can be seen as an allusion to the celebration of the New Year’s Festival". The observation leads already into the right direction but the conclusion does not yet take all relevant systemic data into account;
According to Jürgen von Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on the IV Peret Day 14 as the most plausible Day of the Death of Pharaoh Senwosret II; Senwosret II stands for the last flourishing time of the power of the Egyptian Nomarchs and POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II as his "sole friend" was the most Pharaoh beloved and powerful Nomarch of this time. The power of Egyptian nomarchs was firstly broken archeologically evidenced by Senwosret III and finally after POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II death totally diminished in the time of the biblically evidenced and archeologically indicated Great Famine: The Nomarchs had to sell all their property to their Vizierking Joseph who gave it all into Pharaoh Amenemhet's III hand. This leads to the following most plausible conclusion:
The tomb inscribed 6th year of Senwosret II on the poster is representing
the decennial Going Forth to Heaven Festival,
which was in 1819 BC the 50th Anniversary Festival of Senwosret's II death
in his 6th official (sole) reign year 1859 BC.
Senwosret II was the last glorious Nomarch-friendly Pharaoh. He appointed Nomarch Potiphar Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend"; thus Senwosret II was especially honored and celebrated by Potiphar's Oryx Nomarch Clan. The poster in the picture is shown to Khnumhotep II by a royal official together with Vizier Knumhotep III or Vizier Kheti/Khety/Chety "receiving" the important Semitic family bringing offerings to the deceased.
In the biblical year 1821 BC Israel's clan of 70/75 people arrived in Egypt in the land of Goshen and settled in Avaris. 1819 BC they participated as offering guests on this festival. In the tomb the royal official is announcing this arrival of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II "sole friend's" and (adoptive) son's family together with Senwosret's II 50th Death Anniversary Festival celebrated by the complete Nomarch Clan of Khnumhotep II - "may these offerings and all other festival offerings benefit You forever in eternity" would be one of the most plausible key messages of this impressive tomb picture. This confirms the egyptologists' assumption that the grave pictures try to honor Khnumhotep II as much as normally only a Pharaoh is honored. Three years after complete Egypt has honored the death of Amenemhet's III famous father Senwosret III - the greatest Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, who was worshipped as a deity still long time after - JOSEPH honors his adoptive father in law and dearest Egyptian friend with one of the most extraordinary tombs in Egyptian history controversially discussed up until today...
The announced "6th Reign Year of Senusret II"
1859 BC on the poster in Khnumhotep's II tomb
is neither the date of the arrival of the Semitic family in Egypt nor the building date of the tomb as assumed by egyptologists.
It is the Festival Title of the 50th Anniversary Feast of Pharaoh Senusret's II death in his 6th Reign Year
celebrated by Khnumhotep's II Oryx Nomarch Clan in 1819 BC shortly before Khnumhotep's death.
THE FAMILY PICTURE OF FATHER JACOB'S FAMILY
IN THE TOMB OF BENI HASAN
Now we take a closer look at the hieroglyphs above the first two Semites. If You want to precisely study all hieroglyphs of the picture of the Semitic family You can do this on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LIM3KfStZg&t=4393s. The whole tomb biography is starting from the right because the reading direction is revealed by the view direction of depicted participants and on this picture and in the hieroglyphs it goes from the right to the left facing the eyes of the coming people. In case You look not only isolated on the phonetic meaning of the hieroglyphs but also observe the precise meaning of a single hieroglyph You are discovering strong indications for JOSEPH's biblical story (see picture below):
The first Hyroglyph at the left shows twenty-two and fifteen as numbers. Fifteen Semites are shown in the picture, further twenty-two of them were plausibly present at the announced festival on the poster at the right end of the line. Science is discussing if the number only stands for the shown procession visiting group or more generally for a group of Semitic families from Canaan arriving in Egypt to start a new living. The Scriptures of Qumran gave the answer already 3600 years ago: 70 descendants of Israel Genesis46:27 arrived in 1821 BC in Egypt. This number excludes 5 descendants Acts7:14 who died early without children in Egypt: Gad's son Eri Genesis46:16 and Dan's sons Samon, Audi, Jaka and Salomon (Jubilees44:20 footnote d Klaus Berger and Jubilees44:29); The reason for their childless death is explained by Jewish beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerick (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes page 104) and in the famous ancient narrative of Joseph & Asenath later introduced. The two sons of Judah Er and Onan had died already beforehand in Canaan Genesis38:7.10 and are also not included in the number 70. This is also the explanation for the the different numbers 70 and 75 in the greek Septuagint around 200 BC and the Qumran evidenced Torah around 200 BC. It is revealed by the Book of Jubilees like all seeming differences between the famous Stephanus speech and the Torah in Acts7 debated cluelessly up until today.
Estimated names according to
A) family ranking
B) relationship to Joseph
C) age from the right:
Royal Scribe, Joseph, Father Jacob, Benyamin,
Ruben, Levi, Judah, Simeon
Then You see a hieroglyph group of three or four hieroglyphs, 'Aamu' spoken, translated by science misleadingly as "Asiatics" of "the Southern Levante" which means Semites of Canaan. According to the leading Egyptologist for this tomb picture Janice Karmin - 'Aamu' is generally agreed by egyptologists to be a Semitic (eg. Hebrew) loanword and the bulk of scholarly opinion would place the homeland of the Aamu of Shu in the "Southern Levant" which fits Hebron where Israel or Father Jacob and his family came from. Redford concludes that it is derived from a west Semitic word and can be linked to the root Alamu meaning mankind or People.
According to David Kahn, it is in the tomb of Khnumhotep II that the earliest instance of encoded writing in history is found. It is posited that this was intended to be highly stylized funerary language rather than secret communications which are re-examined now for the hieroglyphs of the word 'Aamu'; Translations of the several inscriptions reveal that some uncommon hieroglyphic symbols were used in place of the more ordinary ones. There are also inconsistencies in the grammatical syntax. Some Egyptologists believe that particular passages in Khnumhotep II's funerary inscription were deliberately transformed in order to obscure the original meaning. Thus we will take a second more closer, differentiating, and precise look now on the single hieroglyphs of the hieroglyph group by egyptologists so-called "Asiatics":
The first hieroglyph is showing a Semitic slave or prisoner; Indeed You see clearly a Semitic man with a beard and light skin kneeling tied at the back (see above and logo in the left corner above). The tomb of Knumhotep II was finished about a century before the enslavement of Israel thus this can not be the historical background of this famous hieroglyph in case not only read as a phonetic letter of the by Egyptologists used word "Asiatics". Biblically the only well known Semite of Canaan in exactly that time, who once arrived as a slave and ten years later was thrown into prison tied behind his back on his knees in Egypt like in the hieroglyphic picture, was a man called JOSEPH, later better known as great famous Vizierking and Savior of Egypt out of famine.
The next shown hieroglyph is a throwing stick. It is not generally representing Canaanites, there is no evidence for this option in the time of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs, the time of the 15th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology). These are unique Semitic foreigners with their own by Manfred Bietak excavated unique Mesopotamian, northern Syrian, and Canaanite attributes (= the life locations of ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB) from a century before and clearly different to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur according to the Book of Jubilees and confirmed by Bietaks archeological conclusions. Here they are called the Aamu and use in contrast to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' throw sticks like Joseph's statue from the same time (see Chapter Hyksos) did already proof. The hunt as a sport has been up until today a royal and noble privilege since the upcoming agriculture civilization over 4 millennia ago. Grand Vizier JOSEPH alias Vizier Khnumhotep III alias Vizier Kheti/Khety/Chety taught his friend and noble adoptive father in law Potiphar alias Khnumhotep II - in one of his common Vizier roles as Pharaoh's Overseer of the Hunters - how to use his family's throw stick - the evidence is shown in the tomb pictures. This is again confirming the theory that Khnumhotep II is treated and honored like a Pharaoh in his tomb. Janice Karmin additionally confirms: "a second man wears a white garment; he carries a throwing stick that is very similar in form both to the hieroglyph used in the word for Aamu and to the weapon wielded by Khnumhotep II himself in the marsh hunting scene on the east wall. The fact that this type of weapon is used as a determinative for Aamu supports the theory that it was typical hunting and perhaps also a military tool in their culture. The Tell el-Daba dignitary mentioned above (Joseph's statue in his Pyramide grave from page Hyksos is meant) also holds a throwing stick against one shoulder."
Estimated names according to
A) family ranking
B) relationship to Joseph
C) age from the right:
on the donkey Judah's last sons Perez and Zelach, Ruben's last son Karami,
Jacob's last still alive wife Zilpa, Ruben's wife Ada, Gad's young daughter Sara, Judah's second wife Sua, a donkey, Issachar, and Zebulon
"Ye shall not cut the edge of your scalp,
neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard"
Vayikra/Leviticus 19:27 OJB
The "Early Hyksos"
the Foreign Semites in Egypt of the 19th century BC
are wearing an up until today
unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut
in clear distinguishing contrast to any depicted Canaanites.
(You find more distinguishing evidence at the end of Chapter Hyksos)
Photographed Original: Family Picture of unique Semites in the focus of the Royal House together with Vizier Khnumhotep/ Kheti bringing offerings to the deceased Khnumhotep II
In contrast to any depicted Canaanites these Semites wear unbandaged not edges cut neck free hair instead of bandaged edges cut shoulder length mushroom head haircut and a not corner's cut full beard without mustache instead of corner's cut goatee beard or corner's cut full beard with mustache.
Sidenote: If You look at JOSEPH's Semitic (Chapter Hyksos) and Egyptian (this Chapter) sculpture You will discover that the hair is not his hair but a wig and that his Egyptian King’s beard is not his beard but artificial so that he doesn’t break any later written down law.
PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE FOR THE EARLY HEKASHASUT
KHNUMHOTEP’S II POTIPHAR‘S TOMB PICTURE
BEING ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Conclusion: The famous picture of Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hassan shows JOSEPH's Father JACOB bowing down gratefully in front of the man who cared so wonderfully for his son JOSEPH in his absence. He is offering an Oryx Antilope honoring the Oryx nomarch standing barefoot together with his son JOSEPH, POTIPHERA's adoptive son and son-in-law named Khnumhotep Zamonth Kheti. The antelope is also a special one of the few kosher animals which are belonging to the typical Hebrew sacrifice animals; For the Israelites, she‘s famous for her special beauty and found in the ancient Hebrew Song:
„Come away, my beloved,
and be like a gazelle
or like a young stag
on the spice-laden mountains.“
Behind father JACOB comes his second favored son of JACOB's already departed beloved wife RAHEL called BENYAMIN with a second now female Oryx Antilope offering, also certainly barefoot because of being part of the holy sacrifice offering process. JACOB himself later was buried by his sons also barefooted and weaponed carrying his coffin according to apocryphal Jewish Book of Jasher/ Book of the Righteous Chapter 56. Carrying one's weapons at a rifle brother's funeral is up until today a custom in most societies, nevertheless the egyptologists are cluelessly surprised about the weapons on the picture, still convinced these offering guests being total strangers to Khnumhotep II which does make no sense for any funeral scene.
According to Jewish beatified blessed Anna Katarina Emmerich POTIPHAR would have become a good friend of Father JACOB, received the circumcision, and served the G'D of Israel at the end of his life (AKE Geheimnisse des Alten und Neuen Bundes, page 107) Behind BENJAMIN the sons of already deceased LEA called RUBEN, LEVI, JUDAH and SIMEON follow, then JUDAH's last two sons on the donkey, RUBEN's last son and then JACOB's wife SILPA, LEA's maid as last alive wife of JACOB. RAHEL's maid BILHA and LEA's daughter DINA had died already after JOSEPH's presumed death according to Jubilees34:16. In the end, two further sons of LEA are following, ISSACHAR and ZEBULON. The reasons for not depicted brothers can be read in the ancient story out of Egypt "Joseph and Asenath" http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm and in AK Emmerich's Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes S. 104. The names derive from Jub34:20ff.44,12ff.
The hieroglyphs for the title Heka Schasut, "Shepherd King" or "Ruler of Foreign Lands", from which the name "Hyksos" is derived, can be connected with the old bowed leader as the Shepherd King to the left-hand side of the hieroglyph, with his sons behind him or can possibly also be connected with JOSEPH himself on the right-hand side as Ruler of Foreign Lands, identified by Egyptologists as the royal official (Vizier) Khety.
Father JACOB's inscribed name is identified as the Hebrew Genesis24:2 biblical name Abi-shar "my father is king" or Abisharie "my father is strong". If this is how JACOB called himself in front of Egyptians, it would fit his comment in front of Pharaoh regarding his forefathers in Genesis47:9. If this is how his sons called him it is a kind of 'My Sir Father' addressing but much more personal. Aba means rather a dad than a father, thus big dad could also be a translation that fits a dad leading a family of 70 descendants and their wives after all their slaves had been set free in Canaan according to the Book of Jubilees.
Egyptology concludes that further inscriptions claim that the Heka Shasut, the "rulers of foreign lands", came from the land of Shutu. According to Aharoni (1979, page 146) the land of Shutu the Shepherd King or the Ruler of Foreign Lands comes from is probably an ancient term for Gilead. The Bible says the Midianites/Ishmaelites who took JOSEPH as a slave with them down to Egypt came from Gilead Genesis37:25. These are all additional strong archeological indications confirming the Bible.
1821 BC JACOB's Clan Israel is entering Egypt for the Ensettlement in the land of Goshen
Father Jacob may see his dead believed son Joseph at last again being alive
PATTERNS OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PART I
FOR ZAMONTH AND KHNUMHOTEP
BEING TWO DIFFERENT NAMES OF ONE AND THE SAME VIZIER
We have already learned that biblical POTIPHAR gave as much responsibility to his slave JOSEPH as possible because of his tremendous talents. When JOSEPH became Vizierking over Egypt POTIPHAR gave to him his daughter ASENAT ESENUT and his name Khnumhotep - which is a sign of adoption - and made him an Egyptian on this way. We have already shown that biblical POTIPHAR was archeologically evidenced called Khnumhotep II and Vizier Khnumhotep is confirmed by Egyptologists as his (adoptive) son. So it would not surprise if POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II who was Mayor of different towns would also share his responsibilities as Mayor with JOSEPH Vizier Khnumhotep. If two of JOSEPH's Viziernames are Khnumhotep and Zamonth we probably would find archeological evidence for interconnections between noble nomarch Khnumhotep II and the Viziername Zamonth:
According to JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ESENUT archeologically evidenced as Enutsen or Henut, one of JOSEPH's Vizier names was ZaMonth, meaning Son of Month. Because of having saved Egypt out of death by famine and because of his great wisdom he was adored so much by the Egyptians that he could not avoid being more and more worshipped not only as the son of the Egyptian deity Month but also even as the Egyptian deity Month himself as later shown by further evidence. In this way Month remained in Egyptians memories as a famous popular deity even up until the 13th century BC; For example, to praise Pharaoh Ramesses II in the Papyrus Anastasia II he was extraordinarily called the "deity Month in both lands .. and Vizier who is friendly minded to Egypt". Why does a great Pharaoh like Ramesses II compare himself with a "smaller" Vizier in order to look greater? Biblical History gives the answer: JOSEPH was the Vizier and King who was as friendly-minded to Egypt and he was worshipped and glorified not only as of the son of Month but later even as the deity Month himself as we will prove later.
JOSEPH Vizier ZaMonth was also appointed as "Mouth of Nekhen" the spokesman or speaker of the town of Nehkheny and sowith most plausibly was also the mayor of Nekhen, in greek called Heirankopolis = Hawk City. A hawk or a falcon was representing the syncretized deities Month, Nekheny, and Horus. Nekhen is one of the oldest religious places in the world and was the Egyptian religious center from 3500 BC up to the turn of times and it was the center of the cult of the hawk deity, Horus, Nekheny or Month, the divine Patron of the Kings. Joseph biblically served as Patron of the Kings Senwosret III and Amenemhat III.
Nekhen's companion town Nekheb on the opposite bank of the Nile was up until JOSEPH's time the more influential noble nomarch town of Egypt. And POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was the "Overlord of Nekheb". In Joseph's time, Nekhen overtook Nekheb's influence and became an important tomb town of the Intermediate Period. Later in the New Kingdom Nekheb "eclipsed in the city of Nekhen". JOSEPH's Zamonth's son and follower EPHRAIM Ankhu is also on a later stela inscribed as Judge and Keeper of Nekhen (Cairo, Egyptian Museum, CG 20403).
Thus POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH Zamonth, and EPHRAIM Ankhu were all Mayors of the twin town Nekheb-Nekhen. These are already the first strong indications for the Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth being a noble name and a royal name for one and the same Vizier in the same time as further proved later.
All indications together lead more and more to the question: Are Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep three different names of one and the same famous Vizierking of Senwosret III and Amenemhet III from 1830 BC until 1750 BC - the time of biblical JOSEPH as Vizierking? Egyptologists state the Middle Kingdom had only one Vizier per Pharaoh as a kind of nowadays prime minister or chancellor and a Ruler over Egypt owned four to six different honorary names. Thus it is most plausible that a unique Grandvizier like Joseph - as extraordinarily announced Ruler/ Vizierking over complete Egypt and as the Saviour of Egypt out of the Great Famine standing above every Egyptian except Pharaoh - also owned several different names.
We finally leave now Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hasan and its overwhelming amount of archeological evidence confirming Israel in Egypt. But we will return as soon as we will learn to know closer JOSEPH's wife ASENATH ...
PATTERNS OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PART II
FOR JOSEPH'S VIZIERKING NAMES ZAMONTH AND KHNUMHOTEP
- JOSEPH'S PHARAOH SONS -
We have already seen there is clear evidence for Kheti, Khnumhotep, and Zamonth as Viziernames in the time of the Pharaohs Senusret III and Amenemhet III. First indications for all three being JOSEPH are found in Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures and hieroglyphs and in many further contemporary inscriptions. Finally, the Vizier years of Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep are biblically correspondent with JOSEPH's Vizier years and are essentially matching archeological and biblical evidence. In a time when according to science only one Vizier ruled over Egypt.
The most striking evidence for JOSEPH's two different Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth is rooted in JOSEPH's wife's name and her linguistically associated modifications. She is biblically called ASENATH or ESENUT; This matches Vizier Zamonth's JOSEPH's wife's and Vizier Ankuh's EPHRAIM's mother's name Henut or Henutsen or also Henut-pu. Vocals are missing in Egyptian as in Hebrew writing and letter orders often became confused in writing or copying processes. Biblical ESENUT is also the daughter of POTIPHERA (already identified as POTIPHAR already identified as Khnumhotep II). She again turns up on a dead mourning scenes stele of the Vizier Dynasty Family Clan of her beloved husband JOSEPH both just having lost one of their later sons - Wpwauthotep:
(Source: 803-028-251 Stele CG 20690 Cairo, Egyptian Museum, see Lange/Schäfer, Grab- und Denksteine ii, 316-18; Wikipediasearch: Resseneb attestations)
The so-called Wpwauthotep Stele is showing three different dead mourning scenes with three different groups of Wpwauthotep's relatives on three different pictures one beneath the other. Being the deceased himself Wpwauthotep is not shown in person on the stele but in the inscriptions; He is always the first related person. The first two pictures are focussing on Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep and his wife Itineferu taHenut. Henut is also Vizier Ankhu's mother's and Vizier Zamonth's wife's name as already explained. Her husband the Vizier Dynasty Clan Father is here named Khnumhotep, hatia Mayor (remember Zamonth's role as Mayor of Nekhen) and godsealer. According to egyptology, the godsealer was one title of Vizier Khnumhotep III. It can mean expedition leader of the godlike Pharaoh or Priest of Osiris or both. On the Wpwauthotep Stele, he acts as Priest of Osiris. Hatia (Mayor) is one of the highest-ranking titles of royal officials and a commonly used title of Viziers. You could also be a Mayor (Highest) of a certain town. Scientific evidence confirms Mayor being also a title of Khnumhotep II which he bequeathed to one unidentified son thus it is even more likely that JOSEPH Vizier Khnumhotep inherited the title from his adoptive father. tAhenut Henutsen is the linguistically corresponding biblical name Asenat Esenut revealing Joseph's wife's name being Zamonth's wife's name being Khnumhotep's wife's name! The Wedding Stele consists of three pictures among themselves. As long as there is no photo available a detailed scene description is necessary to evaluate its pictural and hieroglyphic information:
1) In the first picture You see deceased Wpwauthotep's daughter Neschi Hotepi and his son Khnumhotep standing and his son Chonsu kneeling in front of a sacrifice table. Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep on the other side sits in front of the death sacrifice. Khnumhotep's hieroglyphically identified wife Itineferu taHenut stands behind him with her hand on his shoulder. His granddaughter and daughter-in-law hieroglyphically identified as Wpwauhotep's wife and thus widow and mother of their three children is called Senebhenas. She is standing behind her grandmother tAhenut/Henutsen.
The Wpwauthotep Stele inscribed used prename of taHenut as Great Royal Wife of the Ruler Khnumhotep and Queenmother of his four generations Vizier Dynasty is the name ItiNeferu. ItiNeferu is the most used name for a Great Royal Wife or Queen Mother from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Prominent examples are for the 11th Dynasty Neferu II as the wife of Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (see Chronology of Israel in Egypt) and for the 18th Dynasty NeferuAtenNefertIti as the wife of semimonotheistic Pharaoh AkhenAten. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful, and refers to the heart so it's more an adjective than a name.
2) The second picture shows two further children of Wpwauthotep standing together in front of their grandfather and lifelong ruler of Egypt and his wife, Khnumhotep and Itineferu taHenut; The further son of the deceased, Amenhotep, titled mayor and big of the council of the ten of upper Egypt, and the further daughter Nebherchuites. The dead mourning scene takes place in the house of a lady called Ineh. It is the only picture with Wpwauthotep's wife Senebhenas missing thus the most plausible conclusion is Wpwauthotep's further children on the second picture are not Senebhenas children but the children of the Lady of the House Ineh as Wpwauthotep's second wife. She is standing with her daughter Neferuwen behind the father and mother of the deceased, Khnumhotep and taHenut. Ineh and Neferuwen are not visible as persons on the stela but the hyroglyphs behind Khnumhotep and tAhenut/Henutsen introduce them.
3) The third picture shows Grandvizier JOSEPH's son, successor, and already for long co-ruling Vizier Ephraim in his official Vizier's wardrobe together with his wife Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereryt and their both daughter Senebhenas the widow. He is hieroglyphically identified as Vizier Ankhu, who is identified by leading Egyptologists as the son of Vizier Zamonth. Senebhenas' brothers Vizier Resseneb and Vizier Iymeru with their Hebrew names SHUTELAH and BERIAH 1Chr7,20 are kneeling in front of them expressing compassion to their father and to their sister as the brother and the widow of their deceased uncle. They are holding flowers.
Picture 1) and 2) show father Khnumhotep in front of a sacrifice table with further crucial explaining text;
Picture 1): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Osiris (or the King Osiris gives), Lord of the Holy Land .. he shall give sacrifice and foods for the sole of lower Egyptian sealer .. Wpwauthotep sired by the mayor and godsealer Khnumhotep .."
Picture 2): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Wpwaut (deity) .. that he shall give all good things to the sole of .. Khnumhotep .."
Wpwaut, Upuaut, or Wepwawet is Wpwauthotep's name-giving patron deity. Wepwawet is a wolf and the deity of war. He was said to accompany the Pharaoh on his hunts lead by the Vizier. Wpwauthotep means the deity of war is satisfied which is an obvious indication of Wpwauthotep being a successful military leader of the ruler. He obviously died in the first battle against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jub46:6; this makes the sacrifice to his name connected diety most plausible.
For decoding the sacrifices texts correctly it is important to understand the historical background: The strictest all valid definition of the word King (instead of Pharaoh) is lifelong ruler. In Egyptian history normally Pharaohs were the commonly lifelong rulers and therefore the Kings of Egypt. But there is an exception phase in Egyptian history: The 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period. In this time Pharaoh's ruling time even went down from few years to only one year each. At least 12 Pharaohs with only one year of reign time existed in this time. Thus a Pharaoh in this time can not realistically be meant mentioning a lifelong ruler = King in this text. According to the Bible, the only real lifelong ruler of Egypt at that time was Joseph and all Egyptians adored him as savior and ruler of Egypt. Thus Father Khnumhotep is most likely meant with the lifelong ruler = the King in this text. Wpwauthotep is hieroglyphically called the "sealer of the king/crown" in the first picture.
Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH or ESENUT
are named Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut or Henutsen.
Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut or Henutsen
are also named Vizier Khnumhotep and his wife taHenut.
They are adoptive son in law and daughter of
Nobleman POTIPHAR/-ERA also named Nomarch Khnumhotep II.
JOSEPH AND AMENEMHET III
- A REAL FRIENDSHIP -
We jump back now to the beginning of the 13th Dynasty 1798 BC: After Pharaoh Amenemhet's III death the reign of his until recently by egyptologists erroneously assumed blood son Amenemhet IV and his daughter Nofrusobek followed. Then the so-called Dark Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began. It contained 48 years of JOSEPH's reign as part of his complete biblical 80 years he was ruling the entire land of Egypt (see also Jubilees46:4). His brothers were not only by Senowsret III appointed "King's Shepherds" overall flocks of sheep in Egypt Genesis47:6,47; Some of them even became "Shepherd Kings" as Pharaohs. JOSEPH ruled over all Egyptians and the complete House of the Pharaoh - as originally commanded by Senwosret III in Genesis41:40 - for 80 years. JOSEPH's royal Vizier names, in the beginning, are Senewosret-Ankh and Amenemhat-Ankh - "bringing new life" to the two Pharaohs - and Zamonth (picture) is later announced as "Real Friend of the King" which exactly describes the biblical relationship between him and Amenemhet III; Amenemhet gave him as a gift his own signet ring, his own chariot, and his priest's Knumhotep II daughter. And he is biblically so pleased and happy (in hebrew jatab) with JOSEPH that when he hears about JOSEPH's reunion with his brothers that he lets them know: "take your father and your families and come to me! I want to give you the best of my land of Egypt and you shall eat the fat of the land." Genesis45,16; This is by no means any plausible Pharaoh reaction towards one of several contemporary Viziers; These are true most trustful feelings and not the last grateful deed to his exclusive "Real Friend". Vizier Zamonth Knumhotep's wife's name is Henut, Henut-pu or Henutsen. Later they are additionally named Montuhotep and his wife Neferu Juhetibu. In old biblical Hebrew JOSEPH's wife is called ASENATH, OSNAT, ASNIT, ASNET, or ESENUT (Jubilees, Klaus Berger 1981 p. 495, footnote 20m) daughter of POTIPHAR, POTIPHERA, PUTIPHARE, PUTIPHAR or Khnumhotep II, Priest of On/Heliopolis. According to Jewish Beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerich Joseph's brothers would have settled in Heliopolis after Father Jacob's death (1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Vol. 3 german page 406). Historian Josephus also confirms Heliopolis/On as the location of the Shepherd Kings' Grasslands. This would be the time when Father JACOB's 12 pillars Semitic palace excavated by Manfred Bietak in Avaris was rebuilt as JOSEPH's palace with twin chambers for EPHRAIM Ankhu and MANASSE Senebefni. The Septuaginta and the 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees enumerate On next to Ra-amezez and Pithom as the cities rebuilt as eastern boundary fortresses by Israelite slaves after their Hyksos Invasion destruction. Thus On/ Heliopolis plausibly was to an essential extent inhabited by Israelites and the nome Heliopolis shows very late evidence for never moved away Israelites until the 4th and 3rd century BC excavated in Elephantine and Leontopolis.
Vizier ZaMonth, Vizier Ankhu's Father
The only Vizier in Egyptian History wearing the King's Beard, the token for lifelong highest rulership
1819 BC: Oldest ancient Weaving scene in Khnumhotep's II POTIPHAR's Tomb in Beni Hasan
In the center stands his wife Khety - was she a mother of sevenlings?
JOSEPH'S WIFE ASENATH IN THE TOMB OF POTIPHAR IS
VIZIER KETHY KHNUMHOTEP'S WIFE HENUT IN THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP II
According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 99 ff.) JOSEPH's wife ESENUT, here called ASENET, would have been an adoptive daughter of his slavemaster and Priest of Heliopolis PUTIPHAR who would have later employed her as astrologer and priestess of Heliopolis due to her visionary talents. She would have been wise, beautiful, and later becoming a leading mother of many. She also would have introduced the art of weaving in Egypt - this would have to be archeologically confirmed by the first Egyptian depicted weaving in her lifetime between 1850 BC and 1750 BC, and indeed You find the firstly depicted weaving scene in Khnumhotep's II POTIPHAR's tomb pictures of shortly after 1819 BC in Beni Hasan as You can see in the picture above.
ASENATH would have been as a matter of fact additionally the daughter of Father JACOB's daughter DINA following DINA's biblical premarital intercourse with SHECHEM. To save her daughter from being killed as a bastard by her brothers the child would have been brought to Egypt and sold to PUTIPHAR. Father JACOB recognizing her birthmark after having arrived in Egypt would have revealed to JOSEPH that she is not only his wife but also the daughter of his beloved and missed sister. Later JUDA and BENYAMIN would have prevented JOSEPH from being killed by his brothers DAN and GAD; They would have been stirred up by Pharaoh's son beforehand who desired ASENATH as his wife.
The consequence of this deadly sin was already mentioned in Chapter Hyksos; GAD'S son ERI Genesis46:16 and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA, and SALOMON, listed in the Book of Jubilees 44:20 footnote d and Jubilees44:29 (Klaus Berger's translation) had to die early in Egypt without children. Another most plausible consequence is the deadly punishment GAD and DAN and possibly also their passive two brothers must have feared after their father JACOB's death in 1804 BC: It does not make much sense that all of JOSEPH's brothers did fear and try to avoid to be punished by JOSEPH after their father's death by referring on JACOB having said before his death JOSEPH shall forgive all his brothers in Genesis50:15-21; JOSEPH did do this already 17 years earlier in 1821 BC when he revealed his identity to his brothers and invited them all to come to Egypt in Genesis45:5. But it does make very sense, that DAN and GAD were in fear to be punished deadly for their second attempt to murder JOSEPH stirred by Pharaoh's son thus most likely they will have been the ones in Genesis50:15-21.
According to Angela Standhartinger (Wikipedia: Asenath) the traditions in the Midrash and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, that trace ASENATH to the family of JACOB relate that she was the daughter born to DINAH following her rape by SHECHEM. JACOB's sons wanted to kill the infant. DINAH left ASENATH on the wall of Egypt. POTIPHERA found her, brought her to his home, and gave her a wet nurse. POTIPHERA's wife was barren (with sevenlings?), and she raised ASENATH as her own daughter. Consequently, she was called “ASENATH daughter of POTIPHERA,” for she was raised in the home of POTIPHERA and his wife as if she were their own daughter. (Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer [ed. Higger], chaps. 35, 37; Midrash Aggadah [ed. Buber], Genesis 41:45).
"Joseph and Aseneth" readable on http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm is a narrative that referred to itself as contemporary from the time of Joseph. Scientists date it between 200 BCE and 200 CE (H.F.D. Sparks, The Apocrypha Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp.473-503) but oldest evidenced in the same time like the Qumran evidenced Torah and Book of Jubilees it was never disproved but rather confirmed regarding its origin in Egypt so it may also be of the time near its occurrences which would be the 18th century BC. In this narrative of "Joseph and Asenath"
"Pentephres (Potiphar) had a virgin daughter of about eighteen years of age, tall and beautiful and graceful, more beautiful than any other virgin in the land. And she was quite unlike the daughters of the Egyptians but in every respect like the daughters of the Hebrews. And she was as tall as Sarah, and as beautiful as Rebecca, and as fair as Rachel, and this virgin's name was Aseneth ... And seven virgins had the remaining seven rooms, one each. And they used to wait on Aseneth, and were of the same age as she was, for they were all born on the same night as Aseneth; and they were very beautiful, like the stars of heaven, and no man or boy had ever had anything to do with them ... And there were four gates to the court, overlaid with iron; and eighteen strong young men-at-arms used to guard each one of them."
It's a wonderful spiritual Hebrew love story and dramatic action story: ASENATH is married to JOSEPH, whose brothers DAN and GAD plot to kill him for the sake of Pharaoh's son, who wants ASENATH to be his wife and wants his father and JOSEPH to be killed. This is avoided firstly by Joseph's younger brother BENYAMIN (also confirmed by Test Jos, Josephus, Antiquitates 2.39–59) and by the sons of Leah:
"And on the third day, Pharaoh's son died from the wound of Benjamin's stone. And Pharaoh mourned for his eldest son, and he was worn out with grief. And Pharaoh died at the age of one hundred and nine, and he left his crown to Joseph. And Joseph was King of Egypt for forty-eight years. And after this Joseph gave the crown to Pharaoh's grandson; and Joseph was like a father to him in Egypt."
Pharaoh Amenemhet III died in 1798 BC and JOSEPH died in 1750 BC. Amenemhet's daughter Mereret married EPHRAIM Ankhu, so Amenemhet's grandson Resseneb is also Joseph's grandson SHUTELAH as You will learn later in this Chapter.
ASENATH is hieroglyphically written in old Egyptian Henut which is also the most famous female name in her (adoptive) father Khnumhotep's II nomarch genealogy: Henu was the grandmother of the first Oryx nome nomarch Khnumhotep. Thus Henu was the name of the Nomarch Dynasty Clan Mother of Khnumhotep II. According to Egyptologists the southern fourth wall in Beni Hasan (next big picture) shows Khnumhotep's II wife Khety sitting in front of a full offering table and eight daughters are standing behind her in the same and in the next row and there are also further sons so they had a lot of children. Thus three more daughters are standing beneath in the next line accompanied by 18 strong young men many of them sons. So we have one plus seven beautiful young women as possible daughters of Khnumhotep and Khety. This matches exactly the narrative of Joseph and Asenath regarding all numbers. One of them is called Tjat and has special economical talents, as a sealer she is responsible for all valuable goods of Khnumhoteph II and is depicted with two slaves (half size) who support her work.
But is there any Henut ASENATH?
For further confirming evidence Henut being Khnumhotep's II (adoptive) daughter, You are invited to search for the hieroglyph of her name-giving goddess Henut in form of a Pelican in his tomb in Beni Hassan. In the tomb hieroglyphs You can identify different birds, enjoy Your discovery adventure journey:
ASENATH'S HEBREW NAME
IN A HEBREW INSCRIPTION OF AN EGYPTIAN COPPER MINE
IN THE SINAI DESERT IN 1752 BC
In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 found as Hebrew identified oldest alphabetical inscriptions. This one was discovered in the Sinai and it says:
"The House of the Vineyard of ASENATH
and its Innermost Room were engraved.
They have come to live."
The inscription was engraved by an Israelite in the Wadi Nasb in the Sinai Desert in the biblical year 1752 BC ('1772' BC). This is the year of ASENATH's death in the third year before JOSEPH’s death according to AK Emmerich (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes, p.107). You can study in ASENATH's (adoptive) father POTIPHAR's tomb pictures in this Chapter how his Innermost Room was engraved in order to come to life as an Egyptian burial cult act.
Sinai 376 Serabit El-Kadim (Gerster p.65):
Reading from the top right downwards
Enjoy Your Discovery Journey!
- THE 18 CHILDREN OF JOSEPH AND ASENATH -
ISRAEL'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY AND ITS PHARAO'S
- THE SHEPHERD KINGS -
The reader is invited to use
the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter
as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.
According to UN estimations in 2013 about 343.000 over 100 years old persons lived on our planet and at least 3,2 million are estimated for 2050. In Germany in 1900 born people had the chance of 1% to get older than 100 years and in 2017 16.500 people got older than 100 years. The Bible says JOSEPH died 110 years old and the Book of Jubilees says his older brothers all died after him.
In 2017 in Britain one mother had 20 children and in Uganda, one mother had 38 children, in most African countries the average number of children in a family is 5. The Bible says the average number of children of the 12 sons of Israel was 5 when they arrived in Egypt but from then on the people of Israel multiplied enormously in their time in Egypt. Genesis15:16 Exodus1:2.6:16; After the biblical 4 generations in Egypt, calculated with an average of 8 children, Israel would have numbered over 3 million people which is biblically confirmed by the number of 600.000 men in 1606 BC the biblical time of the Exodus.
According to the Bible JOSEPH did not have only two sons but the most fruitful family of descendants of all twelve brothers: In Genesis48:5.6 his father JACOB tells him that the (male) descendants, Joseph has begotten after JACOB had arrived in Egypt - thus after his two first sons Ephraim and Manasse - shall remain to belong to JOSEPH whereas his two firstborn sons shall belong to JACOB as adoptive sons. In Genesis49:22 JACOB prophesized JOSEPH (as a father of sons) becoming the "fruitful tree at the fountain" with "daughters/twigs tendring over the wall". The female "tendring twigs of a tree" are in old Hebrew also a picture and translational option for female descendants. Thus the Bible clearly states that JOSEPH had much more children than his only namely mentioned sons EPHRAIM and MANASSE:
According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107), ASENATH and JOSEPH would have had 18 children including several twins. EPHRAIM Ankhu and MANASSE Dedu-Month Senebtefi or Senebefni are the only ones with biblically revealed names following Father JACOB's decision that all the other children of JOSEPH shall be counted under and called after the names of EPHRAIM and MANASSE in their inheritance share of the promised land according to Genesis48:6.7. Now let's try to identify JOSEPH's further sons, who were enthroned by JOSEPH as Pharaohs for three to four years each after peaceful calm 20 years of yearly rotating Pharaohs of his loyal brothers' BENYAMIN and LEVI's families:
We already found out that Wpwauthotep was a military leader of the ruler and his father Grandvizier Khnumhotep was also called ZaMonth, son of Month. Wpwauthotep most plausibly died in the first battle against the Canaanites before Joseph's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jubilees46:6. His wifes were called Senebhenas and Ineh. Now we take a look at the most plausible Pharaoh for the first battle against the Canaanites already mentioned in the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology: Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. He was a military leader and "troup commander of the ruler", too. And he died most plausibly in the first battle against the Canaanites before Joseph's death in 1750 BC. Last but not least his wives are also called Senebhenaes and nIneh so he clearly has to be identified as the later Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. He was called a "Kingson" which means a son of a lifelong ruler and his father is called "Father of God's Monthhotep". Monthhotep means "the diety Month is satisfied with him" like Khnumhotep means "the deity Khnum is satisfied with him". Joseph's royal name and adoptive noble name Zamonth Khnumhotep as a double name melted together into one name result - the name Monthhotep. Khnumhotep's wife Henut, Wpwauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III mother is also called Juhetibu. The only lifelong ruler = King of this time was according to the strict biblical chronology Grandvizier JOSEPH together with his co-ruling son Ephraim. As Visiers they are as later shown assumed by several Egyptologists to be the real ruling power behind weak Pharaohs. Pharaohs were changing down to yearly that time, so they could not have been meant when mentioning a "King" = lifelong ruler in the 13th Dynasty. Thus only Grandvizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Ruler of Egypt can be meant as Sobekhotep's III Father and King Monthhotep. His additional title "Father of God's" reveals that he was most highly adored and hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and that he was a father of several Pharaohs, seen by the Egyptians still as deities. Thus JOSEPH's rejection to become Pharaoh in order to avoid being worshipped as a deity didn't really achieve its target.
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III (who has a daughter called Juhetibu like his mother) has two brothers: Seneb/Sonb (who has two daughters called Henut and Juhetibu like his mother and a son called Monthhotep like his father) and Khakau (who has a son called Khnumhotep like his father). The names of their children reveal how plausible it is that JOSEPH's different names were Khnumhotep and Monthhotep and that his wife's ASENATH's different names were Henut and Juhetibu. Seneb/Sonb and Khakau were also both called "Kingsons" meaning their father was a lifelong Ruler of Egypt. ZaMonth KhnumHotep MontHotep JOSEPH died shortly after his son's Wpwauthotep's death in 1750 BC. Wpwauthotep Pharaoh Sobekhotep III had three "King brothers" who reigned as Pharaohs before him: The first one is Pharaoh Imyremeshaw, who was also called a "military leader of the ruler". His sculpture is wearing a King's beard which shows his rivalry against his brother Ephraim as the future heir of the Kingship. The second one is Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef, who shows the archeological evidence of all three of them being called "King brothers" and having "ten Kingsisters". And then the third and last Pharaoh before Sobekhotep III was his brother Pharaoh Seth Meribre.
Thus JOSEPH Monthhotep and ASENATH Henut secondly named Juhetibu
had 18 archeologically confirmed children
which exactly matches the already mentioned number of their children according to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich.
Becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III, Wpwauthotep was married to Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s daughter Senebhenas. One of Sobekhotep's brothers when becoming Pharaoh was also married to one of Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s daughters; she was named Aya and her husband was additionally named Sobekhotep (according to Egyptologist Kim Ryholt it has to be Pharaoh Imyremeshaw or Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef). This was a strategic action of EPHRAIM to keep his brothers' Pharaoh power under control and to avoid them taking over the rulership. Marrying his third brother Pharaoh Antef with his daughter Aya to better control him is most plausibly EPHRAIM's Vizier Ankhu's reaction after the rivalry ambitions of his second brother Pharaoh Imyremeshaw shown in his sculpture's King's beard because EPHRAIM was clearly the dedicated throne heir of Kingship as Vizier. EPHRAIM's fifth brother Sobekhotep's III initiating a war against the Canaanites can also be seen as an attempt to become as a successful military ruler the next King of Egypt. His ambitions were controlled by having to take EPHRAIM's daughter Senebhenas as his second wife. Thus EPHRAIM can't have been very happy with his father's decision to let his brothers co-rule as Pharaohs for several years. He must have missed the good old peaceful times of the most likely by himself invented yearly Pharaoh rotation system with his uncles and cousins as Pharaohs. This is seen in his reestablishing this system after two troubled decades in his last twenty years of life.
All in all that way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became archeologically evidenced fulfilled. But his prophecy even lasted longer as we will see in the next passage ...
Pictures: JOSEPH's 3rd son and 6th son became Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 13th Dynasty in the time before JOSEPH's death and the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur 1750 BC
('1759-1754') 1765-1760 BC:
the 3rd son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
with the King's beard as a sign of rivalry between him and his brother Crown Prince EPHRAIM
('1740-1756') 1754-1750 BC:
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III
the 6th son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
DualRelief Brooklyn Museum
Handover of the Kephresh the Blue War Crown?
EPHRAIM'S STABILIZATION ACTIONS IN JOSEPH'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY
VIZIER ANKUH'S DAUGHTERS HAVE TO MARRY HIS PHARAOH BROTHERS
All four mentioned brothers of EPHRAIM were selected Pharaohs for one, two, or three years - selected by JOSEPH to stabilize the Dynasty and keep the Pharaoh's power weak below him as Vizierking; An additional stabilization action was the mentioned marriage of Ankhu's brothers with his own princess daughters to better stay in control regarding their ambitions. The Pharaoh's reign times of JOSEPH's and ASENATH's four sons all took place in the time before Joseph's death 1750 BC according to the Book of Jubilees. This is dating Sobekhotep's III death into the year of the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' according to the Book of Jubilees (see also start table of this chapter).
Three totally different Hebrew Pharaohs have been erroneously identified as his younger brothers and successors by leading Egyptologists. The reason was they were also called "king sons" without an identifiable king father like Sobekhotep III allegedly and his older brothers were for them and their "nonroyal" father was also called "father of gods" not identifiable as any king: Their names are Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV. Their as a matter of fact one century later rulership in the time between 1680 and 1650 BC is explained later and has already begun to be discussed in Egyptology because of new excavated challenging evidence (see Chapter Moses).
The mentioned stabilizing marriages lead to the question of how Ankhu EPHRAIM further stabilized his rulership after his father Joseph's death; We find further answering indications in the names of succeeding Pharaohs; Pharaoh Khendjer was married with Anhu's daughter and Wephauthotep's/ Sobekhotep's III widow Senebhenas; Pharaoh Merneferre Aya most plausibly is the son of Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s brother Pharaoh Sehetepkare Intef and Ankhu's princess daughter Aya. And Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini most plausibly is the son of Sobekhotep III and his first wife Ini, Ineh, or Neni; In this work, he has already been identified as Amenhotep the son of Wephauthotep - Merhotepre Ini's pre intronization original name and Sobekhotep's III pre intronization original name.
The Hebrew word for daughter and granddaughter is the same and means female descendants. Thus Joseph's granddaughters were married to JOSEPH's sons and grandsons. That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became a second time archeologically evidenced fulfilled.
Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III pre intronization name is Wephauthotep.
He is Military Commander of his King and Father Knumhotep.
He is evidenced Kingson of JOSEPH King Khnumhotep.
JOSEPH's names ZaMonth Khnumhotep melted into Mont(u)hotep.
JOSEPH is the father of several "godlike" Pharaohs and thus
worshipped by Egyptians as "Father of Gods" Montuhotep.
ZaMonth, KhnumHotep, and Mont(u)Hotep are archeologically evidenced Viziernames in the biblical Rulership time of JOSEPH.
Stela CGC 20102:
Vizier Zamonth (on the right) wearing the King's Beard
with his son Priest Senebefni
JOSEPH with his son MANASSE
Stela Inscriptions: " .. Seneb Daughter of Zamonth and Henut-Nu .. A sacrifice that the King gives on the part of his son whom he loves .. Speaker Vizier Senwosret .. Rensenebu Clerk and Head of House .. Mother Henut .. A sacrifice that the King Osiris is giving, who is the First of the West, the great God, Lord of Abydos, Wepwaut, Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier Zamonth .."
- SENWOSRET -
ONE OF JOSEPH'S AND HIS SON EPHRAIM'S ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED VIZIER NAMES
The above inscribed and two times archeologically evidenced "Speaker" of Vizier Zamonth is called Vizier Senwosret and dates Zamonth's Rulership as Vizier into the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty (1830-1770 BC: Franke Dossier Nr.526/173/492/537 & AVB S.218 f.). The start of this Chapter has already revealed that Senwosret is also one of Joseph's many Vizier names. This leads to the conclusion that this speaker's name is the second name of his son Vizier Ankhu EPHRAIM inherited from his father. Another Viziername in JOSEPH's Viziertime - Chety/Kethi - has been found at the Joseph's Canal Bar Yusuph and confirms this conclusion; Ankhu's EPHRAIM'S firstborn son is named Resseneb SHUTELAH. Two Mayors of Lahun under Vizier Chety/Kethi are called Senwosret (year 9-24 of Amenemhet) and Khakheper-Resseneb, son of Senwosret (year 37 of Amenemhet) which are exactly the timeframes matching with Joseph's son and great son being young Viziers supporting their King and Father/Grandfather: JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep Chety also called Senwosret had a son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu also called Vizier Senwosret who was like his son SHUTELAH Vizier Resseneb for some years archeologically evidenced Mayor of Lahun under his father JOSEPH Vizier Chety. In the time after JOSEPH's death when EPHRAIM had become Vizierking of Egypt Pharaoh Wegaf is mentioned on a plaquette from Elephantine (Legrain 1907, p.248-275) together with a "King Senwosret". This confirms EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret archeologically evidenced as King of Egypt and announced as such in the very time when his rival and ambitious brother MANASSE's sons became Pharaohs; A good reason to clarify by inscription who is the real King above Pharaoh and Egypt as we will learn more deeply later.
JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth is archeologically evidenced
as King of Egypt.
JOSEPH King Zamonth is by Stela CGC 20102 archeologically evidenced hero-worshipped by at least the Egyptians as Osiris most likely after his death because Osiris is the incarnation of a King in his afterlife.
JOSEPH Zamonth also named Khnumhotep, is under both names evidenced Nobleman, Mayor of Town, Vizier, and KING.
EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu also named Vizier Senowsret
is archeologically evidenced
as KING Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf AVIEZER
The biblical time of JOSEPH's rulership is
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
The Speaker of Zamonth named Vizier Senwosret
dates Zamonth's Viziership ALSO into
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
JOSEPH’S SON EPHRAIM
- THE 13TH DYNASTY IS A VIZIERKING'S DYNASTY -
According to David Rohl, "Ankhu" is archeologically evidenced contemporary called "pa-Aam" the Eastern Semite or "Asiatic" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58): EPHRAIM, JOSEPH'S second-born son is appointed as Co-Vizier Ankhu already under Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III honored him preferentially by calling him - like also his father JOSEPH - his "enlivenment" = "Ankh(u)" and by giving to him his daughter or much younger sister Mereret as wife. Ankhu and Mereret both grew up together at the royal palace. Mereret is often called the King's Daughter in inscriptions. She may not have been buried directly next to her father's Pyramide for the same reason as JOSEPH's tomb; Amenemhets Pyramide lacked stability, it was built too near to the flooding Nile, so Mereret might have been buried near to the next pyramid, her grandfather's one. Thus egyptologists concluded that she would be the daughter of King Senwosret III. Among her personal adornments, there were pieces with the name of King Amenemhet III found as possible evidence for him being her real father. But Senwosret III had several wives and lived until 1819 BC so Mereret could also easily be his very late daughter and Amenemhet's very young sister. EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu was born 1832 BC. After his Co-Rulership 1798-1750 BC with his father JOSEPH, he became the ruling Grandvizier and the King of Egypt in 1750 BC (c. Beckerath 1964, p. 98-100). While Ankhu EPHRAIM took over more and more business already as Vizierprince, JOSEPH Khnumhotep against his will was more and more adored and worshipped by the Egyptians as a deity, and maybe even already by parts of his own people - not only as savior out of famine but also as the so-called Father of "God's" = "god"-like Pharaohs and as the deity Month, as the deity Khum and later as the deity Osiris.
For the later decades, Egyptologists say Vizier Ankhu is "often seen as actual real power at the royal court and is considered to be one of the most significant officials of his period and pattern example for a stable management in the 13th/14th Dynasty ..." (Rice, Michael: Who's Who in Ancient Egypt 1999 24-25 and Beckerath 1964 98-100) and "His situation illustrates, that during his period the Viziers were the real power behind weak Kings (meant are the Pharaohs). The Kings (meant are the Pharaohs) were only in power for a short period, while the Viziers remained in power for longer periods." (W.C. Hayes 1955 p. 146-47 and Helek, Geschichte, 118-119 and Junker, die Völker des Antiken Orients, 104-105). The Encyclopedia Britannica states "In government, the vizier assumed prime importance, and a single family held the office for much of a century." and "In little more than a century about 70 kings
(meant are the Pharaohs) occupied the throne."
Egyptologists have up until today not been realizing yet that the quickly rotating Pharaoh's of the 13th dynasty could not have been seriously seen as so-called Kings = lifelong rulers of Egypt anymore and that the title King walked over to the real lifelong rulers of Egypt: Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep JOSEPH and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret EPHRAIM. Ankhu even implemented with his father a yearly Pharaoh Rotation System to further weaken Pharaoh's former power and stabilize peace in this Vizierking Dynasty. As already seen in 1765-1743 BC JOSEPH and EPHRAIM strengthened the loyalty of Pharaohs to the Vizierking by appointing JOSEPH’s further sons as Pharaohs and by marrying them with EPHRAIM's daughters. That this was necessary is shown by the King's beard of JOSEPH's third son Pharaoh Imyremeshaw signalizing the claim to the King's dignity towards his brother EPHRAIM the next Vizierking. JOSEPH dies shortly after the death of his sixth son Wepwauthotep, throne name Pharaoh Sobekhotep III, in the first battle against the Canaanites in The Valley of Assur and EPHRAIM evidenced continued as the new Vizierking the Pharaoh successor traditions by selecting further grandsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs until his own death after the 'Hyksos' Invasion.
When EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu had married Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereret in his younger years he first became the father of his two biblical sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH 1Chr7:20. Both two sons were equally announced as Viziers and were probable twins like also EPHRAIM and MANASSE. Their Egyptian Vizier names are Resseneb and Iymeru Aya. As shown later the 13th Dynasty, JOSPEH's Vizierking Dynasty, even transformed into Thebes 16th Dynasty after the 'Hyksos' Invasion at Avaris. David Rohl mentions in his book "The Exodus" that an 'Aamu' = Eastern Semite 'Kui' is archeologically evidenced contemporary called "Resseneb" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58) which a second time confirms Vizier Ankhu and his sons being archeologically evidenced Semites.
EPHRAIM's Ankhu's both sons and his grandson also later ruled as Vizierkings of the 16th and 17th Dynasty. This great future of EPHRAIM and his seed was prophecied by his Forefather JACOB before his death in Genesis48:19 and finds its echoes even in the time of the Enslavement of Israel in the North in form of an evidenced "Ankhu's office" in Thebes in the South (see chapter Moses). Thus for over one complete century until at least the 'Hyksos Invasion' in 1729 BC, JOSEPH and EPHRAIM obviously had a striking influence on the election of Pharaohs and EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH were trying to continue this tradition in Thebes as later shown in Chapter Moses. The Pharaohs' often "nonroyal" ancestry and Hebrew names also reveal they were elected as Egyptologists begin more and more to realize. A yearly election and rotation system also explains the seemingly intransparent reign times and a minimum of spectacular reign attributes, monuments, and buildings in the 13th Dynasty:
"Ludwig Morenz believes that Dedumoses stele text 'acclaimed to the kingship'
may confirm the controversial idea of Eduard Meyer that certain Pharaos were elected to office."
JOSEPH'S BROTHER BENYAMIN AND THE FIRST PHARAOS OF THE 13TH DYNASTY
-THE FIRST SHEPHERD KINGS -
The reader is invited to use
the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter
as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.
As we have already seen JOSEPH's further sons can be evidenced identified as Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty; This finally leads to the question, if this kind of way of stabilizing JOSEPH's Vizierking Dynasty by announcing family members as Pharaohs may already have been originally initiated directly after Pharaoh Amenemhat‘s III death; The Story of Joseph & Asenath states that "Pharaoh left his dominion and his crown of the kingdom to JOSEPH and died.":
In the ancient Hebrew Story of Joseph & Asenath originated in Egypt (http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm) JOSEPH's only full blood brother of the same mother RACHEL BENYAMIN and his half brother LEVI both sons of Father JACOB are described as JOSEPH's most beloved and trusted brothers. His brothers DAN and GAD and Pharaoh Amenemhat's III predeceased son are described as having the deadly worst relationship to JOSEPH: Amenemhat's III only blood son would not only have tried to kill JOSEPH as foreign throne rival and marriage rival but he even would have also tried to kill his own father who chose JOSEPH to continue his rulership over Egypt after his death. So his memory would most plausibly have been fully deleted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III after his son's failed attempt and violent death. Thus JOSEPH's biblically evidenced beloved only full-blood brother BENYAMIN would be the most trustful and best candidate for JOSEPH to be appointed as the first Pharaoh succeeding Amenemhet III. And indeed according to The Story of Joseph & Asenath Pharaoh Amenemhet III obviously agreed fully with this idea because he adopted BENYAMIN as Amenemhet IV and taught him in a co-reign phase behaving as a Pharaoh: Egyptologist Kim Ryholt explains Amenemhat IV does not seem to have been a blood son of Amenemhat III because of his non-queen mother and because the Kingdaughter and later Queen Nofrusobek's inscriptions were ignoring his existence. Amenemhat's III daughter Nofruptah died before her father Amenemhetat III died. She is the egyptologists' discussed wife of Amenemhat IV who would have become by this way also an adopted son-in-law of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. According to the Book of Jubilees 34:20, BENYAMIN married an Egyptian woman in Egypt. In The Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) BENYAMIN is described as an 18-year-old "sturdy lad indescribably handsome and as strong as a young lion". This description is precisely confirmed by the picture of BENYAMIN with his brothers in Khnumhotep's II grave in Beni Hassan already analyzed in this Chapter.
Pictures: JOSEPH's brothers/ EPHRAIM's uncles BENYAMIN and LEVI
become as Pharaohs Shepherd Kings and Fathers of the Shepherd Kings of Egypt
Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's brother BENYAMIN with Hebrew beard 20 years before he became Pharaoh
BENYAMIN Pharaoh Amenemhet IV Uncle of EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard, the sign for lifelong highest rulership
Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's half brother LEVI with Hebrew beard 38 years before he became Pharaoh
LEVI Pharaoh Amenemhet V Uncle of EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard, the sign for lifelong highest rulership
Amenemhat IV belonged to Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM's family
(Archeological Evidence: Vallogia, RdE21, 109-113)
and is identified as Ankhu's EPHRAIM's Uncle
(Archeological Evidence: Kim Ryholt 1997 p. 209-211).
This means BENYAMIN was the first Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty named Amenemhet IV by his adoptive father-in-law Amenemhet III.
He was JOSEPH'S most trusted and only full-blood brother.
14 following Pharaohs are all archeologically evidenced members of BENYAMIN'S & EPHRAIM's/ Amenemhat's IV & Ankhu's family clan.
(all marked with * in the Table at the start of this Chapter)
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED HEBREW SHEPHERD KINGS OF THE 13TH DYNASTY
- JOSEPH'S AND EPHRAIM'S HEKASHASUT FAMILY CLAN -
After the by egyptologists so-called last 12th Dynasty Pharaohs BENYAMIN Amenemhat IV and Amenemhat's III daughter Sobekneferu, the following Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I is the first Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. He and following Pharaoh Sonbef are regarded by Kim Ryholt and other Egyptologists, including Darrel Baker, as sons of BENYAMIN Amenemhat IV (Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC, Stacey International 2008).
This leads to further Hebrew Pharaoh candidates and their Biblical descendants shown in brackets in the table "JOSEPH's Pharaohs - the 13th Dynasty Pharaohs" at the beginning of this Chapter and in the table "MOSES' Pharaohs" at the beginning of the Chapter Moses. At the end of every Chapter, You find a table of the Genealogy of Israel in Egypt with an overview of the most relevant key players of the time of Israel in Egypt.
In the Story of JOSEPH and ASENATH (XXVII,2) JOSEPH's brother LEVI is the one he most trusted after Benjamin and Kim Ryholt's chronology of Pharaohs (at the beginning of Chapter Joseph) reveals that all other here yet unclarified Pharaos are family members of the lineage of (LEVI) Amenemhat V. All in all, You will find enough evidence in this work to most plausibly expect that all Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty were Israelites and that JOSEPH and EPHRAIM were the only real Kings in the meaning of life long rulers of Egypt in the 13th Dynasty.
This all sheds totally new light on the title HekaShasut or Hyksos translated as "Shepherd Kings" of Egypt in all relevant ancient scriptures and identified by historian Manetho as Israelites, harshly rejected by leading Egyptologists and 'Biblical' Archeologists. Let us now look a second time on this title like we did already do at the end of Chapter Hyksos:
The first known instance of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings called HekaShasut is found as an inscription in the Beni Hasan tomb of the 19th century and by the only statue of a Semitic Foreign Ruler at all of the end of the 19th century. The second known instance of HekaShasut as Hebrew Shepherd Kings are the Hebrew Pharaohs' names Siharnedjheritef, Wegaf, and Khendjer in the 13th Dynasty. The third known instance of HekaShasut - this time as self-called title - is attested by Scarabs of the Canaanite Nile Delta 14th Dynasty. The fourth known instance of HekaShasut or Hyksos is Manetho's undifferentiated description of the Hyksos and scarabs and inscriptions confirming it as Northern Pharaoh title of the 15th Dynasty. The Canaanites were soldiers instead of shepherds so the meaning of HekaShasut became reduced to the general translation Foreign Kings. Another reason is the growing generalized Egyptian hate against all eastern foreigners having overrun complete Egypt. Canaanite and Hebrew Semites are not differentiated anymore by Egyptians, they are all hated foreigners. The fifth known instance of HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in Sextus Julius Africanus's epitome of Manetho for the rulers of the Southern 16th Dynasty of Thebes; They are identified by Manetho as Shepherd Kings which confirms his claim (in Josephus) that they were Hebrews. The sixth known indication of HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in the Southern 17th Dynasty of Thebes: In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is also given the title Hyksos, a fact which a second time confirms that Manetho like all Egyptians after the Exodus of Israel and the Expulsion of the Canaanites did not differentiate anymore between Canaanites and Hebrews as Semites: Life was much easier when trying to forget the Ten Plagues and their responsibility for the enslavement of their savior's people and when only remembering an Expulsion of all hated foreign rulers 'Hyksos' by the victorious Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Moses). Thus the only unambiguously evidenced Egyptian Pharaohs of the complete Second Intermediate Period are the Ahmosides of the last thirty years of the 17th Dynasty.
Pictures: Hebrew Shepherd Kings - Pharaohs of the first and last Phase of the 13th Dynasty
Pharaoh Sobekhotep I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son
BENJAMIN's 1st son BELA
Without the King's beard as a token for lifelong highest rulership
Pharaoh Hor I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son
BENJAMIN's 9th son IR
Is the King's beard a sign of rivalry with the
Crown Prince EPHRAIM?
Pharaoh Ined is
or LEVI's grandson
Is the King's beard a sign of rivalry with the Vizierking EPHRAIM?
JOSEPH'S DEATH AND MANASSE'S BIRTHRIGHT CLAIMS
- MANASSE'S SONS BECOME PHARAOS UNDER EPHRAIM VIZIERKING ANKHU -
The reader is invited to use
the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter
as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.
We have learned already that JOSEPH's brothers BENYAMIN and LEVI and their sons and grandsons were selected as yearly rotating Pharaohs to stabilize JOSEPH's Vizier Kingship Dynasty. And after 20 years JOSEPH's younger sons after EPHRAIM and MANASSE had reached the age to claim their rights as Kingsons to become Pharaohs so until JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM's brothers co-ruled as Shepherd Kings over Egypt. EPHRAIM had to take care of his throne rights as the follower of JOSEPH as the next Vizierking; The Bible mentions two further sons of EPHRAIM in 1Chr7:21 called ESER and ELEAD, who had been killed by JOSEPH's brother GAD's descendants in Egypt, thus EPHRAIM had no further sons to enthrone them as Pharaos like his father JOSEPH did. As explained in Chapter Moses MANASSE's sons of his Egyptian wife are identified as AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA, and his biblically illegitimate son of an Aramean concubine is called MACHIR 1Chr7:14.
After JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM did not appoint his further brothers and Kingsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs; The Canaanites didn't stay in Assur after having killed EPHRAIM's brother Wpwauhotep Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and after having defeated the Egyptian army but instead, they chased after them and tried to conquer Avaris and invade Egypt. Thus EPHRAIM needed the help of his - because of his idolatry "exiled" as we later learn - brother MANASSE from Southern Thebes, who was visiting Avaris with his family clan to take part in the funeral ceremonies of MANASSE's brother Sobekhotep III and his father JOSEPH. MANASSE's son AVIEZER was the "Big Chief of Troups" of MANASSE's southern army which is evidenced by a scarab (Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches Teil II: Die sogenannte “Zweite Zwischenzeit” Altägyptens. In: Orientalia. Nove Series. Band 57, Nr. 3, 1988, S. 249, Nr. 5.) thus he was enthroned by EPHRAIM as Pharao Wegaf to defend Avaris against the invading Canaanites. This explains the Book of Jubilees saying in 46:6 "And he (Makamaron) killed him (Sobekhotep III) there and chased after the Egyptians until he reached the Gate of Ermon (Heropolis). And he was not able to enter because a second new king was King for Egypt and he was stronger than him ...".
AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf and MANASSE's second son HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer are archeologically seen as the most significant Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty because of their building activities and their longest reign times (still only 2,3 and 4,5 years); Both facts show their attempts to break the traditions of the yearly Pharaoh rotation system under the new Vizierkingship of EPHRAIM in order to occupy the throne of kingship as Pharaohs. Their Hebrew origin is shown by their evidenced first Semitic names of Pharaohs in Egyptian history. Thebes or at least Southern Egypt as their original home is archeologically evidenced by the Southern locations of most of their archeological footprints which are Karnak, Elephantine, and Abydos. EPHRAIM as Vizierking seemed to have enough power to change the Pharaoh 2,3 years after AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf had besieged the Canaanites but he also seemed to have been still dependant on the military power of MANASSE's Southern clan so that he had to enthrone as Pharaoh a further son of MANASSE; To ensure better control over MANASSE's son HELEQ, the Vizierking EPHRAIM Ankhu did give his daughter Senebhenas - widow of his brother Wephauthotep, throne name Sobekhotep III and experienced as a wife with controlling tasks - to his nephew HELEQ named by Ankhu Pharaoh Khendjer. MANASSE and EPHRAIM are archeologically evidenced looking after MANASSE's son's ambitious idolatrous Pyramide building project as "Chamberlains of the palace Senebtefi and Ameny". MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Idolatry and culture is evidenced in AVIEZER'S Pharaoh Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen and in HELEQ's Pharaoh Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple. Osiris was the incarnation of the King in his afterlife so this could indicate the hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH after his death as Osiris or the attempt of HELEQ to be hero-worshipped himself after his death. Also with his Pyramide HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer was preparing himself for his afterlife as a deity in the eyes of the Egyptians. In contrast to EPHRAIM and his lineage, MANASSE and his lineage quickly became rather Egyptian than Hebrew. Many donations in the form of deity statues for the temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into the patterns of evidence for idolatry going through the complete lineage of MANASSE as later shown in this Chapter but also in Chapter Moses. Like already AVIEZER, MANASSE's son HELEQ also received as Pharaoh by his g'dfearing uncle EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu a Semitic Pharaoh name not only to be reminded being Hebrews instead of Egyptians: h(n)zr - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - is the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater. This is a further strong indicator of the tension field between MANASSE and his family trying to assimilate as Egyptians worshipping Egyptian idols and EPHRAIM and his family trying to stay Hebrews and loyal to the one G'd of their fathers ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB. It also explains the otherwise striking absence of typical Egyptian pharaonic insignias and Temples in the 13th Dynasty with the exception of the time of MANASSE's sons as Pharaohs. The third son of MANASSE following in the footsteps of his brothers is ASRIEL. He is the next Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw, whose second Egyptian name is also the second Egyptian name of his father Senebefni Ibiaw MANASSE. Pharaoh Ibiaw only reigns for one year like all his following successors which means the yearly Pharaoh rotation system had been reestablished successfully again by EPHRAIM Vizierking Senwosret Ankhu/ Ameny Ankhu. This is also an indication for EPHRAIM meanwhile having established again a sufficient strong own military force after their defeat against the Canaanites. The Canaanites meanwhile didn't return to Assur after having failed to invade Egypt instead they stayed in the Nile Delta and established the so-called 14th Dynasty of Egypt.
The successors of MANASSE'S sons AVIEZER Wegaf, HELEQ Khendjer and ASRIEL Wahibre Ibiaw as following Pharaohs show strong indications for being now further nephews of EPHRAIM Ankhu again as sons of EPHRAIM's former Pharaoh brothers: Pharaoh Merneferre Aya and Pharaoh Merhotepre Heni are most plausible candidates for being the sons of EPHRAIM's brothers' Pharaoh Antef's wife Aya and Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III wife Heni.
Pharaoh Merneferre Aya is the last archeologically evidenced Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt which means following Pharaoh Merhotepre Heni has already an official counter Pharaoh in Thebes claiming the rulership over Southern Egypt as a reaction of MANASSE's clan having returned to Thebes because of their failed attempts to achieve the Kingship over Egypt and EPHRAIM's re-establishment of the traditional yearly Pharaoh rotating system.
This means simultaneously to the 13th Dynasty the 16th Dynasty of Thebes already started after JOSEPH‘s death in 1750 BC as an attempt of establishing two Kingdoms under the rulership of MANASSE's clan. 1742 BC as soon as MANASSE and his sons in Northern Egypt realized that their attempts to take over the rulership had failed, they decided to return to Thebes. Meanwhile, MANASSE‘s son HEPHER Jos17:2 as the successor of his father MANASSE in his role as Vizier & Mayor of Thebes will have announced himself additionally as Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt before his returning brothers were able to proclaim this title for themselves: Vizier Senebhenef - MANASSE's son HEPHER - became Thebe’s Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep VIII for 16 reign years, which is the longest safely evidenced reign time of any Pharaoh in the Second Intermediate Period.
Picture: MANASSE's 2nd son HELEQ Jos17:2 becomes Pharaoh Khendjer. Khendjer has to marry EPHRAIM's Vizierking Ankhu's daughter the widow Senebhenas in order to be under better control. His name Khendjer is Semitic according to Kim Ryholt and his reign time of 4,5 years is the longest one of the 13th Dynasty, which shows his ambitions to achieve kingship power. EPHRAIM's Vizierking Ankhu's answer on his kingship ambitions and his idolatry and his attempts to appear as an Egyptian is naming him by a Hebrew throne name as a wild pig, a boar, and is donating him with a sculpture presenting him as a "weak child".
MANASSE'S LINEAGE AND THEIR RETURN FROM THE NORTH TO THEBES
AFTER THEIR FIRST ATTEMPTS TO ACHIEVE THE KINGSHIP
- THE FIRST PHARAOHS OF THE 16TH DYNASTY OF THEBES -
According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's son's are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7; Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua17 corrected a little bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Dr. Roger Liebi will be able to solve the yet open riddles about the names of MANASSE's sons when the time has come. Thus MANASSE would have had five sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. His first son AVIEZER then decided to be a warrior and became an archeologically evidenced officer of the town regiment of Thebes before his coronation as Pharaoh Wegaf. His coronation is also a most plausible reconciliation of EPHRAIM with his twin brother MANASSE after father JOSEPH's death. The second son of MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw was called HELEQ and is the most plausible candidate for the second Pharaoh after JOSEPH's death Pharaoh Khendjer. The three first sons had no own sons in contrast to their further two brothers according to the Bible and the confirming archeological evidence. Identifying MANASSE's second Viziername Ibiaw led to the identification of two further Pharaohs from his family; Khendjer's successor is called Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw. He is MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical son ASRIEL.
The first Pharaoh of the next 16th Dynasty in Thebes in Chapter MOSES according to Kim Ryholt was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti; His wife was called Montuhotep thus shows indications belonging to JOSEPH's lineage. He was Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty of Southern Egpyt after 1750 BC and before MANASSE's clan returned from the North to Thebes rejecting the reinstallation of yearly rotating Pharaohs by EPHRAIM after the Pharaoh reigns of the Pharaohs Wegaf and Khendjer. EPHRAIM's reason for this must have been attempts of MANASSE's sons to take over the highest rulership claiming MANASSE's original rights as the firstborn, which are indicated by the huge building projects of Pharaoh Khendjer HELEQ and his over average long reign time.
Thebes had been ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier and his Co-Vizier and successor was his fourth biblical son HEPHER called Vizier Senebhenef, who must have been ruling over Thebes while his father and brothers tried to take over the rulership in the North. Pharaoh Djehuti was the son-in-law of Vizier Senebhenef HEPHER and only co-ruled for a year in Thebes. Before MANASSE's clan returned to Thebes because of EPHRAIM's re-institutionalization of yearly rotating Pharaohs HEPHER shows Mannasse’s clan’s claims of original righteous highest rulership by his additionally to his Viziertitle announced title as Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII. This is also a clear message of MANASSE's lineage to EPHRAIM not accepting the 13th Dynasty anymore by founding their own Southern Dynasty in Thebes - the 16th Dynasty. It is also probably an empowerment insurance of HEPHER against his from the North returning brothers and Ex-Pharaohs over Egypt. This all happened between Joseph’s death and the Hyksos Invasion. Thus from c. 1750-1729 BC the 13th and 16th Dynasties co-existed in parallel.
The Bible mentions in 1Chr7:14 also an Aramean concubine as a second wife of MANASSE; Her illegitimate son is biblically called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons were PERESH and SHERESH, their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, the region, their tribes later lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM and ULAM had a son called BEDAN. They will be identified as Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage in Chapter Moses. ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV, son of PERESH Haankhef was a grandson of MACHIR Nehy who according to all explained archeologically evidenced strong indications in Chapter Moses must have been the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE. This lineage will further on show strong ambitions for and claim to power in rivalry to EPHRAIM's lineage as we will see later on in the next chapter.
JOSEPH'S SON MANASSE
THE IDOLATRY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT IS THE ORIGIN
OF THE SO-CALLED HISTORY OF „MONOTHEISM“ IN EGYPT
In the beginning, JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE and second-born son EPHRAIM, both born as probable dizygotic twins in 1824 BC, were treated strictly equally, evidenced by their exact equal palace twin residences in JOSEPH's Palace in Avaris (see picture at the beginning of this chapter). This changes before JACOB's death in 1804 BC: JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE, 20 years old and grown up in the expectation of all privileged rights of a firstborn is set behind EPHRAIM by his grandfather JACOB's blessing; MANASSE was announced as the evidenced Vizier Dedu-Month Senebtefi/-efni (compare german Wikipedia List of Egyptian Viziers) but EPHRAIM is the one who marries Pharaoh's daughter and who is treated as the most by G'd blessed one by his father JOSEPH. MANASSE, suffering under this decision of the G'd of his father and grandfather, decided to follow in his mother ASENATH's Henut and grandfather POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II former footsteps and became Senebefni the Priest of the Egyptian deity Amun in Thebes. His second Viziername was Ibiaw, he is also archeologically evidenced as the Mayor of Thebes. His titles Royal Sealer and Highpriest are obviously and partly archeologically confirmed inherited from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II: "his grandfather also held the title Priest of Amun" (Grajetzki Court Officials p.98). Meanwhile, POTIPHAR and ASENATH had converted to the G'D of Israel according to The Story Joseph and Asenath and Anna Katharina Emmerich (1882, Secrets of the old and new Covenant p.107). Amun is the invisible creator and highest father deity, deity of the herds, shepherds, and grasslands wearing a sheep ram's head like the syncretistic connected deity Khnum who is one of the name-giving deities for JOSEPH's Egyptian names. Amun had his main cult center in Thebes where MANASSE from then on lived as Priest of Amun and ruled as Mayor of Thebes and Vizier, responsible for Southern Egypt; This time was the climax for "Amun's position as King of Deities developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other deities became manifestations of him." This virtual Egyptian semi-monotheism was evidenced proceeded by MANASSE's lineage and Pharaoh descendants of the 17th Dynasty; After the Ten Plagues, the last Egyptian Ahmoside of the 17th Dynasty and the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Ahmose I changed his highest deity from the moon deity Khonsu to his Khonsu's father deity Amun as the highest worshipped deity. Amun melted together with the sun deity Re and became Amun-Re. This semi-monotheism found its climax in the re-separated sun deity Re of Pharaoh Akhenaten three centuries later in the 14th century BC before Pharaoh Tut Ankh Amun returned to Amun as the highest deity of Egypt. Syncretism can be seen in Amun melted with and replacing the battle deity Month (one of JOSEPH's names was ZaMonth) as patron of Thebes before the time of Israel in Egypt. Month in his manifestation of Re the sun deity was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc or in his later alternative manifestation as a BLACK SNOUTED BULL. Thus Amun and Month are two of the most likely deities of Hebrew idolatry in Egypt; biblically evidenced mixed by Israel with Baal the highest Canaanite deity. Baal was also associated often with a bull and melted by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' with the Egyptian evil desert deity of chaos Seth who again in return was "equated with the deity Amun" as egyptologists state. Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry towards Baal/Seth; Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non evidenced and nonexistent years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see the second half of of Chapter Chronology) and unsafe excavation layer datings the author proposes a Seth Temple construction date later than 1729 BC, which is the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, correctly described by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction. Syncretistic idolatry and apostasy are biblically (Hesekiel20:8) the origin and root cause of any suffering phases of Israel and it all began in Egypt with Israel's enslavement.
JOSEPH's son MANASSE Senebefni was Royal Sealer and High Priest like his adoptive grandfather Khnumhotep II. As Highpriest of Amun in Thebes, he was also evidenced Mayor of Thebes and had an essential impact on the religious traditions of the tribe of
MANASSE - they were Hebrews who always lived in Southern Egypt and thus were most probably spared of the enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt; The nome Heliopolis and its town LeOntopolis and the Island Elephantine in Southern Egypt will remain a melting pot for Hebrew idolatry up until the 5th century BC as we will see later. In Chapter Moses, we will learn to know a family clan of three generations around a so-called Royal Sealer Haankhef (grandson of MANASSE) whose family was especially attached to the cult of Amun (Ryholt 1997 p. 226). Haankhef's son and MOSES' stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV (1666-1648 BC see Chapter Moses) grew obviously partly up in the Temple of Amun in Thebes. He mentions on a stela that was placed in the temple of Amun: "I saw the vigor his majesty (Amun) at every single feast when I was a child who could not yet conceive." According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226) archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's Sobkehotep's IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun: One of his sons is named Amun-hotep. Sobkehotep's IV grandfather and Haankhef's father Nehy most plausibly was the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE called MACHIR as we will later learn.
One century earlier in the time when father JOSEPH had appointed most of his other sons as Pharaohs until his death 1750 BC and EPHRAIM evidenced continued the family tradition, there is one Pharaoh with the Semitic non-biblical name Khendjer whom EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu marries with his own daughter Senebhenas, the widow of Pharaoh Sobekhotep III; Pharaoh Khendjer thus could not have been a son of EPHRAIM because EPHRAIM had no other sons anymore except SHUTELAH and BERIAH, the Viziers Resseneb and Iymeru. Thus he is most plausibly his brother MANASSE's son, whom EPHRAIM has to compensate for his being set behind after father JOSEPH's death; MANASSE's idolatry logically threw a shadow on the relationship with his father and his career. And his life in Thebes can be seen as his own separation or even as his semi-exile by his father far away from his family after his apostasy.
Sidenote: Manasse‘s apostasy is echoed over one millennium later 697-643 BC by Judah’s King Manasse, who was most likely the son of a mother of the tribe of Manasse. King Manasse was the biggest idolater in the time of the Kings.
As already explained but important to repeat here MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Idolatry and culture is also seen in AVIEZER's Pharaoh Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen, in HELEQ's Pharaoh Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple and certainly in his Pyramide making himself a deity in his afterlife in the eyes of the Egyptians. Also, many donations in the form of deity statues for the temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into this pattern of evidence. Consequentially MANSASSE's son was given as Pharaoh by his godfearing uncle EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu a Semitic Pharaoh name - h(n)zr - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - which is a best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater ...
Egyptian deity Khnum/Amun
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg
One of Joseph's names was
Khnumhotep = Khnum is happy
Egyptian Bull deity Month
Museum Louvre Paris
Joseph's names were also ZaMonth = Son of Month and Monthuhotep = Month is happy
JOSEPH - Hero worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as
Khnum <=> Amun <=> Month <=> Osiris
ASENATH - Biblial Nameforms
ASENATH <=> ESENUTH <=> ESENETH <=> SENENETH
ASENATH - Egyptian Nameforms
tAhenut <=> hEnutsen <=> Henut or Iunit <=> Henu
ASENATH - Hero worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as
Anat or Ashtart <=> Henut or Iunit or Neith <=> Seteth or Satis
Zeneneth <=> Isis <=> Artemis
JOSEPH AND ASENATH
WORSHIPPED IN EGYPTIAN IDOLATRY
The work is revealing on and on that the 13th Dynasty of Egypt is as a matter of fact Israel's Dynasty over Egypt. For Egyptology, it may stay a riddle but for the Egyptians in that time this rulership was even not a behind-the-scenes but a well-known Amenemhet III ordered rulership of their saviour out of famine over all Egyptians until his death and beyond. Also, the scientific convincement that over 30 rotating Pharaohs in less than 50 years were respected as and called lifelong rulers = Kings is by no means plausible. Until the Middle Kingdom, the lifelong ruler = King of Egypt always was worshipped by the Egyptians as a deity thus their beloved saviour out of famine and lifelong ruler Grandvizier JOSEPH Zamonth Khnumhotep was more adored as King than his son EPHRAIM Ankhu. JOSEPH was even worshipped as a deity by the egyptians against his will, evidenced by his striking lifelong avoidance to take over also the role as "godlike" Pharaoh for himself. Thus JOSEPH Zamonth was given many different names like all other former Kings of Egypt. For example: the Wadi el-Hol stela depicts Joseph's son Wphauthotep becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and describes him as standing before the deity Month receiving an Ankh and a Was-scepter as reign attributes from Month. Sobekhotep is followed by his father ZaMonth JOSEPH, meanwhile here called Monthhotep now, and also by his mother Henut, here called Juhetibu (remember her granddaughters' names Juhetibu and Henut) as Asenath's third name. And he is followed by Khnumhotep's JOSEPH‘s granddaughter and Sobekhotep's wife Senebhenas. Vizierking Month(u)hotep JOSEPH was the one from whom the reign attributes are received on the picture thus in fact JOSEPH is identified with the deity Month.
As already explained the battle deity Month was the Patron of Thebes: in his manifestation of the sun deity Ra he was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc or in his later alternative manifestation of a BLACK SNOUTED BULL. According to Genesis41:43 and explained in Jubilees50:7 Pharaoh (SenwosretIII) is announcing Joseph as Ruler over ALL Egyptians "I am not bigger than You except the throne" and proclaimed "God, God, the Mighty of God!" in Old Hebrew "El, El, Wa'Abir El!" This means that the as God worshipped Pharaoh Senwosret calls him not only the Mighty of a God but also a even a God not smaller than him as a God. So for complete Egypt JOSEPH was on the order of the God-Pharaoh Senusret III worshipped by all Egyptians as a God. Abir in old Hebrew means Mighty and Bull. Klaus Berger identifies the BULL as the SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees50:7 Footnote a P.519).
The deity Month became merged with the deity Osiris; This is archeologically confirmed on Stela CGC 20102 inscriptively identifying Vizier Zamonth as "King Osiris, the First of the West, the great God, the Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, the Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus .. Nobleman, Mayor of the Town Vizier Zamonth, blessed, born from the Lady of the House Satip". Shortly after his son's Sobekhoteph's III death JOSEPH also dies in 1750 BC. JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu gives the instruction to restore the 12th Dynasty temple of the deity Osiris at Abydos, obviously to honor his father's incarnation as King into the deity Osiris in his afterlife - this was the common Egyptian religious belief regarding the King in that time. In this archeologically evidenced time MANASSE's son HELEQ became Pharaoh Khendjer for over four years; According to David Rohl, this is archeologically confirmed by inscriptions on two stelae in the Louvre from the funerary chapel of the priest AmenySeneb.
The Egyptian deity Osiris was also adored in a star constellation much later called Orion in Greece, then much later called Holy Joseph in the Christian star catalog.
According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german pages 101,103) Virgin Priestess Aseneth would have been prophesied to become JOSEPH‘s wife, both described as often holding an Ankh symbol (a cross with a circle), to become a great Mother of many, a great Queen of many and an Idol for many in the future. This prophecy would become misinterpreted by the Egyptians and would have lead to worshipping her divinely in idolatry and would in later times lead into "depicting her with so many breasts". Against their will JOSEPH (ZaMonth + KhnumHotep = MonthHotep) and his biblical wife ASENATH or Esenuth (archeologically evidenced as Henut or Enutsen) would have been together adored and worshipped as the deities Osiris & Isis and Aseneth would have been called "Mother of God's"; And indeed Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep's wife Henut became archeologically evidenced mother of several Pharaohs worshipped as gods by Egyptians.
In historian Manetho's Book of Egyptian History of the 3rd century BC historian Josephus discovers in the 1st century "As for the additions which Manetho has made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales" the following about Israel according to Manetho:
"... they appointed as their leader one of the priests of Hêliopolis called Osarsêph ... It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Hêliopolis, named Osarsêph after the god Osiris, worshipped at Hêliopolis; but when he joined his people, he changed his name and was called Moses."
The leader – whom Manetho thinks of as Moses – is named Osarsiph. (Manetho is clearly confusing and telescoping two biblical characters.) This name is a hybridization of “Joseph” with “Osiris” the Egyptian theophoric element “Osir-” replaces the Jewish theophoric prefix “Yo-” or “Yeho-.” (Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940).
This is a strong scriptural indication
for Joseph having been worshipped as Osiris in Egypt
not only by Egyptians but also at least partly by the Israelites in Egypt.
And even more archeological evidence is confirming Anna Katharina Emmerick's descriptions: According to Egyptology the ancient Egyptian goddess Satis or Setet formed as the wife of Khnum together with him the married deity couple on the Island Elephantine which is also locationally the archeological starting point of the manuscript "The story of Joseph and Aseneth". Satis or Setet was a female fertility and battle deity and was also conflated with the goddess Isis the wife of the deity Osiris. Originally she was called Iunit or Henut the wife of the deity Month.
And ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit (or Iunit)"
in Genesis41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD.
Later the deity Iunit became the wife of Khnum. After Khnum was conflated with Ra or Horus she also sometimes became the Eye of Ra or Horus. She was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns, a bow, and arrows holding an Ankh, a cross with a circle, the symbol of enlifement (Aseneth's son Ephraim was named Ankhu). The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Iunit or Henut was the wife of the deity Month and was later merged with the deity Isis, the wife of the deity Osiris and mother of the deity Horus. In Greece Isis was later then merged with Artemis:
Iunit wife of Month later Khnum
became Isis wife of Osiris
Isis later became merged with
Artemis with "so many breasts"
THE GOLDEN CALF
The Golden Bull worshipping by Israel in the Desert and by Moses derogatively called the dance around the Golden Calf is often tried to be relativized by rabbinical scripture interpretation and it must indeed be relativized: The Golden Bull must now also be seen in the context of the Bull deity Month identified with King Joseph Saviour of Egypt and Israel at least by the Egyptians if not also by parts of the people of Israel especially the egyptianised idolatrous tribe of Manasse. The Jewish Apocryphes about Moses' Ascension, confirmed in the letter of Jude (Jude9) in the Bible, also reveal that before and after the Exodus the people of Israel was strongly infected by Egyptian idolatry and did not only have the inclination to worship Egyptian or Canaanite deities but also to worship their own leaders as heroes; The famous dispute about the body of Moses between archangel Michael and the devil shows how Michael wants to avoid Isreal's leader Moses to be hero-worshipped by the people of Israel. Archangel Michael concealed the tomb of Moses to prevent the Israelites from the sin of hero-worship, the sin which Satan had hoped to lead them to commit as he did already regarding Joseph through the dance around the Golden Bull.
Black Snouted "Golden" Bull of the 16th century BC
"But they rebelled against Me, and would not pay heed (listen) unto Me; they did not every ish (man) cast away the shikkutzim (abominations) from before their eynayim (eyes),
neither did they forsake (abandon)
the gillulim (idols) of Mitzraym (Egypt);
then I said, I will pour out My chemah (fury) upon them,
to vent My anger against them
IN the midst of Eretz Mitzrayim (the land of Egypt)."
Yechezkel 20:8 Orthodox Jewish Tanakh
All here discovered and identified Egyptian Idols worshipped by the Israelites are exactly the same Idols Hesekiel20:8 that fell under God's judgement in the Ten Plagues Exodus12:12 to make Israel Exodus6:7,10:2 and Egypt Exodus7:5.17,8:10 recognize who is the real ONE and ONLY G'D. They are identified in Chapter Moses Headline THE TEN PLAGUES by Roger Liebi.
DID ONLY EGYPTIANS ADORE AND WORSHIP JOSEPH AND ASENATH?
DID ALL ISRAELITES FOLLOW MOSES AND LEAVE EGYPT?
- THE DESCENDANTS OF MANASSE IN EGYPT IN THE 5TH CENTURY BC -
MANASSE and the tribe of MANASSE archeologically evidenced lived and practiced idolatry in Thebes and Southern Egypt since the beginning of the 13th Dynasty. So MANASSE‘s tribe escaped through not living in Northern Egypt from enslavement by the Canaanite 'Hyksos'. Being the most plausible tribe practicing idolatry and always having lived in the freedom they are the most plausible tribe having initiated the "dance around the calve" and the only plausible tribe having moaned ".. in Egypt .. we used to sit around the pots with the meat boiling, and we had as much food as we wanted." in Exodus16:3 because the meat was by no means the regular food of slaves in Egypt. One part of the people of the idolatrous egytianised privileged tribe of MANASSE in Southern Egypt is also the most plausible bunch of people who could have decided not to follow MOSES. And this in spite of having experienced the Ten Plagues and thus the god JHWH as the most powerful god of all their worshipped deities and simply because they preferred going on living their comfortable life to a future in the dangerous deadly desert.
Heliopolis has been already identified as On, one of the three fortified cities the Israelites had to rebuild as slaves after the Hyksos Invasion. According to Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerick the eleven tribefathers settled in Heliopolis after Jacob's death. Heliopolis is also the name of the nome around the town Heliopolis. LeOntopolis is a town in the nome Heliopolis and includes some massive rectangular earthwork enclosures of the Second Intermediate Period, their purpose is probably defensive. The enclosure is very unegyptian and often interpreted by Egyptologists as a fortification built by the Canaanites, generally known as the "Hyksos Camp"; The fifth-century Latin version of the book of Jubilees46:14 says after the Canaanite Invasion the King of Canaan announced supervisors over the Israelites "to let them torture them with slavery. And they built fixed towns for Pharaoh, Pithom, Romasse, and On. And they built all walls and dams which were destroyed (by the Canaanites) in the towns of Egypt." The Bible calls JOSEPH‘s father-in-law POTIPHERA Priest of On, the Book of Jubilees calls him POTIPHAR Priest of Heliopolis. LeOntopolis of the nome Heliopolis is inscriptively evidenced since the 2nd century BC as Hebrew colony in Goshen and up until today called Tell el Yehudiye "Jewish Mound".
Also the ancient "Story of Joseph and Asenath" takes place and finds its home base in Heliopolis: Gideon Bohak (1996) and others have drawn attention to the geographical location of the already mentioned Story of Joseph and Asenath in the town Heliopolis (http://www.markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm) and in an important Jewish diaspora community centered on a Jewish temple in Leontopolis, located in the nome of Heliopolis during the Ptolemaic period seeing this as the likely starting point for the Story of Joseph and Asenath. [Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press]. Burchard (1985) writes "Every competent scholar since Batiffol has maintained that 'Joseph and Aseneth' is Jewish ... As to the place of origin, the majority of scholars look to Egypt."
Archeological evidence indicating the roots of the story of JOSEPH AND ASENATH/ESENUT Priestess and Daughter of POTIPHAR/POTIPHERA Priest of Heliopolis/On
is POTIPHAR'S and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest Khnumhotep II and his Daughter Enutsen/Henut
in his tomb in Beni Hassan.
(Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)
Archeological evidence confirming the roots of Hebrew idolatry in Southern Egypt is a stela of JOSEPH'S SON MANASSE as Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw and a plaquette of his son AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf both found inside the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine.
Strong archeological indications of the knowledge of the story of JOSEPH AND ASENATH in Elephantine for 3700 years are evidenced by the statues of their grandson BERIAH named Vizier Iymeru Aya discovered in the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine.
(Detlef Franke 1984, Personendaten .., Dossier Nr. 25/26, S.55)
Archeological evidence indicating Hebrew idolatry through honoring JOSEPH as Osiris is a statuette of his son Manasse called Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw in the Temple of Osiris in Abydos and building projects of MANASSE's sons AVIEZER and HELEQ named Pharaoh Wegaf and Pharaoh Khendjer at the Temple of Osiris.
These are strong indications for the Story of Joseph and Asenath having been originally authoritative scripture of Israel from the time of Joseph until the time of Jesus and further on of first Jewish and then 'pagan' Christianity until recent centuries, evidenced eg. by catholic art 1490-1500 AD in Brussels, in this Picture called:
Joseph meets Asenath
throwing her idols out of the Tower
In Southern Egypt, on the Island Elephantine the already mentioned deities Khnum & Satis (hero-worshipped Joseph & Asenath/ Khnumhotep & tAhenut) and Amun were still worshipped and had local festivals in the 5th century BC. Deity Khnum became hero-worhshipped Joseph named Khnumhotep in the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History. JOSEPH's wife ASENATH can also be written ESENETH and became the deity Seneneth which was another name for Satis. Like its predecessor the by scientists so-called "Jewish" Temple at Elephantine until the fifth century BC, the later Temple at Leontopolis of the fourth to first century BC would have been the only "Jewish" sanctuary outside of Jerusalem where sacrifices were offered. According to Josephus, the temple of Leontopolis existed for 343 years (Wars of the Jews VII. 10, § 4). The 5th-century Elephantine Papyri are a collection of ancient scientists so-called "Jewish" manuscripts dating from the 5th century BCE. They would come from the "Jewish" community at Elephantine. As a matter of fact, there is no evidence at all for the Hebrews at Elephantine descending from the tribe of JUDAH or BENYAMIN thus Hebrews or Israelites would be the only unbiased neutral correct identification. To call them jews is as manipulative and inadmissible as calling contemporary Samarians Jews. Taking into account all discovered archeological evidence in this work regarding MANASSE and his tribe as the only one always having lived in Southern Egypt as one melting pot of Hebrew Egyptian idolatry it would be much more evidence-based to call them the most plausible descendants of the tribe of MANASSE. This division of the tribe of MANASSE and the fact that the tribe of EPHRAIM included the tribes of EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced six further brothers not mentioned by the Bible does explain the huge difference of the biblical sizes of the two tribes. Like the different careers and deeds of EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's descendants their different tribe sizes are also an impressive historical fulfillment of Father JACOB's biblical prophecy regarding EPHRAIM and MANASSE in Genesis48.
Anat is attested in Egypt since the 18th century BC. As a warrior-goddess, Anat was one of several Syrian or northwest Semitic deities who was prominently worshipped by the warrior-pharaohs of the 16th Dynasty - most likely (great-) grandsons of ASENATH. Anat was often paired with the goddess Ashtart. During the Hyksos period, Anat had temples in Avaris and in Beth-Shan Israel as well as being worshipped in Memphis. She can be identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith or Iunit or Henut (see last passage) which are Egyptian name forms (Henutsen/Henut) of biblical ASENATH or ESENUTH. In the Bible, the prophets mourned several times about Israel adoring Anat.
JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ASENATH is believed by other experts to derive from the Ancient Egyptian js.w-n-njt meaning "holy to Anath" or "belonging to Neith". Neith or Iunit or Henut was an already mentioned Egyptian goddess; She was the wife of the deity Month - remember JOSEPH's name ZaMonth - and became later the wife of the deity Khnum -remember JOSEPH's name Khnumhotep.
The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Neith or Iunit or Henut was the wife of the deity Month and was later merged with the deity Isis, the wife of the deity Osiris - the idols' names of hero-worshipped Asenath & Joseph according to AK Emmerich. And as we already know Henut was the name of the wife of Zamonth "and" Khnumhotep. Thus not only the Egyptians but also the Israelites obviously executed idolatry in Heliopolis and Elephantine as evidenced Hebrew idolatry melting pots which lead to worshipping ASENATH & JOSEPH as deities especially in LeOntopolis and also in southern Elephantine - merged into the Egyptian deity pair of Anat & Khnum and into the Hebrew idolatry pair of Anat & Jahew.
While the Egyptian Priests worshipped Anat & Khnum in their temple on Elephantine the Hebrew Priests had their own temple for Jahew worshipped together with Anat which functioned alongside that of the Egyptian Deity of Khnum causing the conflicts between Egyptian and Hebrew Priests which lead to the destruction of the Hebrew temple in the fifth century BC.
Looking at the archeological indications regarding the Heliopolis worshipping of ASENETH & JOSEPH as Setet & Khnum or Zeneneth (later Henut or Iunit) & Month later Isis & Osiris and looking at Heliopolis being the archeological starting point of the manuscript "The Story of Joseph and Aseneth" the Hebrew citizens of Elephantine and Leontopolis are most plausibly remaining descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel in Egypt 1821-1606 BC. Additional strong indications for this are found in the Elephantine Papyri saying "Now our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the Kingdom of Egypt." The latest real Kingdom of Egypt was the New Kingdom from 1070 BC back to the biblical year 1606 BC the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the year of the Expulsion of the Hyksos out of Egypt.
As Hebrews who decided not to follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt but having experienced themselves the Ten Plagues, especially the night of the Tenth Plague, southern people of the tribe of Manasse well knew and celebrated the Passover with its rules telling the story of the last night in Egypt and they worshipped the G'D of Israel by MOSES called JHWH since 1606 BC in Egypt as the by the Ten Plagues evidence most powerful g'd of all their worshipped deities. But they certainly did not know the mosaic laws (eg. the Deuteronomic law) which were later given outside Egypt at Mount Horeb in the land of Midian in Arabia in the desert and they naturally did not write down anything about the man, they decided not to follow - MOSES, who took all the scriptures from AMRAM, LEVI and JACOB and the older books of Genesis as old family knowledge treasure with him as the Book of Jubilees tells us in various details. Thus the complete Torah - the five Books of Moses - are a treasure only of the descendants of the Israelites who left Egypt 1606 BC but not of the descendants who stayed and were left behind in Egypt and melted their own oral tradition of the days of the Exodus with Egyptian and Canaanite traditions and deities. This is all exactly evidenced in the Elephantine Papyri. In the 5th century Elephantine Papyri the idolatrous left behind descendants of the tribe of MANASSE clearly took care not to reveal their polytheistic idolatry towards the only JHWH worshipping High Priest of Jerusalem - "no other god is mentioned than Yahew/YHWH" - when elaborating a petition to ask for his support in rebuilding their temple in Elephantine. And naturally, there is no evidence at all that would confirm Jerusalem answering with any support for their idolatry in foreign lands in any way.
Self-claimed neutral, objective, unbiased leading "science" as usual celebrates thIS discovered evidence as further proof of the Bible being a compendium of political lies written after 500 BCE (Wajdenbaum 2016 in Hjelm's Biblical Interpretation):
"There is no hint of any suspicion that the temple could be considered heretical, and they would surely not have appealed to the High Priest at Jerusalem if any doubt about it. On the contrary, they give the impression of being proud of having a temple of their own, and as pious devotees of Ya'u Yahweh (no other god is mentioned in the petition) seriously distressed at the loss of religious opportunities caused by its destruction... So far as we learn from these texts Moses might never have existed, there might have been no Bondage in Egypt, no Exodus, no monarchy, no prophets. There is no mention of other tribes and no claim to any Heritage in the land of Judah. Among the numerous names of colonists, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Samuel, David, so common in later times, never occur (nor in Nehemiah), nor any other name derived from their past history as recorded in the Pentateuch and early literature. It is almost incredible, but it is true." (Cowley, Arthur 2005, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC Eugene)
The Hebrew Hero worshipping of Joseph & Asenath
as Month & Zeneneth, Khnum & Henut and Osiris & Isis
in the Second Intermediate Period
was mainly exercised by Israel's tribe of Manasse.
After the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel
the leftover Israelites in Egypt mainly of the tribe of Manasse transformed their idolatry into worshipping
(JHWHE) Jahew and Anat in the New Kingdom of Egypt
while the Egyptians went on worshipping Khnum and Anat.
Archeological evidence matching most ancient relating writings reveals Israel's apostasy in Egypt away from Abraham's monotheism as the root of Egyptian semi monotheism in the New Kingdom.
The claim the root of monotheism would be
the Egyptian worshipping of the sun in the time of Akhenaten turns out to be an antibiblical hypothesis
based on the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm
THE CANAANITE HYKSOS INVASION IN 1729 BC
- THE REAL "DARK PERIOD" OF EGYPT AND ISRAEL -
At the end of this Chapter Joseph we return to the time of JOSEPH's death, the end of the Golden Age, and the beginning of the dark times for Egypt and for Israel:
The Second Intermediate Period of Egypt is called the "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" and the time of "weak kingdoms". The contemporary Egyptians called the first half archeologically evidenced the "Golden Times" and we have already found out how weak and dark the time of Joseph's rulership in reality was. But was there any real Dark Period in the Second Intermediate Period?
The peaceful and prosperous time for Egypt and Israel under Joseph and his Family as "Rulers of Foreign Lands" and as "Shepherd Kings" did decrease after Joseph's death, latest with the 'Hyksos Invasion'. Before Joseph died in 1750 BC his son and "troup commander of the ruler" leads as selected Pharaoh Sobekhotep III a battle with Canaan and is killed Jub 46:9. 21 years Jub46:8 later Canaanite King Sharek/ SakirHar 1729 BC ('1648 BC') is defeating Pharaoh Tiatimaos/ Dedumose and conquering Avaris Jub46:11. "Ryholt believes that facing the invasion of his territory by the Hyksos, Dedumose tried to sue them for peace, as indicated by his names 'The peace of Ra is stable; He who brings peace; He who rescues the two lands'". Israel is thrown into 123 years of enslavement, commanded by Canaanites, supported and exploited by Egyptians until 1606 BC ('1536 BC') the very same year of Israel's Exodus and the immediately following 'Expulsion of the Hyksos', two related Semitic-Egyptian events of repressed memory and thus confused with each other for millennia up until today.
The Ethiopian Book of Jubilees (James C. VanderKams Translation of "all" known Books of Jubilees in 1989 http://www.beit-nitzachon.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Book-of-Jubilees.pdf) describes the time from Father JACOB's/ ISRAEL's death until the Enslavement of Israel as follows and provides the time data for the biblical year
1729 BC as the year of the Hyksos Invasion:
"46:1 After the death of Jacob, the children of Israel became numerous in the land of Egypt. They became a populous nation, and all of them were of the same mind so that each one loved the other and each one helped the other. They became numerous and increased very much — even for ten weeks of years [= 70 years] — for all of Joseph's lifetime. 46:2 There was no satan or any evil one throughout all of Joseph's lifetime that he lived after his father Jacob because all the Egyptians were honoring the children of Israel for all of Joseph's lifetime. 46:3 Joseph died when he was 110 years of age. He had lived for 17 years in the land of Canaan; for ten years he remained enslaved; he was in prison for three years, and for 80 years he was ruling the entire land of Egypt under the pharaoh. 46:4 He died and all his brothers and all of that generation. 46:5 Before he died he ordered the Israelites to take his bones along at the time when they would leave the land of Egypt. 46:6 He made them swear about his bones because he knew that the Egyptians would not again bring him out and bury him on the day in the land of Canaan, since Makamaron (Memkeron), the King of Canaan, — while he was living in the land of Assur — fought in the valley with the king of Egypt and killed him there. He pursued the Egyptians as far as the gates of Ermon. 46:7 He was unable to enter because another new king ruled Egypt. He was stronger than he, so he returned to the land of Canaan and the gates of Egypt were closed with no one leaving or entering Egypt. 46:8 Joseph died in the forty-sixth jubilee, in the sixth week, during its second year. He was buried in the land of Egypt, and all his brothers died after him.
46:9 Then the king of Egypt went out to fight with the king of Canaan in the forty-seventh jubilee, in the second week, during its second year. The Israelites brought out all the bones of Jacob's sons except Joseph's bones. They buried them in the field, in the double cave in the mountain. 46:10 Many returned to Egypt but a few of them remained on the mountain of Hebron. Your father Amram remained with them. 46:11 The king of Canaan conquered the king of Egypt and closed the gates of Egypt. 46:12 He conceived an evil plan against the Israelites in order to make them suffer. He said to the Egyptians: 46:13 'The nation of the Israelites has now increased and become more numerous than we are. Come on, let us outwit them before they multiply. Let us make them suffer in slavery before war comes our way and they, too, fight against us. Otherwise, they will unite with the enemy and leave our land because their mind(s) and face(s look) toward the land of Canaan'. 46:14 He appointed taskmasters over them to make them suffer in slavery. They built fortified cities for the pharaoh — Pithom and Ramses. They built every wall and all the fortifications which had fallen down in the cities of Egypt. 46:15 They were enslaving them by force, but however much they would make them suffer the more they would multiply and the more they would increase. 46:16 The Egyptians considered the Israelites detestable."
"detestable": Many Bible external ancient writings confirm the Egyptian grown antisemitism or are written themselves from an antisemitic perspective; But what they all have in common is they clearly confirm the sojourn of Israel in Egypt and their later leaving out of Egypt as a historical fact, the main reason for having been dismissed as historical source without disproving evidence by antibiblical Leading Archeology and Egyptology: c. 1200 BC Poseidonios (Diodorus), c. 300 BC Hekataios of Abdera (Diodorus), c. 300 BC Manetho (Josephus), c. 200 BC Chairemon (Josephus), c. 100 BC Lysimachos (Josephus), c. 40 AD Apion (Josephus), c. 0 Strabon, c. 100 AD Tacitus
There is no evidence PROVING
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty
There is no evidence DISPROVING
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty
Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence in this work
are revealing the opposite is the case.
Leading Egyptology's and Leading Biblical Archeology's
postulated paradigms regarding Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves disproved
("There is no evidence")
Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm.
It's the fundament for discarding as untrustworthy
nearly all relating ancient writings without disproving evidence.
Nearly all these writings confirm the time of the Foreign Rulers in Egypt as the time of Israel in Egypt and the time of the Exodus of Israel as the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.
Now this is how the Scriptures of Qumran - the Books of Moses and the Book of Jubilees - are bringing the real times of the Second Intemediate Period of Egypt, the so-called "dark period of uncertain highly speculative time estimations" to light and are purifying history from around 75 non existing years, confirming Dr. Roger Liebi's words:
"The Bible is the Diamond,
that cuts the stones of historical science
and not the other wrong way around."
12m! high Split Water Rock at Mount Horeb in Midian, Arabia
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Grandvizier ZaMonth KhnumHotep
- God Sealer
- Gate of Foreign Lands
- Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
- Arm of Month
- Mouth of Nekhen
- Senewosret Ankh
& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut
Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II
- "Mother of Gods"
Mother of 10 Kingdaughters:
EPHRAIM Ankhu, MANASSE
Wepwauthotep Sobekhotep III
12 Brothers &
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, ZEBULON
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH
Amenemhet's III children:
- later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
- BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha
- EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
- Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV
Vizier Ankhu Senwosret
c. *1828-1728+ BC
Co-Rulership with his father JOSEPH:
c. 1798-1750 BC
Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety
& Wife Mereret
Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
Vizier Iymerew Aya
2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:
ESER Nebankh &
Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw
also deciphered as (Dedu-Month) Senebtefi
Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun
Legitimate sons Jos17 1Chron7
of Egyptian mother:
1. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
2. HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer
3. ASRIEL Pharaoh Ibiaw
4. HEPHER Vizier Senebhenef
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
Illegitimate son 1Chr7,14 of an aramean concubine
6. MACHIR Nehy
JOSEPH King Za-
- KING of Egypt
- First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
- Archeologically evidenced
King Zamonth and
- Father of the Land
- Father of G'ds
- Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris
- Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV
c. *1800-1710+ BC
Assistance of his Grandfather JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH
c. 1750-1729 BC
c. 1725-1700 BC
& Wife Senebtisi
- Lady of the House
- Later Widow and wife of MANASSE's/
Vizier Iymeru Aya
c. *1800-1690+ BC
Co-Rulership with brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1710 BC
c. 1710-1690 BC
Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
c. *1760-1650+ BC
King Ankhu Senwosret
- Archeologically evidenced
of Pharaoh Wegaf
c. *1790-1700+ BC
Son of SHUTELAH's Resseneb's widow Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy 1Chr7,14
Claimed by his sons as
- "Royal Sealer"
- "Father of Gods" & King as Father of "Kingsons"
& Wife MAACHAH
HUPPIM's Gen46,21 sister, granddaughter of BENJAMIN
"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR 1Chron7,12 Pharaoh Awibre Hor I
died early in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayameru II
c. *1760-1650+ BC
Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Iymeru Aya
Co-Rulership with father Iymeru Aya:
c. 1710-1690 BC
c. 1690-1666 BC
Reduced to Vizier:
Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh
Self-appointed King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt
1. SHUTELAH 1Chr7:20 Vizier Resseneb
2. BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Vizier Iymerew Aya
3. REFACH 1Chr7:25 Vizier Neferkare Iymerew Ayamerew II
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
c. *1730-1656+ BC
Son of PERESH/ Haankhef 1Chr7:16
Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan
Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
Father of BEDAN Sobekhotep V &
as the last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings
Mio Sobekhotep =
1. Wife Nubhotepi
2. Wife Meris,Tjan
1. Nubhotepi: Hebrew mother of BEDAN 1Chr7:17 Sobekhotep V
Pharaoh's Daughter of canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan
Canaanite mother of Sobekhotep VI
Adoptive Stepmother of Mio Sobekhotep =
3 self-called "Kingsons":
1.REKEM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Neferhotep
(no reign time)
3.ULAM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV
1666-1658 BC: Co-Rulership of canaanite father and hebrew son in law over reunited Egypt
Switch back from Vizier Dynasty to Pharaoh Dynasty leading into the
Downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings
Notes and References
- Wolfram Grajetzki, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, 136-138, 160-161.