Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?
The 13th Dynasty
This Chapter will unveal an overwhelming amount of archeological evidence corroborating the following Chronology of Israel in Egypt in JOSEPH‘s and EPHRAIM’s time as Kings of Egypt. Different highly speculative theories without any solid evidence about the time of Israel in Egypt are dominating Biblical Archeology and different highly speculative theories about the chronology of the so-called „Dark“ Second Intermediate Period are dominating Egyptology; The following Chronology is not based on any new theory but solely on the extraordinary amount of over 100 matchings of the Bible with the scientifically recognized contemporary archeological evidence: The REAL Chronology of the 13th Dynasty according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (leading egyptologists' highly speculative estimations in brackets):
acc. to Kim Ryholt 1997 Table 36,46,48,52
() = duration in years, BN = Birthname
1798 BC ('1815','1795'or'1773'BC):
The ancient Story of Joseph & Asenath reveals that "Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) left his dominion and his crown of the kingdom to JOSEPH and died." JOSEPH ruled over complete Egypt for 80 years (Genesis50:22, Jubilees46:3, Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) 1830-1750 BC as Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later called Month(u)hotep. He ruled together with his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret above their selected Pharaohs of their royal family.
The Early HekaShasut are partly archeologically identified as Semites by Egyptologists; ancient historian (Josephus) Manetho identifies them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings; Leading Egyptologists Manfred Bietak calls them first "Proto Israelites" but later changes his mind: "They may be called for convenience sake Canaanites."
Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced Uncle *BENJAMIN is adopted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III as his son-in-law. After 3 years of co-reign, he becomes sole
* Pharaoh Amenemhet IV (9)
After 9 years Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter becomes
- Pharaoh Sobekneferu (4)
1785-1765 BC ('1803','1783'or'1761'BC):
JOSEPH rules over Egypt as
Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep Month(u)hotep: He is archeologically evidenced not only as Vizier but also
as King Zamonth (Stela CGC 20102)
as King Khnumhotep (Stela CG 20690) and
as King Monthuhotep (Stela Sobekhotep III)
JOSEPH and EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret establish a yearly Family Pharaoh rotation system in order to weaken the power of the Pharaoh position and to avoid Egyptian worshipping of Pharaoh as a deity. The family stabilizes Israel's Rulership as Shepherd Kings evidenced in several ancient writings.
The first 15 Pharaohs archeologically evidenced belong to the family of EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhew Senwosret (Ryholt 1997 p.209-211). There is no archeological evidence for any reign times of all the 20 Pharaohs;
The rulers of the 13th Dynasty are identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by the ancient historians Africanus and Syncellus citing the around 200 BC Egyptian historian Manetho.
Senna & Kumna Nile water level marks provide the evidence for around 7 decades between Amenemhet's III and VII first reign years 1842-1769 BC (Collier + Ryholt p.197)
20 Yearly rotating Pharaohs - JOSEPH's brothers' lineages according to Kim Ryholt‘s genealogy
(* = BENYAMIN, ° = LEVI):
* Amenemhet's IV BENYAMIN's son
(1Chron7,6) *BELA is
Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
* his brother (1Chron7,6)
*BEKHER is Pharaoh Sekhemkare Sonbef
* his brother (1Chron7,6)
*YEDIAL is Pharaoh Nerikare
° ZaMonth's JOSEPH's brother °LEVI is
Pharaoh Sekhemkare Amenemhet V
° his first son (Gen46,11) °GERSHON/Antef
is named Pharao Quemaw
° his brother (Gen46,11)
°KOHAT is Pharaoh Siharnedjheritef
(according to Bietak a Semitic name)
the father of his firstborn son AMRAM,
° his brother (Gen46,11)
°MERARI is Pharaoh Jewefni
° Amenemhet's V LEVI's grandson (Ex6:18)
°LIBNI son of °GERSHON is named
Pharao Amenemhet VI
* BINYAMIN's son (Gen46,21)
*ASHBEL is Pharaoh Nebnun
* his brother (Gen46,21)
*GERA is Pharaoh Sewesekhtawy
* his brother (Gen46,21)
*NAAMAN is Pharaoh Sewadjkare
* his brother (Gen46,21)
*ECHI is Pharaoh Nedjemibre
* his brother (Gen46,21) *ROSH is
Pharaoh Khaankhre Sobekhotep II
* Pharaoh Ranisonb is the son of
Nedjemibre *ECHI or Sewadjkare *NAAMAN
* BINYAMIN's son (1Chron7,12)
*IR is Pharaoh Awibre Hor I
* his son (Gen46,21) *MUPPIM is
Pharaoh Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
* his brother (Gen46,21)
*HUPPIM is Pharaoh Djedkheperew
* BINYAMIN's son (Jos17:7/Gen46,21)
*ARD/ACHER is Pharaoh Seb
* his son
*SHUSHIM is Pharaoh Kay
* his son is BENJAMIN's great-grandson
Pharaoh Amenemhet VII
1765-1750 BC ('1757'or'1720'BC):
Vizierking JOSEPH is evidenced hero-worshipped by the Egyptians
as Father of the Land,
as Father of Gods/Pharaohs and
as Khnum, Month, and Osiris.
His son EPHRAIM co-reigns as Vizier Ankhu Senwosret and controls his Pharaoh brothers by marrying them with his daughters.
4 Kingsons of #JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Knumhotep Monthuhotep become Pharaohs for 15 years:
# Pharaoh Semenkhkare Imyremeshaw
# Pharaoh Sehotepkare Antef V
# Pharaoh Meribre Seth
# Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawi
Sobekhotep III BN Wepwauthotep (4)
(wifes: Heni & Senebhenas)
1750-1743 BC ('1754-1747'or'1766-1759'BC)
1750 BC: JOSEPH's sixth son Wephauthotep Pharaoh Sobekhotep III is killed in the first battle against the Canaanites by King Makamaron. JOSEPH dies in the same year (Jubilees46:6-8).
EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret becomes the new Vizierking archeologically evidenced as King Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf, the son of MANASSE and previous military commander of Thebes. Pharaoh Wegaf defends Avaris against the Canaanites and stops King Makamaron's invasion attempts (Jubilees46:7).
EPHRAIM‘s firstborn son SHUTELAH/Resseneb becomes Vizier.
This leads to 2 sons of +MANASSE/ Southern Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw becoming the next Pharaohs:
+ AVIEZER becomes Pharaoh Wegaf (2,3)
+ his youngest brother HEPHER
becomes Pharaoh Khendjer (4,5)
Jos17:2 (wife: widow Senebhenas)
(These are Semitic Pharaoh names according to Ryholt)
EPHRAIM King Ankhu Senwosret is announced as Father of Gods by the Egyptians in spite of having no own Pharaoh sons; Manasse as Father of Pharaohs claims this title for himself as his lineage will reveal later on in PERESH’s Haankhef‘s titles.
1743 BC: MANASSE's family does not accept EPHRAIM’s reestablishment of the yearly rotation of Pharaohs, leaves Avaris and returns to Thebes: EPHRAIM appoints his fourth son BERIAH as lifetime Vizier Iymeru Aya and for one year as Pharaoh Aya.
The reign times of the 14 Pharaohs of this period are not safely evidenced. With exceptions, time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (Ryholt 1997 p.201): Especially its extraordinary long reign times of Pharao Ibiaw (11 years) and Pharaoh Aya (24 years) must actually be explained as Viziership time after one year as Pharaoh.
1733: MANASSE Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw‘s death.
1729 BC ('1649'or'1720'BC):
According to ancient historian Manetho together with the Book of Jubilees 46:11-15, the War of Pharaoh Tutimaios (Dedumose) against the Canaanites leads into the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion of Egypt and Enslavement of Israel. The 13th Dynasty collapses 70 years (acc. to Ryholt around '80' years) after Amenemhat's IV reign. EPHRAIM’s/ Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret's Royal House flees to his brother MANASSE/ Senebefni Ibiaw, Vizier & Mayor of Thebes.
15 yearly rotating Pharaohs
(Lineages: + = MANASSE, # = JOSEPH, * = BENJAMIN)
+ Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw is Vizier Ibiaw
# Pharaoh Merneferre Aya
is the later Vizier Iymeru Aya
EPHRAIM‘s fourth son BERIAH
(LAST PHARAOH OF UPPER & LOWER EGYPT)
# Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini
birthname Amenhotep, son of
Sobekhotep III & Ini/Heni
# Pharaoh Sankhnre Sewadjtew
JOSEPH‘s Monthhotep‘s 4th son Khakaw
# Pharaoh Mersekhemre Ined
JOSEPH‘s Monthhotep‘s 5th son Sonb
* Pharaoh Sewadjkare Hor II,
grandson of BENJAMIN's son
*IR (1Chron7:12) Hor I
# Pharaoh Merkawre Sobekhotep,
1st son of Ined/ Sonb
# Pharaoh Merkheperre
2nd son of Ined/ Sonb
- Pharaoh Merkare
# Pharaoh Sewadjare Monthotep V,
- Pharaoh ..mosre
- Pharaoh ..maatre Ibi
* Pharaoh ..webenre Hor..grandson of
BENJAMIN's son *IR (1Chron7:12) Hor I
- Pharaoh Sankhptahi Seheqenre
- Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose/Tutimaios
(The last Pharaoh according to Williams & Morenz - the throne name changes after having fled to Thebes ...)
Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?
"Downturned mouths, bags under their eyes, worry lines, hollow eyes - unique facial expressions in Egyptian sculptural history - two 'kings' are showing every sign of hard times in their kingdom" (British Museum). Statues of Amenemhet III and his father Senwosret III as well as contemporary poetic literature show heavy burdens on the Kingship and Egypt of the 12th Dynasty: Pharaoh's Pyramid destruction and an impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by the increasing floodings of the Nile and by hot eastern desert winds.
Father Pharaoh Senwosret III worried face with out turned ears - without the King's beard
Amenemhet III careworn face with open ears for his peoples' concerns - without the King's beard
Their Vizier Zamonth - History's only Egyptian Vizier evidenced wearing the King's Beard …
Their same looking highest official was Semitic - The first Hekashasut Joseph
For learning more about Pharaoh Amenemhet’s III fabricated sculpture of his highest official being Semitic (last portrait above) scroll down to the end of Chapter Hyksos: wwww.IsraelinEgypt.com/Hyksos
To better understand the background of this Chapter You can watch the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4aNyrrpSWA in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v64-PgRZrwM in german (movie pictures are shown on this page) or listen to the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8kPu7BY7_8&t=11394s in English or in German on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGuKFByG01g&t=10455s. Simply the best way is finally to read the First Book of Moses Chapter 37-50. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as a subtitle. To make life easier for all readers in this work sometimes Wikipedia is the referred source in case no other source is mentioned when citing in quotation marks. In the relating Wikipedia articles, You find the sources they refer to.
Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written. Consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions. In two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes. Letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even not their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables sometimes which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh Sjn Wrt can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; This way one person very easily disperses into many different persons in Egyptology. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is Joseph's Master Potiphar, Joseph's father-in-law Potiphera, and Joseph's Chief-of-Prison. Further examples are Potiphar's respectively Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath respectively Henut. The most important examples are the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of Joseph and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson. They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were famous enough Rulers to own several different names. Joseph is Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep later Mont(u)hotep with his first earlier names Senowsret Ankh and Amenemhet Ankh and his most early original and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea; Joseph's sons Manasse Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw and Ephraim Vizier Ankhu Senwosret, Joseph's grandson Beriah Vizier Iyumeru Aya, and his great-grandson Refach Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru Ayameru II are also evidenced examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two Centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the complete riddles of the officially so-called "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You will learn and see in this work time after time.
THE FAMINE AND VIZIERKING JOSEPH
IN THE TIME OF THE PHARAOHS SENOWSRET III AND AMENEMHET III
The newest discovered or uncovered evidence for this time of Israel in Egypt is lectured by Dr. Roger Liebi on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84, in David Rohl's book "Exodus Myth or History" and in the rentable documentary of Tim Mahoney 'The Exodus' on www.patternsofevidence.com roughly summarized in this work.
According to the first and only strictly biblical chronology, the Bible says (see Chapter Chronology) JOSEPH ruled 80 years as Grand Vizier from 1830 BC until his death 1750 BC. Critical readers who think a kingship of 80 years is impossible and unbelievable should be aware that the British Queen is today looking back on over 70 years of Queenship over Britain and the world’s Commonwealth. The biblical contemporary Pharaohs of JOSEPH are the Pharaohs of the end of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom to the mid of the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. After 13 years in slavery - according to Genesis37:2.41:46 10 years in "free" slavery and 3 years in prison (Jubilees46:3) - in the year 1830 BC JOSEPH rises suddenly up to become the Vizierking of Pharao Senwosret III and his son Pharaoh Amenemhat III (Genesis41:46). He is given Rulership over all Egyptians by Pharaoh. The historical background is explained by David Rohl's lecture on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4C618MkFej8&t=4361s. Pharaoh's historically evidenced worries are about the Pyramid destruction and the impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by increasing floodings of the Nile. The complete harvest is additionally threatened by extremely hot eastern winds as Pharaoh's biblical dreams indicate; Biblical Joseph read the dreams the Pharaoh suffered of and recommended a solution against the deadly famine which was going to greatly burden Egypt and Pharaoh's rulership.
Pharaoh was so impressed by JOSEPH divine wisdom that he handed over his complete rulership over Egypt and all Egyptians to him so that Joseph as a totally new kind of Vizier became Grandvizier and King = Lifelong Ruler of Egypt - under Pharaoh only as long as Pharaoh lived as we will see later. The Bible describes the relationship of JOSEPH to Pharaoh Amenemhet III as being "a father to Pharaoh" (Genesis41:43&45:8) Archeological evidence describes the relationship as Joseph Vizier Zamonth being a "Real Friend" to Pharaoh:
"You will be in charge of my household; all my people will be ruled by what you say. Only when I rule from my throne will I be greater than you." Pharaoh said to Yosef,
"Here, I place you in charge of the whole land of Egypt."
Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Yosef's hand, had him clothed in fine linen with a gold chain around his neck, and had him ride in his second-best chariot; and they cried before him, "Long live the Father of Pharaoh! (Targumin translation)" Thus he placed him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.
Pharaoh said to Yosef, "I, Pharaoh, decree that without your approval
no one is to raise his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt."
"And Yosef was the Shalit Al HaAretz the Ruler over the Land ..." Genesis42:6 CJB
Without the permission of Pharaoh Joseph can call his complete family to come to Egypt: „So it was not you who sent me here, but God;
and he has made me a father to Pharaoh,
Lord of all his household and ruler over the whole land of Egypt.
Hurry, go up to my father, and tell him, ‘Here is what your son Yosef says:
“God has made me Lord of all Egypt! Come down to me, don’t delay!“
B'resheet (Gen) 45:8-9 CJB
„Then Y’hudah approached Yosef and said, “Please, my Lord! Let your servant say something to you privately; and don’t be angry with your servant, for you are like Pharaoh himself.“
B'resheet (Gen) 44:18 CJB
Huge granaries and a reservoir sea (Lake Moeris of Fayyum) with a Canal to the Nile, up to today called "Bar Yusuf" = Joseph's Canal are able to control the floods and ensure 7 years of plenty from 1829 to 1823 BC. According to David Rohl, there is also archeological evidence for a "major reorganization of the administration" to ensure these activities; A department of state was set up to take in the grain during the 7 years of plenty before the famine. The Bible says, in order to save Egypt from the famine the Pharaoh hands over the complete rulership over Egypt to Joseph and sets every Egyptian but himself under Joseph; This is the biggest power of a Vizier in Egyptian history and it is archeologically evidenced by the King's beard of Vizier Zamonth and also by title King for Zamonth Khnumhotep. King is a middle ages word and means nothing less than Lifelong Highest Ruler, we will learn that JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep and his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senowsret were the only archeological evidenced Lifelong Highest Rulers of the 13th Dynasty in contrast to over 40 rotating Pharaohs.
In 1822 BC the dams begin to be flooded by further "3 meters" Nile level increasing in 3 years, the "17th to 20th reign year" of Amenemhet III followed by biblical worldwide 7 years of famine from 1822 to 1816 BC. In 1815 BC the extensions of Joseph's Canal reached sufficient size and the hot eastern winds ceased; 7 years of famine came to its end. One of Joseph's different Vizier names is Kethy and is found engraved together with the 29th reign year of Amenemhet III near his office at Joseph's Canal in 1810 BC. According to David Rohl, the Nile flooding made plowing and planting impossible; the hot eastern wind burning the ears of wheat were the central causes of threat in the two dreams of Pharaoh according to Genesis41:18.23. Through the geological evidence proven concrete biblical year 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Plagues Science could now synchronize the chronologies of Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia thanks to the Bible as the most reliable historical source of ancient times; The Bible clarifies in Genesis41:57 that in 1822-1816 BC these environmental phenomenons caused the 7 years of famine.
ANCIENT MAPS OF EGYPT
First discovered Oldest Alphabetical Inscription
by Flinders Petrie in Serabit El-Khadim in the Sinai Desert
Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board
Enjoy Your Deciphering Discovery Journey
THE FIRST AND OLDEST ALPHABET WAS FOUND IN EGYPT
IT WAS HEBREW AND CAME UP
IN THE STRICTLY BIBLICAL TIME OF JOSEPH
David Rohl is convinced Joseph has invented the first Alphabet. 2200 years old Scriptures of Qumran - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees - confirm this by revealing Joseph to be the only Israelite in Egypt in the year 1822 BC one year before his family arrives in Egypt. Only he could have invented the in 1822 BC oldest found Semitic Alphabet with Hebrew fonts and words and with uniquely biblical events and characters. They were discovered, examined, and proven by Douglas Petrovich. Paradigmatic followers of the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm and thus passionate adversaries of several biblical time figures like David Sharp tried hard but were not able to disprove Petrovich's results. The oldest Alphabet inscriptions were found by the father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie in an ancient slave work copper and turquoise mine site in Sinai today called Serabit El-Khadim. More alphabetical inscriptions were found in 1999 by the Darnells close to Thebes in today's Wadi El-Hol and in the Semitic slave worker's town Lahun in Fayum in upper Egypt; They date into the reign years 26 and 29 of Amenemhet. One alphabetical inscription was found together with an Egyptian inscription on the same rock from the 20th year of Amenmhet's III reign - the year 1822 BC - which is Joseph's biblical 8th year as Grand Vizier and the first year of the great famine. 1822-1812 BC is the biblical timeframe in which JOSEPH (Genesis41:46) was traveling through complete Egypt preparing the country for the seven years of famine; It is also the timeframe of the best datable alphabetical engravements. You can rent Tim Mahoney's exiting documentary "The Moses Controversy" with evidence for the first Alphabet being Hebrew on www.patternsofevidence.com. This archeological evidence for JOSEPH's sojourn in Egypt 1822-1813 BC and his authorship of the first Alphabet is also proving evidence for MOSES obviously clearly being able to write the Bible in easily readable and for the people learnable alphabetical letters instead of complex cuneiform letters; Leading 'biblical' archeologists claim this would be impossible. The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" (Exodus17:14) and to the people of Israel "write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" (Deutoronium6:9,11:20).
In Chapter Moses, You will find a Hebrew engravement with his name on it and in this Chapter You will later find a Hebrew engravement with ASENATH's name on it and You will be invited into the discovery journey to decipher them with the help of Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board. You can see Petrovich's time estimations in the top line of the board, based on a 430 years instead of the 215 years sojourn of Israel in Egypt leading into a period of time 1876-1446 BC instead of 1821-1606 BC (compare with Chapter Chronology and the beginning of Chapter Moses).
The Book of Jubilees explains, that before his death JACOB did let his son LEVI RENEW and TRANSFORM the forefather's books of Genesis. It was written in cuneiform letters by the forfathers and transformed into alphabetical letters by LEVI. One of the oldest Alphabet inscriptions was found in Lahun in Fayum as already mentioned. Tim Mahoney's documentary "The Moses Controversy" on www.patternsofevidence.com reveals that the first Alphabet was created in Egypt and it was created distinctively for Hebrew words; The Hebrew alphabetical words came up in Egypt in the true biblical time when Israel came up in Egypt in 1821 BC. The Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions disappeared in Egypt in the true biblical time of the Exodus when Israel disappeared from Egypt and the Hebrew alphabetical words came up again in Canaan in the strictly biblical time when Israel had conquered Canaan.
It is also revealed by archeology that the world's first found scripture at all was the Cuneiform script in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Tanakh (Old Testament) says HENOCH lived in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Book of Jubilees4:17 says HENOCH was the first man being who learned to write and this would have happened in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC.
The Book of Jubilees confirms that the scriptures of the Book of Genesis would have from then on been taught and handed over from Henoch on through generations over NOAH to ABRAHAM. According to the Bible Adam was as eyewitness from the beginning on still alive for nearly the whole earthly lifespan of Henoch and that Enoch’s father was still alive for more than half of the lifetime of Noah and that Noah was still alive as eyewitness of the stories of Genesis when Abraham was born. The Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees were part of the scriptures and they even remained holy scriptures for Jews and Christians in the land of Kush/ Ethiopia up until today.
Jubilees46:16 says that LEVI received all scriptures from his father JACOB and his forefathers before JACOB's death in the biblical year 1804 BC in Egypt in order to preserve and "RENEW" them in Egypt for the next generations.
JOSEPH was the only Hebrew person in Egypt when the Alphabet firstly came up in Amenemhet's archeologically evidenced reign year 20 which was 1822 BC, one biblical year before the arrival of Israel in Egypt. And as Grand Vizier over Egypt, only JOSEPH was able to combine his knowledge about the Hieroglyphs' superiority over the paternally learned Cuneiform with his Hebrew language: Easy recognizable phonetic spelling symbols reduced to a minimum of letters. The first Alphabet.
According to Jubilees8:2,11:16,19:14,47:9 NOAH, ABRAHAM, and JACOB learned to read and write Cuneiform from their forefathers; So LEVI's grandson AMRAM also learned to read and write JOSEPH's Hebrew Alphabet and he also taught scribing and scripture according to Jubilees47:9 to his son MOSES before MOSES lived as a Prince in Pharaoh's palace and learned the hieroglyphic scripture and everything about Egyptian culture.
As already explained the modernistic leading "biblical" archeologists and egyptologists are biased by their dogmatic faith in the antibiblical paradigm that all biblical facts confirming writings of ancient historians are per se corrupted and nowadays discarded as sources of evidence in science:
"Moses was the first wise man and the first
that imparted grammar to the Jews,
the Phoenicians received it from the Jews,
and the Greeks from the Phoenicians."
Eupolemus 150 BC
"Here we have the result at a date
some five centuries before the oldest Phonecian writing that is known ...
it finally DISPROVES the hypothesis that the early Israelites,
who came through this region into Egypt and passed back again
could NOT have used writing."
Founder of Egyptology
According to Jubilees4:17.19,2:1 the first Book of the Bible was written from 3400 to 1800 BC in Cuneiform by HENOCH, NOAH, ABRAHAM, ISAAC, JACOB, and LEVI before it was RENEWED into alphabetical scripture by LEVI; the second and third book of the Bible and the Book of Jubilees was written 1606 BC at Mount Horeb; the fourth and fifth book was written from 1606 to 1566 BC in the desert. They were written by MOSES with the very first Alphabet introduced by JOSEPH.
Altogether these facts lead to ONE challenging QUESTION
towards modern "Biblical" Archeology and Egyptology:
HOW are the Torah and the 200 BC in Israel evidenced spread and read Book of Jubilees with their oldest copies from the 2nd Century BC (Qumran) able to identify the correct archeologically confirmed centuries AND countries WHEN and WHERE scripture first came up (Cuneiform) 3200 years earlier and then was RENEWED (Alphabet) 1600 years earlier if they are allegedly just a compendium of invented political lies of the 7th/6th century BC (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Z-7qKFTOys) as Leading "Biblical" Archeology claims?
12 Garden graves at Joseph's palace - Austrian Archeological Institute
Joseph's grave in Shechem
JOSEPH'S ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCED
GRAVES IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL
(Genesis50:26) JOSEPH's first biblical grave with his removed body was excavated by Manfred Bietak but recognized and thus discovered by David Rohl in the Garden of JOSEPH's Palace in Avaris at the Nile Delta. It is a little pyramid with a grand statue of a clearly identified foreign Semitic extremely high official, honored uniquely in Egyptian history. He owns a uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew property - a multi-colored coat like JOSEPH did own in the Bible. Tim Mahoney's reconstruction picture of this statue of Grandvizier JOSEPH is shown as a portrait on the overview front page of this book and as a full statue at the end of Chapter Hyksos. The digital reconstruction of the palace with 12 pillars and 12 garden graves mirroring the 12 tribefathers of Israel is shown in the rentable recommended documentary "Patterns of Evidence - The Exodus" on www.patternsofevidence.com and in the lecture of Roger Liebi, who precisely proofs accordance with the strict biblical chronology and reveals even more striking evidence on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84.
According to Briand Windle, the palace has the same layout as those big houses typical of Israelite settlements in the later Iron Age.
Next to JOSEPH's grave are 11 other graves of his brothers the patriarchs in different sizes and constellations. Their sizes and positions result from actual family roles and future roles in forefather JACOB's prophecies; LEA's sons RUBEN (2), LEVI (5), and ZEBULON (3) are buried together with JUDA (1), who as most important brother owns the biggest grave, BANJAMIN's grave (4) stands between his brothers' pyramid (12) and LEA's sons' graves. The other graves (6-11) are standing further apart in one row. According to the Book of Jubilees, Father JACOB had already been buried by his sons in Israel in the time of the first battle between Egypt and the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur.
(Genesis50:25) JOSEPH's final grave with his buried skeleton is up until today visited and honored in Shechem/Sichem in Israel. According to the Bible Joseph did let his family promise to take his body with them into the Promised Land when they would leave Egypt. According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107 ff.) the Egyptians would have tried to rob Joseph’s and Asenath’s mummified bodies and a midwife called Sarah, daughter of the tribe of Asher, and Pharaoh‘s Hebrew daughter Segola (see passage the Ahmosides in Chapter Moses) would have helped Moses to find the mummified parts of Joseph’s and Asenath’s bodies to take them with the Children of Israel to the Promised Land and burry them in Shechem. This story is also confirmed by the Rabbinical traditions (Ex.R.xviii.8 and Sotah13a; Ex.R.xx.17; "D.Y."l.c.; "S.Y."p.126), here she is called Serah, daughter of Asher. After the second funeral of JOSEPH in 1560 BC in Shechem Israel in Joshua24:32, a battle with Canaan follows in Judges1:1. This is the third battle with Canaan in connection with a funeral of the forefathers: Recently before JOSEPH's funeral in Egypt in 1750 BC, his Pharaoh had been killed in a battle with Canaanite King Makamaron according to Jubilees46:6. 21 years later during the funeral of the eleven forefathers, Canaanite King Semquen/Salitis defeats Pharaoh Tiatimos/Dedumose, conquers Avaris 1729 BC, and executes his plan to enslave Israel according to Jubilees46:47 (see Chapter Hyksos).
Picture of the 12th Dynasty limestone stele Nizzoli collection Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale number 2579 room 2: (JOSEPH) Vizier Senwosret-Ankh - holding a lotus flower in his hand - and his wife (ASENATH) Enutsen. According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich JOSEPH held a lotus flower in his hand to his engagement with ASENETH …
FIVE DIFFERENT ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED VIZIER NAMES
IN THE BIBLICAL VIZIERKING TIME OF JOSEPH
It can occur in millennia of history that a great person becomes dispelled into presumed different persons and this way his historical grandness erodes. Egyptologists confirm that in the Middle Kingdom and the Intermediate Period always only one single Grand Vizier ruled the country under Pharaoh. Further occurring two Vizier names at the same time are identifiable co-reigning sons as successors of the Grandvizier. The two ancient Qumran Scriptures from about 200 BC - the Torah and the Book of Jubilees - claim to be written in the biblical year 1606 BC by Moses and there has been no evidence so far disproving this or any other biblical date (see Chapter Chronology). So the Bible says JOSEPH ruled as Grandvizier over complete Egypt from 1830 BC to 1750 BC and that he traveled through complete Egypt after being announced as Vizier which is mirrored in the evidence of five different Vizier names at different locations in the time when only one Vizier ruled over Egypt. The time of his Pharaoh Amenemhet III (partly co-ruling with his father Senusret III) documents five different contemporary Vizier names:
1. SENOWSRET-ANKH/ AMENEMHET-ANKH
Senusret, Senuseret, Senowsret and Sesostris are same as Amenemhet, Amanemhat and Ameny different versions for one and the same Pharaoh name. Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT/ESENUT in biblical Egyptian. The contemporary Vizier Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh was archeologically evidenced married (see photo above) to a woman named Enutsen or Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing as the biblical Egyptian name ASENAT/ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing in hieroglyphs and in Hebrew writing. Senwosret-Ankh or Amenemhet-Ankh (on relief fragments in the art trade - List of Viziers German Wikipedia) means Enlivenment of Pharaoh Senwosret III and Pharaoh Amenemhet III or bringing new life to these two Pharaohs. That's exactly what JOSEPH did when he released the two from their main worries regarding their people and country in the year 1830 BC nine biblical years before his family discovered him being alive and settled in Egypt. According to Kenneth Kitchen the biblical Egyptian name of Joseph Gen41:45 - Zafenat Pa'Aneah - is a metathesis of Zatenaf Pa'Ankh which is a garbled form of Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh meaning "He who is called the enlivenment" of Senwosret and Amenemhet (compare David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, pp.604-612). Thus biblically and archeologically evidenced JOSEPH's earliest throne name as Vizierking was Zafenat pa'Aneah or Djeduenef pa'Ankh. Later - most plausibly around 1804 BC when JOSEPH's two sons are grown-up and Father Jacob died - JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM becomes his Co-Vizier and inherits JOSEPH's first royal names as Senwosret Ankhu and Ameny Ankhu, as we will see later, showing he was preferred by Pharaoh to his brother MANASSE Senebefni following grandfather JACOB's special blessing and prophecy. In Genesis41:42 the Bible says Pharaoh "put the gold chain around his neck" in front of his courtiers when he made JOSEPH "ruler over all the land of Egypt". Senewosret-Ankh's statue found at Ugarit shows inscriptions confirming "the gold of praise was given to him in front of all courtiers". This gold chain, Pharaoh's signet ring and the white garments of Byssus = finest linen - all described in Genesis41:38,42 and Jubilees50:7 -became from exactly that time on the three signs of every Vizier in Egyptian History. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Sesostris-Ankh or Amenemhet-Ankh that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt.
Another contemporary Vizier's name is "famous" Kheti/Chety. His name was found near to the up until today called Bar Yusuf = "Joseph's Canal" which leads water from the Nile into a storage lake to reduce the threatening Nile floodings. Khety held an office there in reign year 29 of Amenemhat III in the biblical and archeological year 1810 BC. He was regulating the Nile water level and this way secured the harvest, a task which matches exactly JOSEPH's biblical tasks as new Vizier. His name Khety also reminds us of the biography of his obvious name-giver Khety I the 13th nomos/nomarch of the 10th dynasty who was famous for realizing many new irrigation canals, the maintenance of the old ones, and the bestowing of grain to also save his people from a famine. Vizierking JOSEPH impoverished in the 7 years of famine his elite associates, the top elite of royal officials and nobles of Egypt. They biblically gave away their complete property as payment for grain to survive and Joseph gave it all to Pharaoh. In a later papyrus about the history of Viziers, it says about the "famous" Kethi/Chety: "He impoverished his associates for the benefits of the others". In ancient historian Artapanus' Fragment 2 in Eusebius pr ev IX 23,1-4 JOSEPH ensured a socially "fair distribution so that the weaker were not disadvantaged anymore". There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Kethi that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt.
Biblically Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT/ESENUTin biblical Egyptian. The contemporary Vizier Zamonth was married to a woman named Enutsen/Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing as ASENAT/ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing in hieroglyphs and in Hebrew writing. And ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit/Iunit/Henut" in Genesis41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD.
Zamonth is already evidenced before his Viziership under Pharao Amenemhat III in his 9th reign year according to Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. According to Grajetzki "He is perhaps the founder of the Vizier's family in which the office was held for at least three generations." (Wolfram Grajetzki: Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009 p.36, pl.3) According to Málek Zamonth’s stela CGC20102 and his sculpture CGC42.034 ASENATH‘s name reveals JOSEPH/Zamonth as Vizier and father of Vizier Ankhu (EPHRAIM): „ … the wife’s name of the vizier Simonthu is mentioned as ‚Henut‘ … taken as … an abbreviated firm of it … and we can safely take Simonthu as husband of Henutpu and father of Onkhu.“
There is no evidence like any grave or skeleton proving Zamonth is a real separate person and not only one of the several names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. More striking indications and evidence will follow. Looking at his sculpture (portrait photo at the beginning of this chapter, full-body picture in the middle of this chapter) leads to the question
Why is Zamonth the only Vizier in Egyptian history wearing a King's Beard?
The Bible's answer is because Joseph was made King over Egypt by Pharaoh.
Vizier Mon(t)uhotep of the 13th Dynasty is archeologically evidenced by a seal (Mnw-htp, Martin, Seals, Nr. 555). His name's close connectivity with the Viziernames Khnumhotep and Zamonth has to be explained later in this Chapter after the reader has the necessary background knowledge. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Vizier Month(u)hotep that would prove him to be a real separate person and not just one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizierking of Egypt JOSEPH.
One of Vizier Khnumhotep's (III) further titles in his "father's" Khnumhotep II biography is "Gate of Foreign Lands" which is exactly mirrored in the 7 years of famine when all foreigners came to JOSEPH to buy grain and also in his biblically mentioned expeditions through the complete country. Detlef Franke confirms him being Vizier under Pharaoh Senwosret III and possibly under Amenemhet III which is exactly the biblical time of JOSEPH. But he is confusing the eastern desert expeditions on the stele of Wadi Gasus from Senwosret's II first reign year with being Vizier Khnumhotep's ones in spite of his "father" Khnumhotep II being the dedicated responsible overseer of the eastern desert in that time which will be explained later further on. Khnumhotep (III) is the only contemporary Vizier name archeologically connectable with a grave found together with a skeleton, so we take now a deeper look into it:
COULD THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP III BE A THIRD TOMB OF JOSEPH?
Vizier Knumhotep's (III) tomb stands attached to the one of Pharaoh Senwosret III. It plausibly was not built directly attached to his son Pharaoh Amenemhet's Pyramide because his Pyramide already showed troubles: It was built too near to the flooding Nile water and thus was damaged and unstable. JOSEPH's biblical diffidence is reflected by the noticeable small sizes of his tombs. The size of JOSEPH's grave pyramid built in his palace's garden in Avaris is also small. On the other hand, the size of his statue in his small pyramid is impressively tall: And indeed, this statue was manufactured in Pharaoh Amenemhet's stonemason's workshop as a likely present from his grateful friend (David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth or History, 07 Joseph the Vizier).
The scientific identification of the skeleton in Vizier Khnumhotep's III grave as to be Khnumhotep's own skeleton is strikingly questionable: all three graves (Senwosret III, Amenemhet III, Khnumhotep III) were Kenotaphs, not selected for the real burial. And the rest of the later found grave inscribed biography reveals that not the original owner - who had already been identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep - but a later legal buyer of the grave was afterward buried here. In spite of these two strong indications for the skeleton not being Vizier Khnumhotep's body, the second grave owner is - as well as the first grave owner beforehand - again identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep. Thus the biography of the second grave owner (link to biography) has been misleadingly mixed up with the biographical evidence of the original owner Vizier Khnumhotep. Conclusion:
The scientific biography of Khnumhotep III is polluted
- not only with Khnumhotep's II biography evidence -
but also with biographical content of the later buyer & user of his grave.
Finally, there is no serious evidence for Vizier Khnumhotep's buried body, no evidence for any buried body or grave of Vizier Kethi, no evidence for any body or grave of Vizier Zamonth, and no evidence for JOSEPH's body in his small pyramid tomb with his statue in his palace in Avaris in Goshen.
There is only evidence of one grave together with the body of the former Grandvizier and King of Egypt JOSEPH: It is in Shechem in Israel, where JOSEPH told his people to bring his body when they would leave to the Promised Land. And except the name Montuhotep all names are standing for a Viziership in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhat III in a time when only one single Vizier at a time was the case according to leading Egyptologists.
In the case of Vizier Khnumhotep (III) we can learn much better, who he was when we take a deeper look into the history of his "father" Khnumhotep II:
JOSEPH'S SLAVEMASTER BIBLICAL POTIPHAR?
Khnumhotep II was born into one of the most powerful noble nomarch families of Egypt. His career biography is inscribed in his tomb. His predecessor and relative died early so that he had to build the tomb for him. Thus already in his young years, he became the highest member of the elite Irypat as Count and Hatya Mayor of his town Menat Khufu (today called Al Minya between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan), Overlord of the town Nekheb (between Thebes and Edfu across from Nekhen/Hierakonpolis), and Governor/Overseer of the Eastern Desert in the biblical year 1881 BC (Egyptologists estimate '1895' or '1859' BC) which was the 19th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhat II as inscribed in his grave tomb. Time after time he became also appointed the "Sole Friend" of Pharaoh - most plausibly by the following Pharaoh Senwosret II as explained later. Khnumhotep II was the Royal Sealer and the Treasurer of Pharaoh, so he was also responsible for products entering the Royal Palace. So he owned the most important position at the royal court below the Vizier in case there was one at all in his best time. Most details of his tomb descriptions in Beni Hasan in this work result from the most commonly known article of Egyptologist Janice Kamrin which can be examined and checked linked here. Janice Kamrin‘s and other Egyptologists’ highly speculative interpretations, hypothesises and conclusions in her article are entirely based on the fundament of the by Jericho self disproved Bible falsification based Ramesses Time Exodus Paradigm (see Chapter Chronology) and therefore discard any possibility of the Semites on the picture being Israelites …
In his tomb inscriptions, Khnumhotep II is also called "Stolist Priest of Pakhet and Horus"; The High Priest of the deity Horus/Ra (Syncretism) was also the High Priest of the town Heliopolis/On. He is also called 'sar tabbah' meaning Chief Executioner and Highest of Court and Law Enforcement. The Highest of Law Enforcement was additionally the Chief of the Royal Prison (compare Genesis39:20 & Jubilees39:14) at that time as we will see later. According to Khnumhotep's II most famous tomb picture, Janice Karmin explains "He is the Priest of Pakhet, a lioness deity with links to the eye of Horus who is closely associated with the desert ... Directly in front of the scribes of Khnumhotep II - one of whom is a royal document scribe and thus associated with the royal central administration - are three officials, one of whom restrains a prisoner of some sort by holding him around the neck with a staff.": You can discover this Royal Prison official restraining a prisoner in the full tomb picture later shown in this chapter: The prison official and the prisoner are the third last and second last men standing in the lowest line in the lower right corner. You are invited to scroll down to the full tomb picture and check them: the officials of Khnumhotep's royal prison and of his ministerial offices are shown and listed in this lowest tomb picture line and in the second line above. Janice Karmin describes this scene of the prisoner but cannot explain it - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees give the explaining answer as You will see later ...
Janice Karmin also explains that Khnumhotep's II position as "Administrator of the Eastern Desert provided a direct connection with prospecting and mining activities ... Sydney Aufrere ... concludes that Khnumhotep II controlled the northern part of the Eastern Desert from the Wadi Hammamat to the southern Sinai and thus the route to Canaan from his seat at Menat Khufu/Al Minya (between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan)."
You may ask Yourself why are all these facts about Khnumhotep II so strikingly relevant that You have to read them? The answer is because they are all already telling the story (Genesis37:36.39) of biblical POTIPHAR ...
Gustavo Camps Picture: Beni Hasan Tomb North Wall BH3
Find the Semitic Family in the third line from above.
Find the Royal Prison Official restraining a Prisoner in the lowest line in the right corner. He is archeological evidence for Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR being Chief of the Royal Prison as revealed by the Book of Jubilees:
SLAVE MASTER - CHIEF OF PRISON - SOLE FRIEND - ADOPTIVE FATHER - FATHER IN LAW
THE BIBLICAL STORY OF POTIPHAR WITH JOSEPH
IS THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED
HISTORY OF KHNUMHOTEP II WITH KHNUMHOTEP III
In the biblical year 1843 BC, 17-year-old JOSEPH is sold by his jealous brothers as a slave to Medanites/Ishmaelites from Gilead/Shutu. The Bible says these were merchants and they sold Joseph to Pharaoh’s highest Potiphar (Genesis37:36 Jubilees34:11). They sold him most plausibly near the Egyptian border in one of Khnumhotep’s copper or turquoise mining slave work places. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II visits as usual his mining places in his eastern governance territory and inspects the new slaves, regularly selecting some of them for his home palace. He chooses JOSEPH to test him as a home palace slave and takes him to his country residence in Men'at Khufu (today Minya). Genesis39:4 says JOSEPH was so tremendously blessed with successful work that he became highest under his master and managed everything - even everything POTIPHAR managed beforehand himself thus POTIPHAR retired on his estate regarding all his former tasks and decisions.
POTIPHAR's Khumhotep's II role at Pharaoh's palace is biblically called Royal Court Official. His special task is being the sar tabbah - meaning Chief Executioner or Highest of Court or Minister of Law Enforcement (compare Genesis37:36,41:10.12) - and so he was also the Chief of the Royal Prison and its prison officials (see Genesis39:20 Jubilees39:14): These titles were biblically sometimes anachronistically translated as Eunuch instead of Chamberlain, as chief cook instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing, as chief of bodyguards or captain of the guard instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel and as chief prison keeper instead of Chief of the Royal Prison. These are all archeologically evidenced roles of Khnumhotep II as we learned already and they match exactly the Bible together with the Book of Jubilees.
Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR was also archeologically and biblically evidenced as the High Priest of On/Elew/Heliopolis which matches Jubilees34:11,40:10. In Genesis41:45 his name seemingly has transformed from POTIPHAR into POTIPHERA but in reality, it has stayed exactly the same if You take into account that Hebrew writing just as hieroglyphic writing did not have any vocals: In the 1875 Allioli Bible he is still called PUTIPHARE as JOSEPH's father in law in Genesis41:45 and in its footnote (18) it says a shorter version of this name is PUTIPHAR clearly indicating that we are talking about one and the same person here. POTIPHAR was JOSEPH's Master and his Chief of Prison at the same time. This is revealed in Genesis39:22,40:3. Jubilees39:14 reveals additionally the House of Prison being the House of the Chief Cook or Chief of Foodstuffs Purchasing, which is exactly one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II archeologically evidenced titles. Genesis40:3 reveals the House of Prison being the House of the Chief of Bodyguards or Captain of the Guard or Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel, which has been beforehand already explained as being one biblical title of POTIPHAR. Noble POTIPHAR was not only JOSEPH's Master but he was also the Priest of Heliopolis like noble Khnumhotep II archeologically evidenced was and he later also was JOSEPH's Father in Law POTIPHERA at the same time: This is revealed by Jubilees34:11 (Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees 40,10a footnote) and in Origines' ancient writings. At last Jubilees40:10 reveals that JOSEPH marries the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis named POTIPHAR - instead! of POTIPHERA - who is also the Chief Cook/ Overseer of ingoing Foodstuffs which is one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II official titles. And Jubilees34:11 reveals JOSEPH being sold to POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, the eunuch or better Chamberlain, the chief cook or better Overseer of the Royal Palace ingoing foodstuffs and finally the Priest of Elew/Heliopolis. This is altogether strong evidence confirming POTIPHAR is POTIPHERA is Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH's slavemaster and later JOSEPH's Chief of Prison.
Pictures: 1843 BC JOSEPH becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II slave for 10 years. After being accused of sexual harassment by his noble wife, JOSEPH becomes for 3 years his prisoner in the Royal Prison POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II is Chief of. In both cases, JOSEPH's work is so tremendously blessed that he is appointed highest under him, takes over all his tasks, and gains his very most trust.
1843 BC JOSEPH arrives as slave at POTIPHAR's Palace
POTIPHAR's Wife accuses JOSEPH of sexual harassment
1833 BC POTIPHAR put's JOSEPH into prison
The biblical failed try of POTIPHAR's wife to seduce JOSEPH into adultery lead into the next step of JOSEPH's miraculous fate: After the high noble nomarch Lady accused the slave JOSEPH of sexual harassment, her husband was legally forced to punish his most competent and trusted man in the house: The Genisis39:20 footnote 14 comment in the Allioli Bible says the honor of wives was legally protected, therefore Joseph had to be taken to the Royal Prison. As a slave without interrogation and without defense. Thus JOSEPH was taken away by POTIPHAR into the Royal Prison. The Royal Prison was led by POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II himself as the Chief of Prison. This way, POTIPHAR makes JOSEPH for the second time the highest under him but now in his Royal Prison and JOSEPH again manages absolute everything for him.
JOSEPH Khnumhotep III becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II only full trusted "sole friend" as the Beni Hasan grave inscriptions confirm. This was originally an honorarium given to Khnumhotep II himself by his most beloved Pharaoh Senowsret II, the last Pharaoh who strongly supported the noble nomarchs and Khnumhotep II was his highest and most beloved one: For a Pharaoh, it was hard to find a trustful man in the royal palace with enough integrity to always give an honest answer. Later on JOSEPH, becoming Grand Vizier Zamonth, was archeologically evidenced finally even announced as Pharaoh Amenemhat's III "Real Friend": After JOSEPH had read Pharaoh's dreams and consulted him on how to save Egypt out of 7 deadly years of famine, Pharoh made JOSEPH the highest under him to let him manage and decide everything, the complete Rulership over Egypt. This kind of complete handover of tasks happens to JOSEPH now for the third time in Egypt. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II adopts JOSEPH as his son to make him an Egyptian: He gives to him his own nomarch honorary name Khnumhotep (III) and he also gives to him his daughter ESENUTH Henutsen/ Henut as a wife - a marriage biblically blessed and ordered by Pharaoh Amenemhat III as later archeological evidence will confirm. We will see these combined practices of transforming a foreigner into an Egyptian by adopting him as son in law a second time when Pharaoh Amenemhet III will adopt the later Amenemhet IV by making him his son in law which will enlighten completely all mysteries regarding the question “Who were the Hekashasut” before the 15th Dynasty …
JOSEPH'S BIBLICAL STORY WITH POTIPHAR
ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IN KHNUMHOTEP'S II BIOGRAPHY
JOSEPH's Story and further evidence for JOSEPH being Khnumhotep (III) is shown in Khnumhotep's II biography lines 1-17 in the inscriptions in his tomb translated by Kanawati and Evans (2014:31-36): They exactly mirror POTIPHAR's relationship story with JOSEPH:
He (POTIPHAR) strengthed the name of his council
(through JOSEPH) being advanced according to his offices
and the most trusty one among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants.
This story is told in the Beni Hassan tomb inscription not recognized and thus translated and interpreted by Evans and Kanawati as:
"He (Khnumhotep II) strengthened the name of his council
() being advanced according to their offices
and the trusty ones among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants"
This is an essential part of the biblical relationship story between JOSEPH and POTIPHAR told in tomb inscriptions as a part of the historical relationship story between Khnumhotep III and Khnumhotep II.
1830 BC: JOSEPH becomes Pharaoh Senwosret's III and his son Amenemhet's III Grandvizier firstly called Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh and later Zamonth and he additionally becomes adoptive son in law of POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II and is thus also named Khnumhotep III. In his tomb pictures, Khnumhotep II calls JOSEPH his "Sole Friend". 1826 BC Potiphar's daughter ASENAT/ESENUT Henutsen gives him two sons: The dizygotic twins EPHRAIM named (Senwosret-)Ankhu and MANASSE named Senebefni/Senebtefi Ibiaw.
Watch how the slave JOSEPH became Grandvizier over complete Egypt:
JOSEPH becomes Vizierking of Egypt & Sole Friend of POTIPHAR
POTIPHAR becomes JOSEPH's Adoptive Father in Law
POTIPHAR's Daughter ASENATH becomes JOSEPH's Wive
Khnumhotep II and POTIPHAR are
archeologically and biblically evidenced
one and the same person.
POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was archeologically and biblically evidenced Royal Court official responsible for the royal personnel, Chief Executioner, Highest of Court and Law Enforcement and thus Chief of the Royal Prison, Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing and High Priest of Heliopolis.
The same as in the case of JOSEPH's different Vizier names
POTIPHAR became dispelled into different individuals
- Slave Master, Chief of Prison, and Priest of Heliopolis -
in the biblical translation and copying processes of millennia.
JOSEPH RECEIVING HIS FAMILY
- ISRAEL IN EGYPT -
ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED IN THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP II
Beni Hassan Tomb Pictures are shown above, several below, the logo in the left corner above and on the Homepage. The fourth grave in connection with JOSEPH is the tomb of Noble Nomarch Khnumhotep II identified now as biblical POTIPHAR. It was completed no later than at the end of the 19th century BC most plausibly by his "son" Knumhotep III identified now as JOSEPH, Vizierking under Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III (see Chapter Chronology).
The key evidence for Khnumhotep's II tomb dating into 1819 BC
and the deciding refutation of the traditional highly speculative dating attempt (1859 BC) is examined and evidenced in
the following passage headlined HYROGLYPHES OF THE REAL BURIAL TIME OF KHNUMHOTEP II.
The funeral procession pictures inside the grave show a family of important Semites in the focus of the royal house as described by egyptologist Janice Karmin: They have light skin, are wearing an up until today unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut, throw sticks, and compound bows and wear uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew properties - white or lengthways striped filigree patterned multicolored clothing - and they are bringing offerings to the deceased. The biography of the deceased confirms about Vizier Khnumhotep JOSEPH that he became Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend" which would by no means be a plausible honorarium title for a blood son of his own: A blood son would have followed his father's footsteps as the nomarch of the 16th nome - like his real blood son as a matter of fact did. Egyptologists are not able to explain these circumstances but they recognize that Khnumhotep (III) must have received his name from Khnumhotep II thus they identify him as the blood son. More plausible is the case that Vizier Khnumhotep had become as Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend" also his adoptive son: As a foreigner, JOSEPH was additionally married to his daughter and Khnumhotep II adopted him as his Father in Law. This way JOSEPH became an Egyptian citizen. Only in Khnumhotep's II tomb inscription Vizier Khnumhotep's name shows up the number III as part of his name. In all other inscriptions, he only needed to be called Vizier Khnumhotep in order to be recognized which fits JOSEPH's biblically confirmed bigger fame than POTIPHAR's former fame as second highest in Egypt in these times.
The funeral picture is showing two Egyptian officials coming together with an obviously highly relevant Semitic Family as funeral guests who are bringing offerings to the deceased. The two Egyptian officials are identified as Neferhotep - the Vizier's royal scribe bowing down in front of Khumhotep II and presenting a poster with an announcement which will clarify later the tomb dating - and the second royal official bringing the Semite family: He is called Khety in his inscriptions above; Khety is one of the five different Viziernames 1830-1750 BC in the biblical Vizier Kingship time of JOSEPH as explained at the beginning of this Chapter.
On https://benihassan.com/dictionary/Khnumhotep+II+Tomb+3/A+procession+of+foreigners/ the madainproject describes Khety: "The second man is labeled jmj-r nww Htjj ‘the Overseer of Hunters, Khety’." As his best man as a slave and later as his sole friend JOSEPH - named Khety and Khnumhotep - logically accompanied POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II on his hunts in the desert: Such a hunt scene is also depicted in the tomb and deeper described later. In his role as the Vizier of Pharaoh, one of JOSEPH's Khety's common tasks was accompanying the Pharaoh's huntings in an official role called the "Overseer of the Hunters": This shows for the second time that Khnumhotep II is often honored in his tomb like a Pharaoh which is confirmed by leading Egyptologists.
Khnumhotep is mentioned on the poster of Neferhotep in the text "the Aamu (the Semites) that the son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep, brought": In his analysis of the tomb picture, Detlef Franke concludes that the “son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep" in the poster text refers to Khnumhotep III who would allegedly "accompany the standing figure of his father on this wall". (Franke 1991, 57–60 - click here to check on page 25 and check the full tomb picture above where You can see him in the upper right corner). This would mean the picture shows two times Joseph, once as Vizier Khety and once as Vizier Khnumhotep III and that Khnumhotep IV is missing on this tomb wall what makes no sense.
On the other hand Franke correctly identifies Khnumhotep III with Vizier Khnumhotep who brought the Semites called "the Aamu" to Khnumhotep II as clearly described on the poster. And the tomb picture unambiguously additionally shows how he brings the Semitic family to his adoptive father; The open question remains, why he is called (Vizier) Khety in the picture but (Vizier) Khnumhotep in the poster text and the obvious answer is, that two different Viziernames of JOSEPH in that time are archeologically evidenced Khnumhotep and Khety and both his names are mentioned in the tomb inscriptions. Thus as described on the poster and visualized in the picture JOSEPH named Khnumhotep AND Khety is bringing his Semitic family to his adoptive father-in-law POTIPHAR Khumhotep II. This is only one of many following exemplars of archeological evidence for the five different Vizier names of JOSEPH in his biblical reign time between 1830 BC and 1750 BC.
The close relationship and loyalty of POTIPHAR Knumhotep II to the Royal House of Pharaoh are emphasized in inscriptions and pictures several times: This is happening in the biblically stated time of JOSEPH as Semitic Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut) over the Royal House together with his Semitic family members as King's Shepherds appointed by Pharaoh over all his sheep and cattle herds of Egypt according to Genesis47:6 as we will examine in the next passage ...
From the left: BENJAMIN, Father JACOB, JOSEPH named Khety Khumhotep and his royal scribe Neferhotep who's poster and further hieroglyphs are analyzed in the following chapter
(Neferhotep's beard is missing in the original painting)
Khnumhotep and Khety
are archeologically evidenced two different Vizier names
of the same Vizier over Egypt
1830-1750 BC in the biblical time of JOSEPH
ruling as Vizierking over complete Egypt.
The poster royal scribe Neferhotep presents towards Khnumhotep II
HYROGLYPHS REVEAL THE REAL BURIAL TIME OF KHNUMHOTEP II
SHORTLY AFTER 1819 BC
OVER TWO YEARS AFTER THE ENSETTLEMENT OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT 1821 BC
The first hieroglyphs which have to be taken a closer look at are the ones on the poster the royal scribe Neferhotep is presenting towards Khnumhotep II in the tomb picture (see picture above): Neferhotep is the first in the tomb picture line of the Semitic family when You start on the right-hand side.
The date on the poster is the used fundament of egyptologists trying to date the age of the tomb. The date is connected by Khnumhotep II egyptologists with the arrival of the Semitic 'Aamu' in Egypt: This is according to Manfred Bietak’s excavations in Avaris around 1820 BC and according to the Strict Bible Chronology exactly 1821 BC and not around 1870 BC as estimated by Khnumhotep II experts; This means that they are convinced that the year of the Semitic family's arrival in Egypt is the most important year worth mentioning in the whole tomb and in Khnumhotep's II whole life besides his first career year at Senwosret‘s royal house. Manfred Bietak states that the Semites from Canaan around 1820 originally may have come down to Egypt as „subjects of the Egyptian crown or with the blessing of the Egyptian crown … and became even Egyptian officials“ and later were able to „create a kingdom of their own“ (2002 Interview Mahoney Bietak) which matches fully the biblical account regarding JOSEPH and his family and the further archeological evidence as we will see in this Chapter.
There are further alternative egyptologists' examination results bringing more light to the tomb inscription announced 6th official reign year of Senwosret II:
The egyptologists Kessler and Rabehl assume the tomb wall picture is related to an anniversary festival celebration and "can be seen as an allusion to the celebration of the New Year’s Festival". This observation leads already into the right direction but the conclusion does not yet take all relevant data into account:
According to Jürgen von Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on the IV Peret Day 14 as the most plausible Day of the Death of Pharaoh Senwosret II; Senwosret II stands for the last flourishing time of the power of the Egyptian Nomarchs and POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend" was the most Pharaoh beloved and powerful Nomarch of this time. The power of Egyptian nomarchs was firstly broken archeologically evidenced by Senwosret III and at last after POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II death totally diminished in the time of the biblically evidenced and archeologically indicated Great Famine: The Nomarchs had to sell all their property to their Vizierking JOSEPH who gave it all into Pharaoh Amenemhet's III hand. This leads to the following most plausible conclusion:
The tomb inscribed 6th year of Senwosret II on the poster is representing
the decennial Going Forth to Heaven Festival,
which was in 1819 BC the 50th Anniversary Festival of Senwosret's II death
in his 6th official (sole) reign year 1859 BC. 2 years beforehand Israel arrived archeologically evidenced in Egypt and two years later Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR died.
Senwosret II was the last glorious nomarch-friendly Pharaoh. He appointed Nomarch Potiphar Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend": thus Senwosret II was especially honored and celebrated by POTIPHAR's Oryx Nomarch Clan. The poster in the tomb picture is shown to Khnumhotep II by a royal official together with Vizier Knumhotep Khety "receiving" the important Semitic family bringing offerings to the deceased.
In the biblical year 1821 BC Israel's clan of 70/75 people arrived in Egypt in the land of Goshen and settled in Avaris. Two years later 1819 BC they participated as offering guests on this festival. In the tomb the royal official is announcing this arrival of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend's" and (adoptive) son's family together with Senwosret's II 50th Death Anniversary Festival celebrated by the complete Nomarch Clan of Khnumhotep II. "May these offerings and all other festival offerings benefit You forever in eternity" would be one of the most plausible key messages of this impressive tomb picture. This confirms the egyptologists' assumption that the grave pictures try to honor Khnumhotep II as much as normally only a Pharaoh is honored. Three years after complete Egypt has honored the death of Amenemhet's III famous father Senwosret III - the greatest Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, who was worshipped as a deity still long time after - JOSEPH honors his adoptive father in law and dearest Egyptian friend with one of the most extraordinary tombs in Egyptian history controversially discussed up until today...
The announced "6th Reign Year of Senusret II"
1859 BC on the poster in Khnumhotep's II tombu
is neither the year of the arrival of the Semitic family in Egypt nor the building year of the tomb as assumed by egyptologists.
It is the Festival Title of the 50th Anniversary Feast of Pharaoh Senusret's II death in his 6th Reign Year
celebrated by Khnumhotep's II Oryx Nomarch Clan in 1819 BC 2 years after Israel’s arrival in Egypt and 2 years before Khnumhotep's death.
THE FAMILY PICTURE OF FATHER JACOB'S FAMILY
IN THE TOMB OF BENI HASAN
Now we take a closer look at the hieroglyphs above the first two Semites in the famous tomb picture. If You want to precisely study all hieroglyphs of the picture of the Semitic family You can do this on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LIM3KfStZg&t=4393s. The whole tomb biography is starting from the right because the reading direction is revealed by the view direction of depicted participants and on this picture and in the hieroglyphs it goes from the right to the left facing the eyes of the coming people. In case You look not only isolated on the phonetic meaning of the hieroglyphs but also observe the precise meaning of a single hieroglyph You are discovering indications for JOSEPH's biblical story (see picture below):
The first Hyroglyph at the left shows twenty-two and fifteen as numbers. Fifteen Semites are shown in the picture, further twenty-two of them were plausibly present at the announced festival on the poster at the right end of the line. Science is discussing if the number only stands for the shown procession visiting group or more generally for a group of Semitic families from Canaan arriving in Egypt to start a new living. The Scriptures of Qumran gave the answer already 3600 years ago: 70 descendants of Israel(Genesis46:27) arrived in 1821 BC in Egypt. This number excludes 5 descendants (Acts7:14) who died early without children in Egypt: GAD's son ERI (Genesis46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA and SALOMON (Jubilees44:20 footnote d Klaus Berger and Jubilees44:29); The reason for their childless death is explained by Jewish beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerick (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes page 104) and in the famous ancient narrative of Joseph & Asenath later introduced. The two sons of JUDAH ER and ONAN had died already beforehand in Canaan (Genesis38:7.10) and are also not included in the number 70. This is also the explanation for the different numbers 70 and 75 in the Greek Septuagint around 200 BC and the Qumran evidenced Torah around 200 BC. It is revealed by the Book of Jubilees like all seeming differences between the famous Stephanus speech and the Torah in Acts7 debated cluelessly up until today.
Estimated names according to
A) family ranking
B) relationship to Joseph
C) age from the right:
Royal Scribe, JOSEPH, Father JACOB, BENYAMIN,
RUBEN, LEVI, JUDAH, SIMEON
Then You see a hieroglyph group of three or four hieroglyphs, 'Aamu' spoken, translated by Egyptologists as "Asiatics" of "the Southern Levante" which means Semites of Canaan. According to the leading Egyptologist for this tomb picture - Janice Karmin - 'Aamu' is generally agreed by egyptologists to be a Semitic (thus possibly Hebrew) loanword and the bulk of scholarly opinion would place the homeland of the Aamu of Shu in the "Southern Levant" which fits Hebron where Israel or Father Jacob and his family came from. Redford concludes that it is derived from a west Semitic word and can be linked to the root Alamu meaning mankind or People.
According to David Kahn, it is in the tomb of Khnumhotep II that the earliest instance of encoded writing in history is found. It is posited that this was intended to be highly stylized funerary language rather than secret communications which are re-examined now for the hieroglyphs of the word 'Aamu': Translations of the several inscriptions reveal that some uncommon hieroglyphic symbols were used in place of the more ordinary ones. There are also inconsistencies in the grammatical syntax. Some Egyptologists believe that particular passages in Khnumhotep II's funerary inscription were deliberately transformed in order to obscure the original meaning. Thus we will take a second more closer, differentiating, and precise look on the single hieroglyphs of the so-called hieroglyph group 'Asiatics':
The first hieroglyph is showing a Semitic slave or prisoner: Indeed You see clearly a Semitic man with a beard and light skin kneeling tied at the back (see picture above and logo in the left corner above). The tomb of Knumhotep II was finished about a century before the enslavement of Israel thus this can not be the historical background of this famous hieroglyph in case not only read as a phonetic letter of the by Egyptologists used word "Asiatics". Biblically the only well known Semite of Canaan in exactly that time, who once arrived as a slave and ten years later was thrown into prison tied behind his back on his knees in Egypt like in the hieroglyphic picture, was a man called JOSEPH, later better known as great famous Vizierking and Savior of Egypt out of famine.
The next shown hieroglyph is a throwing stick. It is by no means representing Canaanites, there is no proving evidence at all for this option in the time of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs, the time of the 15th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology). These are unique Semitic foreigners with their own by Manfred Bietak excavated unique Mesopotamian, northern Syrian, and Canaanite attributes (= the life locations of ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB) from a century before and clearly different to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur according to the Book of Jubilees and confirmed by Bietaks archeological conclusions. Here they are called the Aamu and they use in contrast to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' throw sticks like JOSEPH's statue from the same time (see Chapter Hyksos) did already proof. The hunt as a sport has been up until today a royal and noble privilege since the upcoming agriculture civilization over 4 millennia ago. Grand Vizier JOSEPH alias Vizier Khnumhotep III alias Vizier Kheti/Chety taught his friend and noble adoptive father in law POTIPHAR alias Khnumhotep II - in one of his common Vizier roles as Pharaoh's Overseer of the Hunters - how to use his family's throw stick - the evidence is shown in the tomb pictures. This is again confirming the theory of leading egyptologists that Khnumhotep II is treated and honored like a Pharaoh in his tomb; Treated by Vizier Khnumhotep III like a Pharaoh. Khnumhotep III is identified by leading egyptologists as the one who lead this burial project and JOSEPH as Vizierking Khnumhotep is according to the Bible the only man in Egypt besides Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) who is powerful enough to decide such an extraordinary honorship. Janice Karmin additionally confirms: "a second man wears a white garment; he carries a throwing stick that is very similar in form both to the hieroglyph used in the word for Aamu and to the weapon wielded by Khnumhotep II himself in the marsh hunting scene on the east wall. The fact that this type of weapon is used as a determinative for Aamu supports the theory that it was typical hunting and perhaps also a military tool in their culture. The Tell el-Daba dignitary mentioned above (Joseph's statue in his Pyramide grave in Chapter Hyksos is meant) also holds a throwing stick against one shoulder."
Estimated names according to
A) family ranking
B) relationship to JOSEPH
C) age from the right:
on the donkey JUDAH'S last sons PEREZ and ZELACH, then RUBEN's last son KARAMI,
then JACOB's last still alive wife ZILPA, RUBEN'S wive ADA, ASHER‘s young daughter SARA and JUDAH's second wive SUA, then a donkey carrying throwing sticks, spears and woomeras, then ISSACHAR with a harp, and ZEBULON with a composite recurve bow, arrows and a battleaxe.
"Ye shall not cut the edge of your scalp,
neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard"
Vayikra/Leviticus 19:27 OJB
The "Early Hyksos"
the Foreign Semites in Egypt of the 19th century BC
are wearing an up until today
unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut
in clear distinguishing contrast to any depicted Canaanites.
(See more distinguishing evidence at the end of Chapter Hyksos)
Photographed Original: Family Picture of unique Semites in the focus of the Royal House together with Vizier Khnumhotep/Kheti bringing offerings to the deceased Khnumhotep II
In contrast to any depicted Canaanites, these Semites wear unbandaged not edges cut neck free hair instead of bandaged edges cut shoulder length mushroom head haircut and a not corner's cut full beard without mustache instead of a corner's cut goatee beard or a corner's cut full beard with mustache.
Sidenote: If You look at JOSEPH's Semitic (Chapter Hyksos) and Egyptian (this Chapter) sculpture You will discover that the hair is not his hair but a wig and that his Egyptian King’s beard is not his beard but artificial so that he doesn’t break any later written down law.
PATTERNS OF EVIDENCE FOR THE EARLY HEKASHASUT
IN POTIPHAR‘S/KHNUMHOTEP’S II TOMB PICTURE
BEING ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Conclusion: The famous picture of Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hassan shows JOSEPH's Father JACOB bowing down gratefully in front of the man who cared so wonderfully for his son JOSEPH in his absence. He is offering an Oryx Antilope honoring the Oryx nomarch standing barefoot together with his son JOSEPH, POTIPHERA's adoptive son and son-in-law named Khnumhotep Kheti. The antelope is also a special one of the few kosher animals which are belonging to the typical Hebrew sacrifice animals: For the Israelites, she‘s famous for her special beauty and is found in the ancient Hebrew Song:
„Come away, my beloved,
and be like a gazelle
or like a young stag
on the spice-laden mountains.“
Behind father JACOB comes his second favored son of JACOB's already departed beloved wife RAHEL called BENYAMIN with a second now female Oryx Antilope offering, also certainly barefoot because of being part of the holy sacrifice offering process. JACOB himself later was buried by his sons also barefooted and weaponed carrying his coffin according to the apocryphal Jewish Book of Jasher/ Book of the Righteous Chapter 56. Carrying one's weapons at a rifle brother's funeral is up until today a custom in most societies, but nevertheless, the egyptologists are cluelessly surprised about the weapons on the picture, still convinced these offering guests being total strangers to Khnumhotep II which does make no sense for any funeral scene.
According to Jewish beatified blessed Anna Katarina Emmerich POTIPHAR would have become a good friend of Father JACOB. He would have received the circumcision and would have served the G'D of Israel at the end of his life (AKE Geheimnisse des Alten und Neuen Bundes, page 107). Behind BENJAMIN the sons of already deceased LEA called RUBEN, LEVI, JUDAH and SIMEON follow, then JUDAH's last two sons on the donkey, RUBEN's last son and then JACOB's wife SILPA, LEA's maid as last alive wife of JACOB. RAHEL's maid BILHA and LEA's daughter DINA had died already after JOSEPH's presumed death according to Jubilees34:16. In the end, two further sons of LEA are following - ISSACHAR and ZEBULON. The reasons for not depicted brothers can be read in the ancient story out of Egypt "Joseph and Asenath" http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm and in AK Emmerich's Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes S. 104. The names derive from Jub34:20ff.44,12ff.
The hieroglyphs for the title Hekachasut, "Shepherd King" or "Ruler of Foreign Lands", from which the name "Hyksos" is derived, can be connected with the old bowed leader as the Shepherd King to the left-hand side of the hieroglyph, with his sons behind him or it can possibly also be connected with JOSEPH himself on the right-hand side as Ruler of Foreign Lands, identified by Egyptologists as the royal official (Vizier) Khety.
Father JACOB's inscribed name is identified as the Hebrew (Genesis24:2) biblical name Abi-shar "my father is king" or Abisharie "my father is strong". If this is how JACOB called himself in front of the Egyptians, it would fit his comment in front of Pharaoh regarding his forefathers in Genesis47:9. If this is how his sons called him it is a kind of 'My Sir Father' addressing but much more personal: Aba means rather a dad than a father, thus big dad could also be a translation that fits a dad leading a family of 70 descendants and their wives after all their slaves had been set free in Canaan according to the Book of Jubilees.
Egyptologists conclude that further inscriptions claim that the Hekachasut, the "Rulers of Foreign Lands", came from the land of Shutu. According to Aharoni (1979, page 146) the land of Shutu the Shepherd King/ Ruler of Foreign Lands comes from is probably an ancient term for Gilead. The Bible says the Midianites/Ishmaelites who took JOSEPH as a slave with them down to Egypt came from Gilead Genesis37:25 which could have led to the Egyptian conclusion JOSEPH and his family would have come from Gilead. All in all, these are additional strong archeological indications confirming the Bible.
1821 BC JACOB's Clan Israel is entering Egypt for the Ensettlement in the land of Goshen
Father JACOB may see his dead believed son JOSEPH at last again being alive
PATTERNS OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PART I
FOR ZAMONTH AND KHNUMHOTEP
BEING TWO DIFFERENT NAMES OF ONE AND THE SAME VIZIER
We have already learned that biblical POTIPHAR gave as much responsibility to his slave JOSEPH as possible because of his tremendous talents. When JOSEPH became Vizierking over Egypt POTIPHAR gave to him his daughter ASENAT or ESENUT and his name Khnumhotep - which is a sign of adoption - and made him an Egyptian on this way. We have already shown that biblical POTIPHAR was archeologically evidenced called Khnumhotep II and Vizier Khnumhotep is confirmed by Egyptologists as his (adoptive) son. So it would not surprise if POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II who was Mayor of different towns would also share his responsibilities as Mayor with JOSEPH/Khnumhotep III. If two of JOSEPH's Egyptian names were Khnumhotep and Zamonth we probably would find archeological evidence for interconnections between noble nomarch Khnumhotep II and the name Zamonth:
According to JOSEPH's wive's biblical name ESENUT archeologically evidenced as Henut/Enut-sen, one of JOSEPH's Vizier names was ZaMonth, meaning Son of Month. Because of having saved Egypt out of death by famine and because of his great wisdom he was adored so much by the Egyptians that he could not avoid being more and more worshipped - not only as the son of the Egyptian deity Month but also even as the Egyptian deity Month himself as later shown by further evidence. In this way Month remained in Egyptians memories as a famous popular deity even up until the 13th century BC: For example, to praise Pharaoh Ramesses II in the Papyrus Anastasia II he was extraordinarily called the "deity Month in both lands .. and Vizier who is friendly minded to Egypt". Why does a great Pharaoh like Ramesses II compare himself with a "smaller" Vizier in order to look greater? Biblical History gives the answer: JOSEPH was the Vizier and King who was as friendly-minded to Egypt and he was worshipped and glorified not only as the son of Month but later even as the deity Month himself as we will prove later.
As we will later see JOSEPH/ZaMonth was already before his Vizierkingship in Amenemhet’s III 6th/9th reign year evidenced appointed as "Mouth of Nekhen" the spokesman or speaker of the town of Nehkhen (between Thebes and Edfu) and sowith most plausibly was also the mayor of Nekhen in greek called Heirankopolis = Hawk City. A hawk or a falcon was representing the syncretized deities Month, Nekheny, and Horus. Nekhen is one of the oldest religious places in the world and was the Egyptian religious center from 3500 BC up to the turn of times and it was the center of the cult of the hawk deity, Horus, Nekheny or Month, the divine Patron of the Kings: Joseph strictly biblically chronologically served as Patron of the Kings Senwosret III and Amenemhat III.
Nekhen's companion town Nekheb (today El-Kab) on the opposite bank of the Nile was up until JOSEPH's time the more influential noble nomarch town of Egypt. And POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was the "Overlord of Nekheb". In JOSEPH's time, Nekhen overtook Nekheb's influence and became an important tomb town of the Intermediate Period. Later in the New Kingdom Nekheb "eclipsed in the city of Nekhen". JOSEPH's/ Zamonth's son EPHRAIM/ Ankhu is also on a later stela inscribed as Judge and Keeper of Nekhen (Cairo, Egyptian Museum, CG 20403).
Thus POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH/ Zamonth, and EPHRAIM/ Ankhu were all Mayors of the twin town Nekheb-Nekhen. These are already first strong indications for the names Khnumhotep and Zamonth being two names for one and the same person as further proved later.
All indications together lead more and more to the question: Are Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep three different names of one and the same famous Vizierking of Senwosret III and Amenemhet III from 1830 BC until 1750 BC, the strictly biblical time of JOSEPH as Vizierking? Egyptologists state the Middle Kingdom had only one Vizier per Pharaoh as a kind of nowadays prime minister/ chancellor and a ruler over Egypt usually owned four to six different honorary names. Thus it is most plausible that a unique Grandvizier like JOSEPH - as extraordinarily announced Ruler over complete Egypt and as the Saviour of Egypt out of Famine standing above every Egyptian except Pharaoh - also owned several different names.
We finally leave now Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hasan and its overwhelming amount of archeological evidence confirming Israel in Egypt. But we will return to Khnumhotep's II tomb as soon as we will learn to know closer JOSEPH's wife ASENATH ...
PATTERNS OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PART II
FOR JOSEPH'S VIZIERKING NAMES ZAMONTH AND KHNUMHOTEP
- JOSEPH'S PHARAOH SONS -
We have already seen there is clear evidence for Kheti, Khnumhotep, and Zamonth as Viziernames in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III. First indications for all three being JOSEPH are found in Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures and hieroglyphs and in many further contemporary inscriptions. Finally, the Vizier years of Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep are biblically correspondent with JOSEPH's Vizier years and are strikingly matching archeological and biblical evidence - in a time when according to science only one Vizier ruled over Egypt.
The most striking evidence for JOSEPH's two different Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth is rooted in JOSEPH's wife's name and her linguistically associated modifications. She is biblically called ASENATH or ESENUT; This matches Vizier Zamonth's/JOSEPH's wife's and Vizier Ankuh's/EPHRAIM's mother's name Henut or Henutsen or also Henut-pu. Vocals are missing in Egyptian as in Hebrew writing and letter orders often became confused in writing or copying processes. Biblical ESENUT is also the daughter of POTIPHERA (already identified as POTIPHAR already identified as Khnumhotep II). She again turns up on a dead mourning scenes stela of the Vizier Dynasty Family Clan of her beloved husband JOSEPH both just having lost one of their later sons - in Egyptian called Wpwauthotep:
(Source: 803-028-251 Stele CG 20690 Cairo, Egyptian Museum, see Lange/Schäfer, Grab- und Denksteine ii, 316-18; Wikipediasearch: Resseneb attestations)
The so-called Wpwauthotep Stele is showing three different dead mourning scenes with three different groups of Wpwauthotep's relatives on three different pictures one beneath the other. Being the deceased himself Wpwauthotep is not shown in person on the stela but in the inscriptions; He is always the first related person. The first two pictures are focussing on Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep and his wife Itineferu taHenut. Henut is also Vizier Ankhu's mother's and Vizier Zamonth's wife's name as already explained. Her husband the Vizier Dynasty Clan Father is here named Khnumhotep, hatia/Mayor (remember Zamonth's role as Mayor of Nekhen) and godsealer. According to egyptologists, godsealer was one title of Vizier Khnumhotep III. It can mean expedition leader of the godlike Pharaoh or Priest of Osiris or both. On the Wpwauthotep Stele, he acts as Priest of Osiris. Hatia/Mayor is one of the highest-ranking titles of royal officials and a commonly used title of Viziers. You could also be a Mayor (Highest) of a certain town. Scientific evidence confirms Mayor being also a title of Khnumhotep II which he bequeathed to one unidentified son thus it is even more likely that JOSEPH Vizier Khnumhotep inherited the title from his adoptive father.
is the linguistically corresponding
biblical name Asenat/Esenut
revealing JOSEPH's wife's name
is Zamonth's wife's name
is Khnumhotep's wife's name.
The Wedding Stele consists of three pictures among themselves. As long as there is no photo available a detailed scene description is necessary to evaluate its pictural and hieroglyphic information:
1) In the first picture You see deceased Wpwauthotep's daughter Neschi Hotepi and his son called Khnumhotep standing and his son Chonsu kneeling in front of a sacrifice table. Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep on the other side sits in front of the death sacrifice. Khnumhotep's hieroglyphically identified wife Itineferu tAHenut stands behind him with her hand on his shoulder. His granddaughter and daughter-in-law hieroglyphically identified as Wpwauhotep's wife and thus widow and mother of their three children is called Senebhenas. She is standing behind her grandmother tAhenut/Henutsen. The Wpwauthotep Stele inscribed used prename of tAhenut as Great Royal Wife of the Ruler Khnumhotep and Queen-mother of his four generations Vizier Dynasty is the name ItiNeferu: ItiNeferu is the most used name for a Great Royal Wife or Queen Mother from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Prominent examples are for the 11th Dynasty Neferu II as the wife of Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (see Chronology of Israel in Egypt) and for the 18th Dynasty NeferuAtenNefertIti as the wife of semimonotheistic Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful, and refers to the heart so it's more an adjective than a name.
2) The second picture shows two further children of Wpwauthotep standing together in front of their grandfather and lifelong ruler of Egypt and his wife, Khnumhotep and Itineferu taHenut; The further son of the deceased is called Amenhotep, he is titled mayor and big of the council of the ten of upper Egypt. Behind him stands the further daughter Nebherchuites. The dead mourning scene takes place in the house of a lady called Ineh. This is the only picture with Wpwauthotep's wife Senebhenas missing thus the most plausible conclusion is Wpwauthotep's further children on the second picture are not Senebhenas children but the children of the Lady of the House Ineh as Wpwauthotep's second wife. She is standing with her daughter Neferuwen behind the father and mother of the deceased, Khnumhotep and taHenut. Ineh and Neferuwen are not visible as persons on the stela but the hyroglyphs behind Khnumhotep and tAhenut/Henutsen introduce them.
3) The third picture shows JOSEPH's son, successor, and already for long co-ruling Vizier EPHRAIM in his official Vizier's wardrobe together with his wife Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereryt and their daughter Senebhenas the widow of Wphauthotep. EPHRAIM is hieroglyphically identified as Vizier Ankhu, who is identified by leading Egyptologists as the son of Vizier Zamonth. Senebhenas' brothers Vizier Resseneb and Vizier Iymeru with biblically named SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1Chr7:20) are kneeling in front of them expressing compassion to their father and to their sister as brother and widow of their deceased uncle. They are holding flowers.
Picture 1) and 2) show father Khnumhotep in front of a sacrifice table with further crucial explaining text:
Picture 1): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Osiris (or the King Osiris gives), Lord of the Holy Land .. he shall give sacrifice and foods for the sole of lower Egyptian sealer .. Wpwauthotep sired by the mayor and godsealer Khnumhotep .."
Picture 2): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Wpwaut (deity) .. that he shall give all good things to the sole of .. Khnumhotep .."
Wpwaut, Upuaut, or Wepwawet is Wpwauthotep's name-giving patron deity. Wepwawet is a wolf and the deity of war. He was said to accompany the Pharaoh on his hunts led by the Vizier. Wpwauthotep means the deity of war is satisfied which is an obvious indication of Wpwauthotep being a successful military leader of the ruler and probably having gained honor in a war: He most likely died in the first battle against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jub46:6 because this makes the sacrifice to his name connected diety most plausible.
For decoding the sacrifices texts correctly it is important to understand the historical background: The strictest all valid definition of the word King instead of Pharaoh is lifelong ruler. In Egyptian history normally Pharaohs were the commonly lifelong rulers and therefore the Kings of Egypt. But there is an exception phase in Egyptian history: The Second Intermediate Period. In this time Pharaoh's ruling time even went down from a few years to only one year each. At least 12 Pharaohs with only one year of reign time existed in this time. Thus a Pharaoh in this time can not really be meant mentioning a lifelong ruler = King in this text. According to the Bible, the only real lifelong ruler of Egypt at that time was JOSEPH and all Egyptians adored him as Savior and Ruler of Egypt. Thus Father Khnumhotep is most likely meant with the lifelong ruler = the King in this text. Wpwauthotep is hieroglyphically called the "Sealer of the King/Crown" in the first picture.
Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH/ESENUT
are named Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen.
Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen
are also named Vizier Khnumhotep and his wife taHenut.
They are the adoptive son in law and the daughter of
Nobleman POTIPHAR/-ERA also named Nomarch Khnumhotep II.
JOSEPH AND AMENEMHET III
- A REAL FRIENDSHIP -
We jump back now to the beginning of the 13th Dynasty 1798 BC: After Pharaoh Amenemhet's III death the reign of his until recently by egyptologists erroneously assumed blood son Amenemhet IV and his daughter Nofrusobek followed. Then the so-called Dark Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began. It contained 48 years of JOSEPH's reign as part of his complete biblical 80 years he was ruling over the entire land of Egypt (see also Jubilees46:4). His brothers were not only by Senowsret III appointed the King's Shepherds overall flocks of sheep in Egypt Genesis47:6,47: Some of them even became Shepherd Kings as Pharaohs. JOSEPH ruled over all Egyptians and the complete House of the Pharaoh - as originally commanded by Senwosret III in Genesis41:40 - for 80 years. JOSEPH's royal Vizier names, in the beginning, are Senewosret-Ankh and Amenemhat-Ankh (="bringing new life" to the two Pharaohs). According to Jewish Beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerich AKE (Secrets of the old & new covenant, p. 99) before his Vizierkingship JOSEPH managed everything so tremendously successful for POTIPHAR/Khnumhotep II that he was through him already well known, admired and beloved by Pharaoh and his wife and therefore became as prisoner overseer of the Royal Prison: Thus Zamonth (picture) became already beforehand the King‘s "Real Friend" which exactly describes the biblical relationship between him and Pharaoh: Amenemhet III gave him as a gift his own signet ring, his own chariot, and his priest's Knumhotep II daughter. And he is biblically so pleased and happy (in hebrew jatab) with JOSEPH that when he hears about JOSEPH's reunion with his brothers that he lets them know: "take your father and your families and come to me! I want to give you the best of my land of Egypt and you shall eat the fat of the land" (Genesis45:16). This is by no means any plausible Pharaoh's reaction towards one of several contemporary Viziers: These are true most trustful feelings and not the last grateful deed to his exclusive "Real Friend". Vizier Zamonth Knumhotep's wife's name is Henut/ Henut-pu/ Henut-sen. After Amenemhet's death, they are together additionally named Montuhotep and his wife Neferu Juhetibu. In old biblical Hebrew JOSEPH's wife is called ASENATH/ OSNAT/ ASNIT/ ASNET/ ESENUT (Jubilees, Klaus Berger 1981 p. 495, footnote 20m) the daughter of POTIPHAR, POTIPHERA/ PUTIPHARE/ PUTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II, Priest of On/Heliopolis. According to AKE JOSEPH's brothers would have settled in Heliopolis after Father Jacob's death (1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Vol. 3 german page 406). Historian Josephus also confirms Heliopolis/On as the location of the Shepherd Kings' Grasslands. This would be the time when Father JACOB's 12 pillars Semitic palace excavated by Manfred Bietak in Avaris was rebuilt as JOSEPH's palace with twin chambers for EPHRAIM Ankhu and MANASSE Senebefni. The Septuagint and the 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees enumerate On next to Ra-amezez and Pithom as the cities rebuilt as eastern boundary fortresses by Hebrew slaves after their Hyksos Invasion destruction. Thus On/Heliopolis must have been to an essential extent inhabited by Israelites. It even shows very late evidence for never moved away Israelites up until the 4th and 3rd century BC excavated in LeONtopolis near Heliopolis. LeONtopolis is up until today called Tel El Yahudiya which means Jewish Mound …
Picture of Stela CGC42.034: Vizier Ankhu's Father Vizier ZaMonth: The only Vizier in Egyptian History wearing the King's Beard as the token for lifelong highest rulership/kingship is archeologically proven biblical JOSEPH, Vizierking over complete Egypt 1830-1750 BC
Inscription: „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor … she may give .. oil for the Ka of the Vizier‘s wife, the Vizier’s mother, and the Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of the sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … priest of Amun (both titles of her father Khnumhotep II).“
1819 BC: Oldest Egyptian upright weight loom in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's Tomb in Beni Hasan
Khnumhotep's II wife Khety in the center - Mother of sevenlings?
JOSEPH'S WIFE ASENATH IN THE TOMB OF POTIPHAR =
VIZIER KETHY KHNUMHOTEP'S WIFE HENUT IN THE TOMB OF KHNUMHOTEP II
According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick AKE (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 99 ff.) JOSEPH's wife ESENUT, here called ASENET, would have been an adoptive daughter of his slavemaster and Priest of Heliopolis PUTIPHAR who would have later employed her as astrologer and priestess of Heliopolis due to her visionary talents. She would have been wise, beautiful, and later would have become a "leading mother of many". She also would have „introduced the first loom“ as known in AKE’s 19th century (the upright weight loom) in Egypt: This would have to be archeologically confirmed by the first Egyptian depicted upright weight loom in her lifetime between 1850 BC and 1750 BC, and indeed You find the firstly depicted upright weight loom scene in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures of shortly after 1819 BC in Beni Hasan as You can see in the picture above. As Queenmother ASENETH would also have imported the first cows (zebu/bos indicus) into Egypt. And indeed around her strictly biblical lifetime (1848-1752 BC) the zebu cows firstly came up in Egypt (Wikipedia).
Her husband JOSEPH would have introduced at the same time the ancient Mesopotamian seed plow invented by his great grandfather Abraham in the 21st century BC in Mesopotamia according to the Book of Jubilees (Jubilees11:23). And indeed Mesopotamia and Egypt are seen as the countries of origin of the plow: The oldest plow found in Europe was initially dated into the
a) 4th millennium BC and later then dated into the late Neolithic period around 2000 B.C. and then later secondly corrected and dated into the
b) the Early Bronze Age (1940 to 1510 BC).
Therefore we can assume that the oldest plows in Egypt yet speculatively estimated into the
a) 4th millennium, will also be sooner or later corrected dated into the
b) end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (Joseph's rulership time began 1830 BC)
Irrespective of this, JOSEPH‘s ruling time is the time of further development of the plow in Egypt and the seed plow is such a further development.
According to AKE ASENATH would have been as a matter of fact additionally the daughter of Father JACOB's daughter DINA following DINA's biblical premarital intercourse with SHECHEM. To save her daughter from being killed as a bastard by her brothers the child would have been brought to Egypt and sold to PUTIPHAR. Father JACOB recognizing her birthmark after having arrived in Egypt would have revealed to JOSEPH that she is not only his wife but also the daughter of his beloved and missed sister. Later JUDA and BENYAMIN would have prevented JOSEPH from being killed by his brothers DAN and GAD; They would have been stirred up by Pharaoh's son beforehand who desired ASENATH as his wife.
The consequence of this deadly sin of DAN and GAD was already mentioned in Chapter Hyksos: GAD'S son ERI (Genesis46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA, and SALOMON, (listed in the Book of Jubilees 44:20 footnote d and in Klaus Berger's translation of Jubilees44:29) had to die early in Egypt without children. Another plausible consequence is the deadly punishment GAD and DAN and probably also their more passive two brothers NAPHTALI and ASHER must have feared after their father JACOB's death in 1804 BC: It does not make much sense that all of JOSEPH's brothers did fear and try to avoid being punished by JOSEPH after their father's death by referring on JACOB having said before his death JOSEPH shall forgive all his brothers in Genesis50:15-21; JOSEPH forgave them already 17 years earlier in 1821 BC when he revealed his identity to his brothers and invited them all to come to Egypt (Genesis45:5). But it does make very sense, that DAN and GAD were in fear to be punished deadly for their second attempt to murder JOSEPH stirred by Pharaoh's son thus most likely they will have been the ones in Genesis50:15-21 who referred on their father to achieve forgiveness from JOSEPH.
According to Angela Standhartinger (Wikipedia: Asenath) the traditions in the Midrash and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, that trace ASENATH to the family of JACOB also reveal that she was the daughter born to DINAH following her rape by SHECHEM. JACOB's sons wanted to kill the infant. DINAH left ASENATH on the wall of Egypt. POTIPHERA found her, brought her to his home, and gave her a wet nurse. POTIPHERA's wife was barren (with sevenlings?), and she raised ASENATH as her own daughter. Consequently, she was called “ASENATH daughter of POTIPHERA”, for she was raised in the home of POTIPHERA and his wife as if she were their own daughter (Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer [ed. Higger], chaps. 35, 37; Midrash Aggadah [ed. Buber], Genesis 41:45).
The story of "Joseph & Aseneth" is a narrative that referred to itself as contemporary from the time of Joseph. It is readable on http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm. Scientists date it between 200 BC and 200 AD (H.F.D. Sparks, The Apocrypha Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp.473-503). It is oldest evidenced in the same time as the Qumran evidenced Torah and Book of Jubilees. It was never disproved but rather confirmed regarding its origin in Egypt so it may also be of the time near its occurrences which would be the 19th century BC.
In this narrative of Joseph & Asenath "Pentephres (Potiphar) had a virgin daughter of about eighteen years of age, tall and beautiful and graceful, more beautiful than any other virgin in the land. And she was quite unlike the daughters of the Egyptians but in every respect like the daughters of the Hebrews. And she was as tall as Sarah, and as beautiful as Rebecca, and as fair as Rachel, and this virgin's name was Aseneth ... And seven virgins had the remaining seven rooms, one each. And they used to wait on Aseneth, and were of the same age as she was, for they were all born on the same night as Aseneth; and they were very beautiful, like the stars of heaven, and no man or boy had ever had anything to do with them ... And there were four gates to the court, overlaid with iron; and eighteen strong young men-at-arms used to guard each one of them."
It's a wonderful spiritual Hebrew love story and a dramatic action story: ASENATH is married to JOSEPH, whose brothers DAN and GAD plot to kill him for the sake of Pharaoh's son, who wants ASENATH to be his wife and who wants his father and JOSEPH to be killed. This is avoided firstly by JOSEPH's younger brother BENYAMIN (also confirmed by Test Jos, Josephus, Antiquitates 2.39–59) and additionally by the sons of Leah:
"And on the third day, Pharaoh's son died from the wound of Benjamin's stone. And Pharaoh mourned for his eldest son, and he was worn out with grief. And Pharaoh died at the age of one hundred and nine, and he left his crown to Joseph. And Joseph was King of Egypt for forty-eight years. And after this Joseph gave the crown to Pharaoh's grandson; and Joseph was like a father to him in Egypt."
Pharaoh Amenemhet III died in 1798 BC and JOSEPH died in 1750 BC. Amenemhet's daughter Mereret married EPHRAIM Ankhu, so their son, Amenemhet's grandson Resseneb, is also Joseph's grandson SHUTELAH as You will learn later in this Chapter. He indeed became Vizierking.
ASENATH is hieroglyphically written in old Egyptian Henu-t which is also the most famous female name in her (adoptive) father Khnumhotep's II nomarch genealogy: Henu was the grandmother of the first Oryx nome nomarch Khnumhotep. Thus Henu was the name of the Nomarch Dynasty Clan Mother of Khnumhotep II. According to Egyptologists the southern fourth wall in Beni Hasan (next big picture) shows Khnumhotep's II wife Khety sitting in front of a full offering table and her daughters are standing behind her in the same row and in the next row and there are also many further sons so they had a lot of children. Thus three of the eight daughters are standing beneath in the next line of the tomb picture and are accompanied by 18 strong young men many of them explicitly identified as sons of Khumhotep's II wife Khety. So we have one plus seven beautiful young virgins as possible daughters of Khnumhotep and Khety in the tomb picture: This matches exactly the narrative of Joseph & Asenath regarding all numbers. One of Khnumhotep's II daughters is called Tjat and has special economical talents: As a sealer, she is responsible for all valuable goods of Khnumhoteph II and is depicted with two slaves (half size) who support her work. She‘ll become later the wife of Khnumhotep IV evidenced as Lady of the House in his tomb. Khnumhotep IV is after Khnumhotep III (JOSEPH) the second adoptive son of Khnumhotep II for what reason Khnumhotep III is next to Lady Kethy‘s oldest son „nht“ also called „the eldest“ in the tomb inscriptions.
ASENUT/Henut being POTIPHAR’s/Khnumhotep’s II daughter is already evidenced in the inscription of JOSEPH‘s/Zamonth‘s sculpture (CG42.034): „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor … for the Ka of the Vizier‘s wife Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of the Sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … Priest of Amun (both titles of Khnumhotep II).“
But is there any Henut ASENATH in the tomb picture of Khnumhotep's II family?
For further confirming evidence Henut being Khnumhotep's II (adoptive) daughter, You are invited to search for the hieroglyph of her name-giving goddess Henu(-t) in form of a Pelicaniform (Pelican/Ibis/Egret) in his tomb in Beni Hassan. The following pictures show Khnumhotep’s II wife Khety with her daughters and sons: In the tomb hieroglyphs You can identify different birds (a duck represents the word ‚son‘ or ‚daughter‘) enjoy Your discovery adventure journey:
Beni Hassan Khnumhotep II Tomb South wall, west, the family of Khnumhotep II in the offering
(After Kanawati, N., Benu Hassan, pl. 139)
ASENATH'S HEBREW NAME
IN A HEBREW INSCRIPTION OF AN EGYPTIAN COPPER MINE
IN THE SINAI DESERT IN 1752 BC
In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 found as Hebrew identified oldest alphabetical inscriptions. This one was discovered in the Sinai and it says:
"The House of the Vineyard of ASENATH
and its Innermost Room were engraved.
They have come to live."
The inscription was engraved by an Israelite in the Wadi Nasb in the Sinai Desert in the strictly biblical year (see Chapter Chronology) 1752 BC ('1772' BC). This is the year of ASENATH's death in the third year before JOSEPH’s death according to AK Emmerich (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes, p.107). You can study in ASENATH's (adoptive) father POTIPHAR's tomb pictures in this Chapter how eg. Khnumhotep's II Innermost Room was engraved in order to come to live as an Egyptian burial cult act.
Sinai 376 Serabit El-Kadim (Gerster p.65):
Reading from the top right downwards
Enjoy Your Discovery Journey!
- THE 18 CHILDREN OF JOSEPH AND ASENATH -
ISRAEL'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY AND ITS PHARAO'S
- THE SHEPHERD KINGS -
(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)
According to UN estimations in 2013 about 343.000 over 100 years old persons lived on our planet and at least 3,2 million are estimated for 2050. In Germany in 1900 AD born people had the chance of 1% to get older than 100 years and in 2017 16.500 people got older than 100 years. The Bible says JOSEPH died 110 years old and the Book of Jubilees says his older brothers all died after him.
In 2017 AD in Britain, one mother had 20 children and in Uganda, one mother had 38 children, in most African countries the average number of children in a family is 5. The Bible says the average number of children of the 12 sons of Israel was 5 when they arrived in Egypt but from then on the people of Israel multiplied enormously in their time in Egypt (Genesis15:16, Exodus1:2.6:16). After the biblical 4 generations in Egypt, calculated with an average of 8 children, Israel would have numbered over 3 million people which is biblically confirmed by the number of 600.000 Hebrew men in 1606 BC who left Egypt in the Exodus.
According to the Bible JOSEPH did not have only two sons but received the most fruitful family of descendants of all his twelve brothers: In Genesis48:5.6 his father JACOB tells him that all (male) descendants, JOSEPH has begotten after JACOB had arrived in Egypt - thus after his two first sons Ephraim and Manasse were born - shall remain to belong to JOSEPH whereas his two firstborn sons shall belong to JACOB as adoptive sons: „And thy sons, that thou begettest after them, shall be thine; they shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance.“ In Genesis49:22 JACOB prophesized that JOSEPH (as a father of sons) would become the "fruitful tree at the fountain" with "daughters/twigs tendring over the wall". The female "tendring twigs of a tree" are in old Hebrew also a picture and translational option for female descendants. Thus the Bible clearly states that JOSEPH would become a father of many more children than his solely namely mentioned sons EPHRAIM and MANASSE:
According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107), ASENATH and JOSEPH would have become parents of 18 children including several twins. EPHRAIM/Ankhu and MANASSE/Senebefni or Dedu-Month Senebtefi are the only ones with biblically revealed names following Father JACOB's decision that all the other children of JOSEPH shall be counted under and called after the names of EPHRAIM and MANASSE in their inheritance share of the Promised Land according to Genesis48:6.7.
Ankhu’s mother Henut
Mother of 18 children including many twins
Now let's try to identify JOSEPH's further sons, who were enthroned by JOSEPH as Pharaohs for three to four years each after peaceful calm 20 years of the yearly rotating Pharaohs from his loyal brothers' BENYAMIN and LEVI's families:
We already found out that Wpwauthotep was a military leader of the ruler and his father Grandvizier Khnumhotep was also called ZaMonth, son of Month. Wpwauthotep most plausibly died in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jubilees46:6. Wpwauthotep's wifes were called Senebhenas and Ineh. Now we take a look at the most plausible Pharaoh for the first battle against the Canaanites already mentioned in the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology: Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. Same as Wpwauthotep he was also a military leader and "troup commander of the ruler". And he died most plausibly in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC. Finally deciding is the fact that his wives are also called Senebhenaes and nIneh like Wpwauthotep's wives so Wpwauthotep clearly has to be identified as the later Pharaoh Sobekhotep III: He was called a "Kingson" which means a son of a lifelong ruler and his father is called "Father of God's Monthhotep". Monthhotep means "the diety Month is satisfied with him" like Khnumhotep means "the deity Khnum is satisfied with him". JOSEPH's royal name and adoptive noble name Zamonth Khnumhotep as double name melted together into one name result - the name Monthhotep. Khnumhotep's wife Henut, Wpwauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III mother is also called Juhetibu. The only lifelong ruler = King of this time was according to the strict biblical chronology Grandvizier JOSEPH together with his co-ruling son Ephraim. As Viziers they are as later shown assumed by several Egyptologists to be the real ruling power behind weak Pharaohs. Pharaohs were changing down to yearly that time, so Pharaohs could not have been meant when mentioning a "King" = lifelong ruler in the 13th Dynasty. Thus only Grandvizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Ruler of Egypt could be meant as Sobekhotep's III Father and King Monthhotep. His additional title "Father of God's" reveals that he was most highly adored and hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and that he was a father of several ("godlike") Pharaohs, seen by the Egyptians as living deities. JOSEPH‘s title „Father of God’s“
is also confirming Anna Katharina Emmerich’s observation that JOSEPH’s wife ASENETH was called „Mother of God’s“ against her will by the Egyptians. We see that JOSEPH's rejection to become Pharaoh in order to avoid being worshipped as a deity didn't really work out.
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III (who has a daughter called Juhetibu like his mother) has two brothers: Seneb/Sonb (who has two daughters called Henut and Juhetibu like his mother and a son called Monthhotep like his father) and Khakau (who has a son called Khnumhotep like his father). The names of their children reveal how most plausible it is that JOSEPH's different names were Khnumhotep and Monthhotep and that his wife's ASENATH's different names were Henut and Juhetibu. Seneb/Sonb and Khakau were also both called "Kingsons" meaning their father had to be a King/ lifelong Ruler of Egypt.
ZaMonth KhnumHotep MontHotep JOSEPH died shortly after his son's Wpwauthotep's death in 1750 BC. Wpwauthotep/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep III had three "King brothers" who reigned as Pharaohs before him: The first brother is Pharaoh Imyremeshaw, who was also called a "military leader of the ruler". His sculpture is wearing a King's beard which shows his rivalry against his brother Ephraim as future heir of Kingship. The second brother is Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef, who shows the archeological evidence of all three of them being called "King brothers" and having "ten Kingsisters". And then the third and last Pharaoh before Sobekhotep III was his brother Pharaoh Seth Meribre.
Thus JOSEPH/Monthhotep and ASENATH/Henut secondly named Juhetibu had 18 archeologically confirmed children which exactly matches the already mentioned number of 18 children according to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich stating ASENETH was prophezised to become a „leading mother of many“.
Becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III, Wpwauthotep was married to Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s daughter Senebhenas. One of Sobekhotep's brothers when becoming Pharaoh was also married to one of Ankhu's/EPHRAIM‘s daughters; she was named Aya and her husband was additionally named Sobekhotep (according to Egyptologist Kim Ryholt it has to be Pharaoh Imyremeshaw or Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef). To marry his daughters with his brothers was a strategic action of EPHRAIM to keep his brothers' Pharaoh power under control and to avoid them taking over the rulership. Marrying his third brother Pharaoh Antef with his daughter Aya to better control him is most plausibly a reaction of EPHRAIM/Ankhu on the rivalry ambitions of his second brother Pharaoh Imyremeshaw which are evidenced by his sculpture's King's beard. EPHRAIM was clearly the dedicated throne heir of Kingship as Vizier and had to protect this claim. That EPHRAIM's fifth brother Sobekhotep III initiated a war against the Canaanites can also be seen as an attempt to become as a successful leader in war the next King of Egypt. His ambitions were controlled by having to take EPHRAIM's daughter Senebhenas as his second wife. Thus all in all EPHRAIM can't have been very happy with his father's decision to let his brothers co-rule as Pharaohs for several years. He must have missed the good old peaceful times of the most likely by himself invented yearly Pharaoh rotation system with his uncles and cousins as Pharaohs: This is seen in him reestablishing this yearly family rotation system after two troubled decades in his last twenty years of life.
That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became archeologically evidenced fulfilled. But his prophecy even lasted longer into the following generations as we will see in the next passage ...
Pictures: JOSEPH's 3rd son and 6th son became Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 13th Dynasty in the time before JOSEPH's death and the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur 1750 BC
('1759-1754') 1765-1760 BC:
the 3rd son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
with the King's beard as a sign of rivalry between him and his brother Crown Prince EPHRAIM
('1740-1756') 1754-1750 BC:
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III
the 6th son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
DualRelief Brooklyn Museum
Handover of the Kephresh the Blue War Crown before his war against the Canaanites
EPHRAIM'S STABILIZATION ACTIONS IN JOSEPH'S VIZIERKING DYNASTY
VIZIER ANKUH'S DAUGHTERS HAVE TO MARRY HIS PHARAOH BROTHERS
All four mentioned brothers of EPHRAIM were selected Pharaohs for one, two, or three years - selected by JOSEPH to stabilize the Dynasty and keep the Pharaoh's power weak below him as Vizierking; An additional stabilization action was the mentioned marriage of Ankhu's brothers with his own princess daughters to better stay in control regarding their ambitions. The Pharaoh's reign times of JOSEPH's and ASENATH's four sons all took place in the time before Joseph's death 1750 BC according to the Bible (Genesis30:23,50:26)/ and the Strict Bible Chronology. This is dating Sobekhotep's III death into the year of the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' according to the Book of Jubilees (evidenced by the Table at the start and the Passage at the end of this Chapter).
Three totally different Hebrew Pharaohs have been erroneously identified as Sobekhotep's III younger brothers and successors by leading Egyptologists. The reason was, they were also called "Kingsons" without an identifiable Pharaoh father. The same way also Sobekhotep III and his older brothers had a non-Pharao and thus allegedly "nonroyal" identified father. He was also called "father of gods" and not identifiable as any Pharaoh. These with Sobekhoteph III timely thrown together Pharaohs are Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV. Sobekhotep's IV as a matter of fact archeologically proved one century later rulership in the time of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan is explained later and has already begun to be discussed in Egyptology because of the new excavated challenging evidence (see Chapter Moses).
The mentioned stabilizing marriages lead to the question of how Ankhu/EPHRAIM further stabilized his rulership after his father JOSEPH's death: We find further answering indications in the names of the succeeding Pharaohs: Pharaoh Khendjer was married with Anhu's daughter and Wephauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III widow Senebhenas; And Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini is most plausibly the son of Sobekhotep III and his first wife Ini/Ineh/Neni - in this Chapter, he has already been identified on the Wephauthotep stela as Amenhotep the son of Wephauthotep which is Merhotepre Ini's pre intronization original name and Sobekhotep's III pre intronization original name.
The Hebrew word for daughter and granddaughter is the same and means female descendant and JOSEPH's granddaughters were married to JOSEPH's Pharaoh sons AND Pharaoh grandsons. That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became a second time archeologically evidenced fulfilled.
Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III pre intronization name is Wephauthotep.
He is Military Commander of his King and Father Knumhotep.
Sobekhotep III is evidenced Kingson of JOSEPH King Khnumhotep.
JOSEPH's names ZaMonth and Khnumhotep melted into Montuhotep.
JOSEPH is the father of several "godlike" Pharaohs and thus
was worshipped by Egyptians as "Father of Gods" Montuhotep.
ZaMonth, KhnumHotep, and MontuHotep are archeologically evidenced different Viziernames of one and the same Vizier
in the biblical Rulership time of JOSEPH.
Stela CGC 20102:
Vizier Zamonth (on the right) wearing the King's Beard
with his son Priest Senebefni
- JOSEPH with his son MANASSE -
Stela Inscriptions: "Stela of the prince and governor, chief of the town and Vizier Zamonthu, Zatip (son of goddess Ipy) born of the Lady .. Seneb, Daughter of Zamonth and Henut-Nu .. A sacrifice that the King gives on the part of his son whom he loves, the sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, the priest of Amun Senebefni ... The Speaker of Vizier Senwosret .. The Writer and Head of House Rensenebu, true in voice, whom Henut has born, Za-Hathor (son of Hathor), who is true in voice …
A sacrifice that the King Osiris is giving, the First of the Western, the great God, Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, Lord of the Holy Land of the death, so that they give a dead sacrifice .. Horus sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier ZaMonth (son of Month) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of Osiris), born by her, the Lady of the House."
- SENWOSRET -
ONE OF JOSEPH'S AND EPHRAIM'S ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED VIZIER NAMES
The above inscribed and two times archeologically evidenced "Speaker" of Vizier Zamonth is called Vizier Senwosret and dates Zamonth's Rulership as Vizier into the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty (1830-1770 BC: Franke Dossier Nr.526/173/492/537 & AVB S.218 f.) which is exactly the strictly biblical time of Joseph's rulership in Egypt. The start of this Chapter has already revealed that Senwosret is also one of JOSEPH's many Vizier names. This leads to the conclusion that this speaker's name is the second name of his son Vizier Ankhu EPHRAIM inherited from his father. Another Viziername in JOSEPH's Viziertime - Chety/Kethi - has been found at the Joseph's Canal/Bar Yusuph and confirms this conclusion: Ankhu's/EPHRAIM'S firstborn son is named Resseneb/SHUTELAH. Two Mayors of Lahun under Vizier Chety/Kethi are called Senwosret (year 9-24 of Amenemhet) and Khakheper-Resseneb, son of Senwosret (year 37 of Amenemhet) which are exactly the timeframes matching with JOSEPH's son and grandson being young Viziers supporting their King and Father/Grandfather: JOSEPH Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep Chety also called Senwosret had a son EPHRAIM/Ankhu also called Vizier Senwosret, who was like his own son SHUTELAH/Resseneb for some years archeologically evidenced as the Mayor of Lahun under his father JOSEPH/Chety. In the time after JOSEPH's death when EPHRAIM had become Vizierking of Egypt Pharaoh Wegaf is mentioned on a plaquette from Elephantine (Legrain 1907, p.248-275) together with a "King Senwosret". This confirms EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu Senwosret archeologically evidenced as King of Egypt - announced as such in the very time when his rival brother MANASSE's ambitious sons became Pharaohs: A good reason to clarify by inscription who is the real King above Pharaoh and Egypt as we will understand more deeply later.
JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth is archeologically evidenced
as King of Egypt.
JOSEPH King Zamonth is by Stela CGC 20102
archeologically evidenced hero-worshipped as Osiris.
JOSEPH/Zamonth, also named Khnumhotep, is under BOTH names evidenced Nobleman, Mayor of Town, Vizier, and KING.
EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu also named Vizier Senowsret
is archeologically evidenced
as KING Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf AVIEZER
The biblical time of JOSEPH's 80 years of rulership over Egypt is
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
(Genesis50:22, Jubilees46:3, CodexAthodKoutloumenos178,10,11r-13r)
The Speaker of Zamonth named Vizier Senwosret
dates Zamonth's Viziership ALSO into
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
THE 13TH DYNASTY IS A VIZIERKING'S DYNASTY
JOSEPH’S SON EPHRAIM - VIZIER ANKHU
EPHRAIM, JOSEPH'S second-born son is appointed as Co-Vizier Ankhu already under Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III honored him preferentially by calling him like he already called his father JOSEPH before: His Enlivenment = Ankh(u). He additionally honored him preferentially by giving to him his daughter Mereret as his wife. Ankhu and Mereret both had grown up together at the royal palace. Mereretis often called the King's Daughter in inscriptions. Her tomb may not have been placed directly next to her father's Pyramide for the same reason as JOSEPH's tomb: Amenemhets Pyramide lacked stability, it was built too near to the flooding Nile, which could have been the reason for Mereret having been buried near to the next pyramid, her grandfather's one. Therefore Egyptologists concluded that she would be the daughter of King Senwosret III. But among her personal adornments, there were pieces with the name of King Amenemhet III found as probable evidence for him being her real father. But Senwosret III had several wives and lived until 1819 BC so Mereret could also be his very late daughter and Amenemhet's very young sister. EPHRAIM/Ankhu was born in 1832 BC. After his Co-Rulership 1798-1750 BC with his father JOSEPH, he became the next ruling Grandvizier and King of Egypt in 1750 BC (compare Beckerath 1964, p. 98-100). While Ankhu/EPHRAIM already as Vizierprince took over more and more business, JOSEPH/Khnumhotep against his will was more and more adored and worshipped by the Egyptians as a deity, and latest after his death also by parts of his own people as we will see later. He was not only adored as their Savior out of Famine but also as a so-called Father of "God's" = as a father of "god"-like Pharaohs. And he obviously was worshipped as the deity Month, as the deity Khum and later evidenced also as the deity Osiris.
For the later decades, according to Egyptologists Vizier Ankhu is "often seen as actual real power at the royal court and is considered to be one of the most significant officials of his period and pattern example for a stable management in the 13th/14th Dynasty ..." (Rice, Michael: Who's Who in Ancient Egypt 1999 24-25 and Beckerath 1964 98-100) and "His situation illustrates, that during his period the Viziers were the real power behind weak Kings (the Pharaohs are meant). The Kings were only in power for a short period, while the Viziers remained in power for longer periods." (W.C. Hayes 1955 p. 146-47 and Helek, Geschichte, 118-119 and Junker, die Völker des Antiken Orients, 104-105). The Encyclopedia Britannica states "In government, the vizier assumed prime importance, and a single family held the office for much of a century." and "In little more than a century about 70 kings (the Pharaohs are meant) occupied the throne."
The Leading Egyptologists have up until today not realized that the quickly rotating Pharaohs of the 13th dynasty could not have been seen as so-called Kings = Lifelong Rulers of Egypt anymore and that the title King walked over to the real lifelong rulers of Egypt: Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep (JOSEPH) and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret (EPHRAIM). Ankhu implemented with his father a yearly Pharaoh Rotation System to further weaken Pharaoh's former power and to stabilize peace in this Vizierking Dynasty. In 1765-1743 BC JOSEPH and EPHRAIM tried to strengthen the Vizierkingship by appointing JOSEPH's sons as Pharaohs and by marrying them with their brother EPHRAIM's daughters. That these mariages were necessary is shown by the King's beard of JOSEPH's third son Pharaoh Imyremeshaw: It's signalizing the claim to the King's dignity towards his brother EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's heir of Kingship. JOSEPH dies shortly after the death of his sixth son Wepwauthotep/Pharaoh Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites in The Valley of Assur. EPHRAIM evidenced continued as new Vizierking the Pharaoh succession traditions by electing further grandsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs until his own death after the 'Hyksos' Invasion 1726 BC (see Chapter Moses).
When EPHRAIM/Ankhu had married Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereret in his younger years, he became the father of his two biblical sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1Chr7:20). SHUTELAH was EPHRAIM‘s first born son and announced as Vizier after JOSEPH‘s death. BERIAH was EPHRAIM’s fourth born son and announced after MANASSE’s clan had returned from Avaris to Thebes as we will learn to understand later. Their Egyptian Vizier names are Resseneb and Iymeru Aya or Ayameru as we will see later. As we will also see later, the 13th Dynasty - JOSPEH's Vizierking Dynasty - went over into the Southern 16th Dynasty after the 'Hyksos' Invasion and conquest of Avaris and the flight of the 13th Dynasty Roayl Clan to Thebes.
EPHRAIM's/Ankhu's both sons and his grandson later ruled as Vizierkings over the 16th and 17th Dynasty. This great future of EPHRAIM and his seed was prophecied by his forefather JACOB before he died in Genesis48:19 and finds its echoes in the time of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt in form of an archeologically evidenced "Ankhu's office" in Southern Thebes (see chapter Moses). Thus for over one complete century until at least the 'Hyksos Invasion' in 1729 BC, JOSEPH and EPHRAIM obviously had a striking influence on the selection of Pharaohs and EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH were trying to continue this tradition in Thebes as later shown in Chapter Moses. The often by egyptologists so-called "nonroyal" ancestry of Pharaohs and their Semitic names also reveal that they were selected - as leading egyptologists more and more realized. A yearly Pharaoh selection and rotation system also explains the seemingly intransparent reign times and the minimum of spectacular reign attributes, monuments, and building projects in the 13th Dynasty:
"Ludwig Morenz believes that Dedumose's stele text 'acclaimed to the kingship'
may confirm the controversial idea of Eduard Meyer that certain Pharaos were elected to office."
"It is generally held that the viziers dominated the kings during the Thirteen Dynasty and held the actual power. It has even been suggested that there was a kind of selective kingship where the administration installed and removed the kings at will.“
(Kim Ryholt 1997, The Second Intermediate Period, page 283)
„There are strong grounds for regarding the hereditary principle of royal succession as having thoroughly broken down during the Thirteenth Dynasty, with continuity of government vested, for at least part of the time, in a family of viziers.“
(Barry Kemp, in Trigger et al., A Social History, 154)
„However, since the administration remains unaffected and its head, the vizier, forms a stable pole in the change of kings, one could think that the administration now appoints and deposes the kings.“ (Wolfgang Helck, Geschichte, pages 118-119)
„Families of civil servants slowly form through hereditary offices, which gain more and more influence through marriage politics until they surpass the royal family in power. ... Finally, the families of civil servants appoint members of their class as Kings.”
(Wolfgang Helck, Politische Gegensätze, page 41)
According to Ryholt - who disagrees with these positions - the suggestion of selective kingship during the Second Intermediate Period goes back to Junker.
(Herrmann Junker - Delaporte, Die Völker des Antiken Orients, pages 104-105).
According to David Rohl, Ankhu was archeologically evidenced contemporary called pa-Aam which means "Eastern Semite" or according to Egyptologists‘ encoding "Asiatic" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58). In his book "The Exodus" he secondly finds out that an "Aamu" = an Eastern Semite "Kui" was archeologically evidenced contemporary called "Resseneb" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58). That are two striking indications that Vizier Ankhu and his son Vizier Resseneb - and thus also Ankhu‘s father Vizier Zamonth - are archeologically evidenced Semites; Today the mother’s lineage is the deciding lineage but in JOSEPH‘s time the father’s line was the deciding lineage evidenced in the Bible.
JOSEPH'S BROTHER BENYAMIN
AND THE FIRST PHARAOS OF THE 13TH DYNASTY
-THE FIRST SHEPHERD KINGS -
(The reader is invited to use the Chronology of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)
As we have already seen JOSEPH's further sons can be evidenced identified as Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. This finally leads to the question, if the way of stabilizing JOSEPH's Vizierking Dynasty by announcing family members as Pharaohs may already have been originally initiated directly after Pharaoh Amenemhat‘s III death. Genesis50:22 (together with Jubilees46:3 and Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) reveals that JOSEPH ruled over complete Egypt for 80 years. He is archeologically matching Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later called Month(u)hotep:
The Story of Joseph & Asenath states that "Pharaoh left his DOMINION and his CROWN of the KINGDOM to JOSEPH and died.": In the ancient Hebrew Story of Joseph & Asenath originated in Egypt (http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm) JOSEPH's only full blood brother of the same mother RACHEL BENYAMIN and his half brother LEVI - both sons of Father JACOB - are described as JOSEPH's most beloved and trusted brothers. His brothers DAN and GAD and Pharaoh Amenemhat's III predeceased son are described as having the deadly worst relationship to JOSEPH: Amenemhat's III only blood son would not only have tried to kill JOSEPH as his foreign throne and marriage rival but he even would also have tried to kill his own father who had chosen JOSEPH to continue his rulership over Egypt after his death. So his memory would most plausibly have been fully deleted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III after his son's failed murder attempt and his own violent death. Thus JOSEPH's biblically evidenced beloved only full-blood brother BENYAMIN would be the most trustful and best candidate for JOSEPH to be appointed as the first Pharaoh succeeding Amenemhet III. And indeed, according to The Story of Joseph & Asenath Pharaoh Amenemhet III obviously agreed fully with this idea because he adopted BENYAMIN as Amenemhet IV and taught him in a co-reign phase how to behave as a Pharaoh. Leading Egyptologist for this time period Kim Ryholt confirms Amenemhat IV does not seem to have been a blood son of Amenemhat III because of his non-queen mother and because Amenemhet‘s III Kingdaughter and later Queen Nofrusobek's inscriptions were ignoring his existence. This is also clear archeological evidence for the rivalry Joseph had to handle somehow between Nofrusobek as blood daughter of Pharaoh and Benyamin Amenemhet IV as the by Pharaoh chosen heir. Amenemhat's III daughter Nofruptah died before her father died. She is the Egyptologists' discussed wife of Amenemhat IV who would have become by this way also the adopted son-in-law of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. According to the Book of Jubilees 34:20, BENYAMIN indeed married in Egypt an Egyptian woman. In The Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) BENYAMIN is described as an 18-year-old "sturdy lad indescribably handsome and as strong as a young lion". This description is precisely confirmed by the picture of BENYAMIN in Khnumhotep's II grave in Beni Hassan already analyzed in this Chapter. And indeed, Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced to Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) family (Vallogia, RdE21, 109-113) and is identified by leading Egyptologist Kim Ryholt as Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) "Uncle" (Kim Ryholt 1997 p. 209-211)!
Pictures: JOSEPH's brothers/ EPHRAIM's uncles BENYAMIN and LEVI
become Pharaohs/ Shepherd Kings and Fathers of Shepherd Kings
Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's brother BENYAMIN with Hebrew beard 20 years before he became Pharaoh
BENYAMIN/ Pharaoh Amenemhet IV, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard as token for lifelong highest rulership
Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's half brother LEVI with Hebrew beard 38 years before he became Pharaoh
LEVI/ Pharaoh Amenemhet V, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard, the token for lifelong highest rulership
Vizier Ankhu and his son Resseneb and therefore also his father Zamonth are archeologically evidenced Semites.
Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced
to Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) family
and is identified by leading Egyptologist Kim Ryholt
as Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) UNCLE
This means BENYAMIN was the first Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty named Amenemhet IV by his adoptive father-in-law Amenemhet III.
Being Ankhu’s uncle he was an archeologically evidenced Semite. BENYAMIN was JOSEPH's only full-blood brother.
14 following Pharaohs are all archeologically evidenced Semites as members of Amenemhat's IV & Ankhu's (BENYAMIN's & EPHRAIM's) family clan.
(all marked with * in the table at the start of this Chapter)
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED HEBREW SHEPHERD KINGS OF THE 13TH DYNASTY
- JOSEPH'S AND EPHRAIM'S HEKASHASUT FAMILY CLAN -
After the by Egyptologists so-called last 12th Dynasty Pharaohs Amenemhat IV (BENYAMIN) and Amenemhat's III daughter Sobekneferu, the following Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I is the first so-called Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. He and following Pharaoh Sonbef are regarded by Kim Ryholt and other leading Egyptologists, including Darrel Baker, as sons of Amenemhat IV (BENYAMIN) (Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC, Stacey International 2008).
This leads to further Hebrew Pharaoh candidates and their Biblical descendants shown in brackets in the table "JOSEPH's Pharaohs - the 13th Dynasty Pharaohs" at the start of this Chapter and in the table "MOSES' Pharaohs" at the start of Chapter Moses. At the end of every Chapter, You find a table of the Genealogy of Israel in Egypt with an overview table of the most relevant key players of the ruling lineage of Israel in Egypt.
In the Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) JOSEPH's brother LEVI is the one he most trusted besides Benjamin and Kim Ryholt's Chronology of Pharaohs (at the start of Chapter Joseph) reveals that all other here yet unclarified Pharaos are family members of the lineage of Amenemhat V who thus most plausibly must be LEVI. All in all, the reader will find sufficient evidence in this work to most plausibly realize that all Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty were Israelites and that JOSEPH and EPHRAIM were the only real Kings in the meaning of Lifelong Rulers of Egypt in the 13th Dynasty.
This work is revealing on and on that the 13th Dynasty of Egypt is as a matter of fact Israel's Dynasty over Egypt. For Egyptology, it may stay a riddle but for the Egyptians, in that time this rulership was even not a behind-the-scenes but a well-known Amenemhet III ordered rulership of their Savior out of Famine over all Egyptians until his death and beyond. Also, Egyptologists' convincement that over 30 rotating Pharaohs in less than 50 years were respected as and called Kings/ Lifelong Rulers is by no means plausible.
This all sheds a totally new light on the title HekaShasut/Hyksos - translated as "Shepherd Kings" of Egypt in nearly all relevant ancient writings and identified by the historian Manetho as Hebrews. Let us now look a second time on this title like we did already do at the end of Chapter Hyksos:
The first known instance of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings called HekaShasut is an inscription in the Beni Hasan tomb and the only statue of a Semitic Foreign Ruler at all in Avaris - both of the end of the 19th century. The second known instance of the HekaShasut as Hebrew Shepherd Kings are the three Hebrew Pharaoh names Siharnedjheritef, Wegaf, and Khendjer in the 13th Dynasty. The third known instance of the HekaShasut - this time not by the Egyptians but only by themselves appointed as 'Hyksos' - is attested on Scarabs of the Canaanite Nile Delta 14th Dynasty. The fourth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is Manetho's description of the Hyksos and scarabs and inscriptions confirming Hyksos as Canaanite self appointed Northern Pharaoh title of the 15th Dynasty. The Canaanites were soldiers instead of shepherds so the meaning of HekaShasut became reduced to the general translation Foreign Kings time after time. Another reason is the growing generalized Egyptian hate against all eastern foreigners having overrun complete Egypt in the time of the 15th Dynasty and parallel 16th/17th Dynasty. Canaanite and Hebrew Semites are less and less differentiated by Egyptians, they have all become hated foreigners. The fifth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in Sextus Julius Africanus's epitome of Manetho for the rulers of the Southern 16th Dynasty of Thebes: They are identified by Manetho (in Josephus) as Hebrew Shepherd Kings. The sixth known indication of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in the Southern 17th Dynasty of Thebes: In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is also given the title Hyksos, a fact which a second time confirms that Manetho like the Egyptians after the Exodus of Israel and the Expulsion of the Canaanites did less and less differentiate between Canaanites and Hebrews as Semites; Life was much easier when trying to forget the Ten Plagues and their responsibility for the Enslavement of their Savior's people and when only remembering an Expulsion of all hated Foreigners by the victorious Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Moses). Finally the only unambiguously evidenced EGYPTIAN Pharaohs of the complete Second Intermediate Period are the Ahmosides of the last thirty years of the 17th Dynasty.
Pictures: Pharaohs of the first and last Phase of the 13th Dynasty - Hebrew Shepherd Kings
Pharaoh Sobekhotep I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son/
BENJAMIN's 1st son BELA
without the King's beard as a token for lifelong highest rulership but with the crown of Southern Egypt proclaiming against MANASSE Senebefni Mayor of Thebes Pharao‘s rulership over Thebes and Southern Egypt
Pharaoh Hor I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son/
BENJAMIN's 9th son IR
His later added King's beard is most probably from his grandson Hor II who like his predecessor Ined stood in rivalry against the new Vizierkingship of Ankhu EPHRAIM
Pharaoh Ined is
JOSEPH's or BENJAMIN's grandson; The King's beard reveals the growing rivalry of Pharaohs against the new Vizierkingship of Ankhu EPHRAIM
JOSEPH'S DEATH AND MANASSE'S BIRTHRIGHT CLAIMS
- MANASSE'S SONS BECOME PHARAOS UNDER EPHRAIM/ VIZIERKING ANKHU -
(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)
We have learned already that JOSEPH's brothers BENYAMIN and LEVI and their sons and grandsons were elected as yearly rotating Pharaohs to stabilize JOSEPH's Vizier Kingship Dynasty. And after 20 years JOSEPH's further younger sons had reached the age to claim their rights as Kingsons to become Pharaohs so until JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM's brothers co-ruled as Shepherd Kings over Egypt. EPHRAIM had to take care of his throne rights as the next Vizierking. The Bible mentions only two further sons of EPHRAIM in 1Chr7:21 called ESER and ELEAD, who had been killed by JOSEPH's brother GAD's descendants in Egypt, thus EPHRAIM/Ankhu had no further sons to enthrone them as Pharaos like his father JOSEPH did.
According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's sons are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7. Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua17 corrected a little bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Thus MANASSE would have had five sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. Before this official marriage MANASSE lived unofficially together with an Aramean concubine, therefore his firstborn son was a biblically illegitimate son and therefore in spite of being the firstborn he didn’t receive from his father MANASSE the firstborn rights which reminds us on MANASSE‘s own story regarding his firstborn rights. His name is MACHIR (1Chr7:14). He became a commander of troups named Nehy and most likely died in the first war against the Canaanite Hyksos. His widow was called Senebtisy. She was remarried with JOSEPH‘s son SHUTELAH Vizier Resseneb after MACHIR‘s death. MACHIR‘s lineage will play a deciding part in the later history of Manetho’s so called Hebrew Shepherd Kings and in the rivalry between EPHRAIM‘s and MANASSE‘s lineage …
After JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM did not appoint his further brothers and Kingsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs anymore. The Canaanites didn't stay in Assur after having killed EPHRAIM's brother Wpwauhotep/Sobekhotep III and after having defeated his Egyptian army: They instead chased after them and tried to conquer Avaris and invade Egypt. Thus EPHRAIM needed the help of his because of idolatry "exiled" brother MANASSE from Southern Thebes, who must have visited Avaris with his family clan to take part in the funeral ceremonies for MANASSE's deceased son MACHIR, his deceased brother Wpwauhotep and his deceased father JOSEPH. That time MANASSE's son AVIEZER was the "Big Chief of Troups" of MANASSE's southern army which is evidenced by a scarab (Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches Teil II: Die sogenannte “Zweite Zwischenzeit” Altägyptens. In: Orientalia. Nove Series. Band 57, Nr. 3, 1988, S. 249, Nr. 5.) so AVIEZER was enthroned by EPHRAIM/Ankhu as Pharao Wegaf to defend Avaris against the invading Canaanites. This explains the Book of Jubilees telling in 46:6 "And he (Makamaron) killed him (Sobekhotep III) there and chased after the Egyptians until he reached the Gate of Ermon (Heropolis). And he was not able to enter because a second new King (Wegaf) was King for Egypt and he was stronger than him ...".
MANASSE's second and third son AVIEZER/Wegaf and HELEQ/Khendjer are archeologically seen as the most significant Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty because of their striking building activities and their longest reign times (still only 2,3 and 4,5 years): Both facts show their attempts to break the traditions of the yearly Pharaoh rotation system under new Vizierking Ankhu/EPHRAIM in order to occupy the throne of Kingship as Pharaohs. Their Hebrew origin is shown by their Semitic Pharaoh names. Thebes or at least Southern Egypt is their original home which is archeologically confirmed by the Southern locations of most of their archeological footprints: Karnak, Elephantine, and Abydos. EPHRAIM as Vizierking seemed to have enough power to change the Pharaoh 2,3 years after AVIEZER/Wegaf had besieged the Canaanites but he also seemed to have been still dependant on the military power of MANASSE's Southern clan so that he had to enthrone as Pharaoh a further son of MANASSE: To ensure better control over MANASSE's son HELEQ, Ankhu/EPHRAIM did give his daughter Senebhenas - widow of his brother Wephauthotep/ Sobekhotep III and experienced as a wife with controlling tasks - to his nephew HELEQ, named by King Senwosret-Ankhu Pharaoh Khendjer. MANASSE and EPHRAIM are archeologically evidenced looking after MANASSE's son's ambitious idolatrous Pyramide building project namely as "Chamberlains of the Palace Senebtefi and Ameny". MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Culture & Idolatryis evidenced in AVIEZER's/Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen and in HELEQ's/Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple: Osiris was the incarnation of the King in his afterlife so this indicates the probably already begun Egyptian AND Hebrew hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH after his death as the deity Osiris. With his Pyramide, HELEQ/Khendjer was preparing himself as a Half-Egyptian for his afterlife as a "godlike Pharaoh" in the eyes of the Egyptians. This shows how in contrast to EPHRAIM and his lineage, MANASSE and his lineage quickly became rather Egyptian than Hebrew. Many donations in the form of deity statues for the temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into this pattern of evidence for idolatry going through the complete lineage of MANASSE as later shown in this Chapter and also in Chapter Moses. Like AVIEZER, MANASSE's third son HELEQ also received as Pharaoh through his g'dfearing uncle EPHRAIM/Ankhu a Semitic Pharaoh name: Not only in order to be reminded of being Hebrews instead of Egyptians: "hnzr" - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - is the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater. This is a further strong indicator of the tension field between MANASSE's family trying to assimilate as Egyptians and worshipping Egyptian idols and EPHRAIM and his family at least trying to stay Hebrews and more or less loyal to the one G'd of their fathers ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB. It also explains the striking absence of typical Egyptian pharaonic insignias and temples in the 13th Dynasty with the exception of the time of MANASSE's sons as Pharaohs. The fourth son of MANASSE following in the footsteps of his brothers is ASRIEL. He is the next Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw, whose second Egyptian name Ibiaw is also the second Egyptian name of his father MANASSE/Senebefni Ibiaw. Pharaoh Ibiaw only reigns for one year like all his following successors which means the yearly Pharaoh rotation system had been reestablished successfully again by EPHRAIM/ Vizierking Senwosret-Ankhu also called Ameny-Ankhu (as already explained JOSEPH and EPHRAIM both were called Ankh = Enlivement towards by their original Pharaohkings Senwosret & Amenemhat). This is also an indication for EPHRAIM meanwhile having established again a sufficient strong own military force after their defeat against the Canaanites. The Canaanites meanwhile hadn't gone back to Assur after having failed to invade Egypt. Instead, they stayed in the Nile Delta and established the so-called 14th Dynasty of Egypt.
The successor of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw‘s sons AVIEZER/Wegaf, HELEQ/Khendjer is called Wahibre Ibiaw. Pharaoh Ibiaw must be Vizier Ibiaw/ MANASSE himself because his exceptionally long Turin List ruling time is fitting best to MANASSE‘s rest Vizier ruling time until his death 1743 BC. He must have been appointed by his brother EPHRAIM in order to end the rulership time of MANASSE‘s second youngest son HEPHER/ Pharaoh Khendjer after his Pyramid building project was finished. After 7 years EPHRAIM‘s/ Vizierking Ankhu’s army had become reenforced enough to reintroduce the former yearly Pharaoh rotation system thus establishing MANASSE as Pharaoh must have been a mixture between a recognition for his help against the Canaanites 1750 BC and farewell gift because MANASSE‘s family clan returned afterwards to Thebes. The already established 16th Dynasty of Thebes since 1750 BC and probably also the Abydos Dynasty - as a second attempt of MANASSE to take over the throne over Egypt 1750-1729 BC - is recognizable through the fact that the following Pharaoh Merneferre Aya is identified by Egyptologists as the last Pharaoh of Upper & Lower Egypt together.
Pharaoh Merneferre Aya must be EPHRAIM’s son BERIAH Vizier Imeru Aya/ Ayamerew because his exceptionally long Turin List ruling time of 24 years is fitting roughly to BERIAH‘s rest Viziership time until his Kingship over the 16th Dynasty. He must have been appointed by EPHRAIM to strengthen his royal house against MANASSE‘s proclaimed Southern Pharaoh‘s and Viziers of Thebes and to reintroduce the Pharaoh rotation system with a candidate most loyal to him - his son.
The next following Pharaoh shows strong indications for being a further nephew of EPHRAIM/ Ankhu - as son of his former Pharaoh brother: Pharaoh Merhotepre Heni is most plausible a candidates for being the son of EPHRAIM's brothers' Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III wife Heni.
Pharaoh Merneferre-Aya is the last archeologically evidenced Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt which means following Pharaoh Merhotepre-Heni has already an official counter Pharaoh in Thebes claiming the rulership over Southern Egypt as a reaction to MANASSE's clan having returned to Thebes because of their failed attempts to achieve the Kingship over Egypt and because of EPHRAIM's/Ankhu's re-establishment of the traditional yearly Pharaoh rotating system.
This does mean simultaneously to the 13th Dynasty the 16th Dynasty of Thebes already started after JOSEPH‘s death in 1750 BC as an attempt of establishing two Kingdoms under the rulership of MANASSE's clan. 1742 BC - as soon as MANASSE and his sons in Northern Egypt realized that their attempts to take over the rulership had failed - they decided to return to Thebes. Meanwhile, MANASSE‘s third son HELEQ (Jos17:2) as the successor of his father in his role as Vizier & Mayor of Thebes will have announced himself additionally as Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt before his returning brothers were able to proclaim this title for themselves: Vizier Senebhenef - MANASSE's third son HELEQ - became Thebe’s Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep VIII for 16 reign years, which is the second longest safely evidenced reign time of any Pharaoh in the Second Intermediate Period.
Picture: MANASSE's second youngest son HEPHER (Jos17:2) becomes Pharaoh Khendjer. Khendjer has to marry EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's daughter the widow Senebhenas in order to be under better control. His name Khendjer is Semitic according to Kim Ryholt and his reign time of 4,5 years is the longest one of the 13th Dynasty, which shows his ambitions to achieve Kingship power. EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's answer on his kingship ambitions and his idolatry and his attempts to appear as an Egyptian is naming him by his Hebrew throne name as a wild pig: He is named Khendjer which means „Boar“. To better understand the history of MANASSE‘s tribe and lineage in Egypt the reader has to realize that changing one’s own religious identification is the most striking evidence for identifying oneself more with the people of the foreign country than with one’s own people. So MANASSE and his descendants considered themselves primarily as Egyptians as we will see also in Chapter Moses; Even the Bible treats their Pharaohs more than Egyptians than Israelites because they indeed had become primarily Egyptians. After taking over the foreign religion taking over the foreign language as one’s own mother tongue is a second typical evidence of changing one’s identity: So we have to assume that MANASSE‘s sons, grandsons and great grandsons only spoke Egyptian and even didn’t understand Hewbrew. Khendjer‘s second prenomen was Nimaatre which is Egyptian but the Hebrew King EPHRAIM ensured that he was officially and thus primarily named Boar/Khendjer.
MANASSE'S LINEAGE AND THEIR RETURN FROM THE NORTH TO THEBES
AFTER THEIR FIRST ATTEMPTS TO ACHIEVE THE KINGSHIP
- THE FIRST PHARAOHS OF THE 16TH DYNASTY OF THEBES -
MANASSE had five sons with an Egyptian wife who is not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. His first son AVIEZER decided to be a warrior and became an archeologically evidenced officer of the town regiment of Thebes before his coronation as Pharaoh Wegaf. His coronation is also a most plausible reconciliation of EPHRAIM with his twin brother MANASSE after Sobekhotep‘s III JOSEPH's death, Wegaf did successfully avoid the Canaanite Hyksos invasion attempt 1750 BC. The second youngest son of MANASSE was called HEPHER and is the most plausible candidate for the second Pharaoh after JOSEPH's death Pharaoh Khendjer if You take a look at his sculpture. According to the Bible, the three first sons had no own sons in contrast to their further two brothers archeologically confirmed by HELEQ‘s Senebhenef’s son in law becoming Pharaoh under him in Thebes. Identifying MANASSE's second Viziername Ibiaw led to the identification of two further Pharaohs from his family: Khendjer's successor is called Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw. He is MANASSE's (Senebefni Ibiaw's) biblical son ASRIEL.
According to Kim Ryholt, the first Pharaoh of the next 16th Dynasty in Thebes (see Chapter Moses) was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti. Djehuti was Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty of Southern Egpyt after 1750 BC and before MANASSE's clan returned from the North to Thebes after the Pharaoh's reigns of Wegaf and Khendjer and after having rejected the reinstallation of yearly rotating Pharaohs by EPHRAIM. EPHRAIM's reason for this must have been attempts of MANASSE's sons to take over the kingship claiming MANASSE's original rights as the firstborn, which are indicated by the huge building projects of Pharaoh Khendjer (HEPHER) and his over average long reign time.
Thebes had been ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier. His Co-Vizier and successor was his biblical son HELEQ called Vizier Senebhenef, who must have been ruling over Thebes while his father and brothers tried to take over the rulership in the North. Pharaoh Djehuti was the son-in-law of Vizier Senebhenef (HELEQ) and only co-ruled for a year in Thebes. Before MANASSE's clan returned to Thebes because of EPHRAIM's re-institutionalization of yearly rotating Pharaohs HELEQ shows Mannasse’s clan’s claims of original righteous Kingship by his additionally to his Viziertitle announced title as Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII. This is also a clear message of MANASSE's lineage to EPHRAIM not accepting the 13th Dynasty anymore by founding their own Southern Dynasty in Thebes - the 16th Dynasty. It is also a probable empowerment insurance of HELEQ against his from the North returning brothers and Ex-Pharaohs over Egypt. This all happened between JOSEPH's death and the Hyksos Invasion. Thus from around 1750-1729 BC the 13th and 16th Dynasties co-existed in parallel. Further attempts of MANASSE‘s lineage to achieve more power are probably evidenced in the upcoming obscure Abydos Dynasty 1750-1730 BC which ended with the Canaanite Hyksos war against Southern Egypt.
The Bible mentions in 1Chr7:14 also an Aramean concubine as the second wife of MANASSE; Her illegitimate son is biblically called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons are PERESH and SHERESH, their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, which is the region their later tribes lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM. ULAM had a son called BEDAN. They will be all identified as Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage in Chapter Moses. ULAM/Sobekhotep IV, son of PERESH/Haankhef was a grandson of MACHIR/Nehy who according to all explained archeologically evidenced strong indications in Chapter Moses must have been the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE. This lineage will further on show strong ambitions for claimed power in rivalry to EPHRAIM's lineage as we will see later on in Chapter Moses.
The last part of this Chapter deals about the primarily Egyptian idolatry of Israel in Egypt, the biblical main reason for their following afflictions first of all the Enslavement of Israel in Egypt.
The chaotic inflationary mingling of idols in their development is a phenomenon of the complete history of Egyptian idolatry. It is called Syncretism and makes it hard for the reader not to get lost in the complex chaotic djungel of Egyptian idolatry. Stay brave. It’s worth it. The fruits are sweet.
Brooklyn Museum Sculpture:
JOSEPH‘s son MANASSE?
While Stela CGC 20102 showing Zamonth with his son Senebefni has already been presented in this Chapter some passages before - this is a sculpture leaving some questions open mostly answered in the next passages:
JOSEPH told his family to say to Pharaoh “‘Your servants are pastors of honor, from our infancy even to the present time, both we and our fathers.' Now you will say this so that you may be able to live in the land of Goshen, because the Egyptians detest all pastors of sheep." (Genesis 46:34 CPDV) and Senwosret‘s III son Pharao Amenemhet III told JOSEPH „… the land of Egypt lies before you. Have your father and brothers live on the best property in the country — let them live in the land of Goshen.“ (Genenis47:6 CJB) „and if thou knowest any ‚anshei chayil‘ particularly competent among them, then appoint them ‚sarei mikneh‘ Royal Overseers/ Controllers of livestock of mine.“ (Compare Genesis/ Bereshis47:6 TOJB2011 The Orthodox Jewish Bible)
That happened 1821 BC when ISRAEL arrived in Egypt. That’s in the time when this statue must have been manufactured.
JOSEPH as Vizierking was named Senwosret Ankh (Zaphenat p’Aneach) by Pharaoh and also his son EPHRAIM was named Senwosret Ankhu by Pharaoh so most plausibly also his elder twin brother MANASSE would have been named Senwosret Senebefni and the name Senebefni is only two times evidenced in the complete Egyptian history: on the stela and on this sculpture. The inscription is most plausibly read as him being appointed by Pharaoh the King through a sacrificial offering as the Chief of the Royal Cattle Counters/ Controllers which is matching exactly the biblical account.
Another figure was added: a small image of Itneferu-Seneb, daughter of Nebetka, likely Senwosret-Senebefni’s MANASSE’s Egyptian second wife. There’s only left the unclear first letter „F“ or „N“ of his mother’s name (F = snake & N = waves are often confused) which could be the „N“ in Henut‘s prename Neferu. Senebefni‘s „brother“ Ankhu is consistently called his „head“ on the sculpture but he is named here „Redi Ni Ptah“ which leads to the question if this is another name of Ankhu in his younger years. In the inscription Senebefni’s father is given a deity’s name: Dedwen/Dedun (confusable with Dedef or Dedet). And the mentioned King - probably Pharaoh Amenemhet III - delivers sacrificial offerings to the deity Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.
Dedwen/Dedun was the foreign deity in Egypt and the patron of foreign kings: He was considered the representative of the south (Nubia) and brought the Egyptian King or Pharaoh the people and treasures from this area which is exactly what Zamonth (JOSEPH) became to be and archeologically evidenced did do in Amenemhet’s III 6th/9th reign year. Dedwen/Dedun was feared as deity destroying by fire all other deities. He was melted together with OSIRIS into one syncretic deity.
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris is a syncretism. Ptah is like OSIRIS a creator deity of green skin holding the ankh, a was sceptre and the djed, a backbone for stability. Ptah is like Khnum, Month, Amun and Osiris also incarnated in Apis the Bull. With his King’s beard he was often visually co-ruling together with the King of Egypt or with the current most popular King of deities. This mirrors the relationship of Amenemhet III with Zamonth/JOSEPH - the only Vizier ever shown with a King’s beard - and also of Vizierprince Ankhu/EPHRAIM with Vizierking Zamonth/JOSEPH. Sokar represents the anguished cry from OSIRIS to his wife ISIS „Sykri“ meaning „Hurry to me“. The relationship of JOSEPH’s wife ASENATH with ISIS and the relations of all mentioned idols with JOSEPH will be unveiled in the next passages …
1. Amun-Ra as Bull with a Ram‘s Head
2. Aten the Sun worshipped by Akhenaten‘s wife Nefertiti
JOSEPH'S SON MANASSE
NAMED VIZIER ZAMONTH’S SON SENEBEFNI
UNVEILED AS THE INITIATOR OF
„THE EGYPTIAN ORIGIN OF MONOTHEISM“
JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE and his brother EPHRAIM, according to Rabbinical Seder Hadorot 2233 were born as (probably dizygotic) twins. According to the Strict Chronology there year of birth was 1824 BC. MANASSE was announced by his father JOSEPH (Zamonth) as evidenced Vizier Dewden-/Dedu(n)- Month Senebtefi. Dewden/Dedun is a foreign deity (from Nubia) and the patron of Foreign Kings: He was considered the representative of the south (Nubia) and brought the Egyptian King or Pharaoh the people and treasures from the foreign country. This alltogether is exactly what Zamonth (JOSEPH) became and archeologically evidenced did do in Amenemhet’s III 6th/9th reign year.
Before his grandfather JACOB's death in 1804 BC MANASSE - 20 years old and grown up in the expectation of all privileged rights of a firstborn son - was suddenly set behind his younger brother EPHRAIM by his grandfather JACOB's blessings (Genesis48:14). And it was EPHRAIM - not MANASSE - who was given Pharaoh‘s (Amenemhet III) daughter Mereret and who was treated as the most by G'd blessed one and future Vizierking Ankhu by his father JOSEPH (Zamonth). MANASSE - suffering under this decision - decided to follow in his mother ASENATH's/ Henut's and adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's former footsteps and became „Senebefni Priest of AMUN in Thebes“. His second Viziername in his older years was Ibiaw. He is also archeologically evidenced as Mayor of Thebes. His titles Royal Sealer and Priest of Amun are partly archeologically confirmed inherited from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II: ("his grandfather also held the title Priest of Amun", Grajetzki Court Officials p.98). JOSEPH‘s/ Zamonth‘s statue CG42034 inscription reveals that his wife ASENATH/ Henut(-pu) is the „daughter of the King‘s Sealer … (and) Priest of Amun“ whom we have already evidenced identified as Khnumhotep II. Meanwhile, POTIPHAR/ Knumhotep II and his (adoptive) daughter ASENATH/ Henut had converted to the G'D of Israel according to The Story of Joseph and Asenath and also according to Anna Katharina Emmerich (1882, Secrets of the old and new Covenant p.107).
The appointment as Vizier, Royal Sealer, Priest of Amun and Mayor of the town of Thebes by a King started as historical combination with Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw (MANASSE) and was bequethed in his lineage: his grandson Haankhef (PERESH) shows striking indications for having been Priest of AMUN: His son Sobekhotep IV (ULAM) evidenced grew up in the Temple of AMUN. In the New Kingdom it became from Pharaoh Ahmose I on common practice that the Theban Priest of Amun was appointed by the King and several Priests of Amun in Thebes were also announced as Viziers in the following centuries.
AMUN was worshipped as invisible creator, highest father deity, and as deity of the herds, shepherds, and grasslands wearing a sheep ram's head he inherited syncretistically from the deity KHNUM who was one of the name-giving deities for JOSEPH's Egyptian names (Khnumhotep III). In MANASSE‘s and his descendants‘ lifetime as Priest of Amun "Amun's position as King of Deities developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other deities became manifestations of him." MANASSE‘s introduction of an Egyptian semi-monotheism around AMUN was a syncretism and counter religion of his former original Hebrew faith he fell away from: the cult around AMUN was archeologically evidenced proceeded by MANASSE's lineage in the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty and found it’s official institutional establishment as a state religion under Ahmose I.
Further syncretisms of AMUN can be seen in Amun having melted with and replacing Thebes‘ patron deity MONTH (JOSEPH was hero-worshipped as Son of Month and Month himself as we will learn later). MONTH in his manifestation of the sun deity Ra was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc and later also manifested as a black snouted bull. This makes Amun and Month the most likely main male deities of the Hebrew idolatry in Egypt - mixed with Baal the highest Canaanite deity: Baal and his wife Baalat were like Hathor also associated with a bull/cow and Hathor mixed with Isis became the most popular female deity of Hebrew idolatry as we will later see.
Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry around Baal/Seth. Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non-evidenced non-existing years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology) and because of the unsafe excavation layer datings of Avaris the author proposes a Seth Temple construction date after 1729 BC, which is the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, as correctly revealed by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would also confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction.
JOSEPH's/ Zamonth's son MANASSE/ Senebefni was a Royal Sealer and Priest like his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep. As Priest of Amun in Thebes, he is also evidenced as Mayor of Thebes and had an essential impact on the religious traditions of the tribe of MANASSE - they were the most Egyptianised Hebrews and always lived in Southern Egypt. Thus they were most probably spared of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt; the Island Elephantine in Southern Egypt will remain a melting pot for Hebrew Idolatry up until the 5th to 1st century BC as we will see later.
In the 17th Dynasty there was a family clan of three generations around a so-called Royal Sealer Haankhef. He was biblically called PERESH and was the firstborn son of MACHIR, who was the firstborn son of MANASSE. His alteady mentioned family was like his grandfather especially attached to the cult of AMUN (Ryholt 1997 p. 226): Haankhef's third son was MOSES' stepfather ULAM. He became Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV (1666-1648 BC) after he grew up as a boy in the Temple of AMUN in Thebes. He mentions on a stela placed in the temple of Amun: "I saw the vigor his majesty (AMUN) at every single feast when I was a child who could not yet conceive." According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226) this archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's/ Sobkehotep's IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun and one of his sons was even named Amun-hotep. Sobkehotep's IV grandfather/ Haankhef's father Nehy was the biblical firstborn son of MANASSE called MACHIR. MACHIR is biblically described as the illegitimate son of an aramean concubin so he was like his father MANASSE in spite of being the firstborn son set behind his younger brothers who all became Pharaohs. MACHIR died in the first and failed Canaanite Hyksos Invasion attempt battle 1750 BC. Thus his biblical firstborn son PERESH named Haankhef is the most plausible successor of MANASSE as Priest of Amun. Further confirming archeological evidence can be investigated in Chapter Moses.
One century earlier in the time when father JOSEPH had appointed most of his sons as Pharaohs until his death 1750 BC and after EPHRAIM had become Vizierking there is one Pharaoh with the Semitic name Khendjer whom (EPHRAIM) Ankhu marries with his own daughter Senebhenas, the widow of his brother Pharaoh Sobekhotep III: He must be his brother MANASSE's youngest son HEPHER according to his very young looking sculpture; EPHRAIM has to compensate his brother after father JOSEPH's death for MANASSE’s sons having helped to defeat the Canaanites: His firstborn son MACHIR named Nehy died in this battle and his secondborn son AVIEZER as victorious military commander in this war became compensated by becoming Pharaoh Wegaf.
Sidenote: MANASSE‘s apostasy and idolatry is echoed over one millennium later 697-643 BC by Judah’s King MANASSE, who was most likely the son of a mother of the tribe of Manasse. King Manasse was the biggest idolater in the time of the Kings.
MANASSE’s and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Idolatry and culture is also seen in his son Aviezer’s/ Pharaoh Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine and statue of the foreign deity for foreign kings Dedwen. It is additionally evidenced by his son Heleq’s/ Pharaoh Khendjer's building projects at the OSIRIS temple after JOSEPH’s death and in Khendjer‘s Pyramide transforing himself into a deity in his afterlife in their Egyptianised idolitrous belief. Consequentially MANASSE’s son was given by his godfearing uncle Ephraim Vizierking Ankhu the Semitic Pharaoh name H(n)zr meaning „boar“ according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - which makes the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater.
After the Ten Plagues - geologically evidenced for around 1606 BC by Radiocarbon results for the Santorini/Thera eruption and archeologically evidenced by the Ipuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose I Storm Stela - the last Egyptian Ahmoside of the 17th Dynasty and first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Ahmose I changed his highest family deity from the moon deity Khonsu to AMUN as the highest worshipped deity. Now Amun became the state diety of complete Egypt and took over from OSIRIS the role as official King above all deities of Egypt. Amun had meanwhile under MANASSE and his sons melted together with the sun deity Ra and was called Amun-Ra.
This semi-monotheism found its climax in the seperation of Ra’s sun disc: the Sun Idol Aton became worshipped as highest deity by Pharaoh Akhenaten three centuries later in the 14th century BC. One of his descendants Pharaoh TutAnkhAmun later returned again to Amun as king deity of Egypt.
Pharaoh Akhenaten knew from his father Amenhotep III about the one and only g‘d of ISRAEL named YAHWEH: ISRAEL and YAHWEH are both archeologically evidenced in Amenhotep‘s III famous Soleb Inscription and Berlin Pedestal of around 1400 BC(Check both out at the End of the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology). So Pharaoh Akhenaten must have known about the around 1400 BC archeologically evidenced monotheism of Israel through his father: He imitated Israel’s Monotheism by letting the Sun Aten become the highest and his one and only worshipped deity. This was primarily directed against the originally by (MANASSE) Senebefni initiated semimonotheistic cult around Amun.
Now the reader is enabled to evaluate and prove the scientific seriousness of the highly speculative hypothesis dominating historical science regarding the „Egyptian origin of Monotheism“ …
Egyptian deity Khnum
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg
One of Joseph's names was
Khnumhotep = Khnum is happy
Egyptian Bull deity Month
Museum Louvre Paris
Joseph's names were also ZaMonth = Son of Month and Monthuhotep = Month is happy
JOSEPH AND ASENATH
AGAINST THEIR WILL
WORSHIPPED IN EGYPTIAN IDOLATRY
JOSEPH’s name Khnumhotep means "The deity Khnum is happy/satisfied". Khnum was usually depicted as a sheep ram-headed man assumed by many as Egypt‘s oldest deity. He was the father of fathers, creator of men, breathing life into newborns, and the Lord of all created things. This deity is described like JOSEPH would have described his own G'D to an Egyptian and the Egyptian would have thought he is talking about Khnum: For example when he talked to his biblical master and later adoptive father in law the noble high royal official Khnumhotep II biblical POTIPHAR/POTIPHERA of Genesis39:1,41:45. Khnum later melted together with the Amun. This happened when JOSEPH's son MANASSE most plausibly learned this "egyptianised" identification of the one G’d of Israel from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR and followed him in his footsteps as Egyptian highpriest transforming Hebrew monotheism into Egyptian semi-monotheism as we will deeper examine in this Chapter. Khnum was also the guardian of the life-spending river Nile. The Nile was the basis and place of Pharaoh's dream, unraveled by JOSEPH, which made JOSEPH the highest man besides Pharaoh in Egypt (Genesis41:15). This way JOSEPH became the guardian of the life spending (and destroying) Nile water level: The role of Khnum is mirroring the biblical role of JOSEPH in the eyes of Egyptians which makes this name the most plausible candidate for naming JOSEPH in the eyes of his adoptive father Khnumhotep II.
Until the Middle Kingdom, the King/ Lifelong Ruler always was worshipped by Egyptians as a deity thus this naturally was even more the case for their beloved Savior out of Famine and Lifelong Ruler Grandvizier JOSEPH/ Zamonth. JOSEPH was worshipped against his will by the Egyptians; This is proven by his otherwise neither plausible nor explainable lifelong avoidance to additionally take over the role as g’dlike Pharaoh for himself. So JOSEPH/ Zamonth was given many different names like all other former Kings of Egypt too; For example, the Wadi el-Hol stela depicts JOSEPH's son Wphauthotep becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and describes him standing before the deity Month and receiving an Ankh and a Was-scepter as reign attributes from the deity Month. Sobekhotep is depicted followed by his father ZaMonth/ JOSEPH - meanwhile here called Monthhotep - and also by his mother Henut, here called Juhetibu (remember her granddaughters' names Juhetibu and Henut) as ASENATH's third name. He is also followed by Khnumhotep's/ JOSEPH‘s granddaughter and Sobekhotep's wife Senebhenas. And indeed Vizierking Month(u)hotep/ JOSEPH was the one from whom the reign attributes are received by Sobekhotep on the picture thus in fact JOSEPH is by the Egyptians evidenced identified here with the deity Month.
As already explained the battle deity Month was the Patron of Thebes: in his manifestation of the sun deity Ra he was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc. Or in his later alternative manifestation he was a BLACK SNOUTED BULL.
According to Genesis41:43 and explained in Jubilees45:7 Pharaoh (AmenemhetIII) is announcing JOSEPH as Ruler over ALL Egyptians "I am not bigger than You except the throne" and proclaimed him as "G’d, G’d, the Mighty of G’d!" in Old Hebrew "El, El, Wa'Abir El!"This is also the title of JOSEPH in The Story of Joseph & Asenath 3:6 & 18:1: This means that the as a deity worshipped Pharaoh Amenemhet calls him not only the "Mighty of a G’d" but also even a G’d not smaller than himself as a G’d. So for complete Egypt JOSEPH was on the order of the G’d-Pharaoh Amenemhet III worshipped by all Egyptians as a G’d. Abir in old Hebrew means both „the Mighty“ and also „Bull“; Klaus Berger identifies the BULL as SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees50:7 Footnote a P.519). Moses compares JOSEPH to a BULL and his firstborn sons to the bull‘s horns: „His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, And his horns are like the horns of unicorns: With them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh.“ Deuteronomy 33:17 KJV. And also Joseph’s son Ephraim is called a bullock or young bull: „I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the LORD my God.“ Jeremiah 31:18 KJV
Israel itself is most likely becoming infected by the Egyptian idolatry and hero-worshipping JOSEPH against his will. This is even indicated slightly in the Bible: Before JOSEPH unvealed himself being their brother, JUDAH called JOSEPH his „LORD“ and himself JOSEPH’s „servant“ and therefore recognized fully JOSEPH‘s position as g‘dlike King saying „ … you are like Pharaoh himself.“ (Genesis44:18). And JOSEPH‘s brothers did not only bow before him like one bows before the g‘dlike Egyptian King with their faces to the earth three times before they knew he was their brother (Genesis42:6,43:26,44:14 as JOSEPH saw in his dream in his youth). They also „fell down before his face“ (Genesis50:18) as a possible act of semiworshipping after their father’s death and JOSEPH had to clarify to them that in spite of being worshipped by the Egyptians against his will he is no G‘d at all saying
For am I in the place of G‘d?“
Although we can't say for sure if his brothers practiced semiworshipping tendencies towards JOSEPH we can for sure say that he was fully accepted as King ruling over them as brothers which is the exact fullfillment of their outraged understanding of JOSEPH‘s dreams in his youth (Genesis37:8) saying:
„Do you really think you are going to be King and rule over us?“
Father JACOB didn’t fully understand his son’s second dream when he asked JOSEPH - - thinking he and his wife are meant - about the moon and the sun bowing down to earth in front of JOSEPH (Genesis37:10): That clearly never happened - neither when JACOB met JOSEPH nor when JACOB met Pharaoh. Nevertheless the fullfillment is unveiled in the beginning idolatry around JOSEPH: The Egyptians worshipped JOSEPH as Khnum, Month and Osiris. The sun and the moon were seen as the two eyes of Horus. And Horus was worshipped as the son of Osiris (JOSEPH) & Isis (ASENATH): As his father Osiris stood above Horus and Horus had to bow down together with the sun and moon in front of his father. And the sun deity Ra was the son of Khnum (JOSEPH) and Neith/ Hathor (ASENATH), thus they both had to bow down in front of their father. And the moon deity Khonsu was the son of Amun who melted together with his predecessor chief deity of Thebes Month (JOSEPH). Thus Khonsu the moon also had to bow down in front of his father Month. Finally the sun and the moon bowing down in front of JOSEPH in his youth dream have to be understood as the forshadow prophecy of his unwilling future passive involvement in idolatry so that even worshipped idols will bow down in front of him …
Joseph and his wife Asenath
Osiris and his wife Isis
JOSEPH WORSHIPPED AS OSIRIS
Several different Egyptologists believe the deity OSIRIS had been originally a former really existing living ruler - who must have been „a Shepherd, in the Nile Delta, whose beneficial rule led to him being revered as a god“. This is exactly matching JOSEPH‘s biblical story.
(compare Strudwick, Helen, 2006, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 118–119)
Crook & Flail together are the symbols of the divine kingship of OSIRIS as Shepherd King over Egypt. JOSEPH‘s family’s role firstly was to become an the King‘s Shepherds and secondly after Pharao Amenemhet’s death to become the Shepherd Kings. JOSEPH‘s role became being the highest Shepherd King. These roles are matching the attributes of OSIRIS as „first and Divine King over Egypt“. And also JOSEPH owned the role as Divine King is biblically evidenced as we have seen. The humble crook (Heka in Egyptian) used by Shepherds, is a long, multipurpose stick with a hook at one end, to herd and sometimes catch sheep. We know it already in form of a Hyroglyph in the for the first time in the tomb of Khnumhotep II/ POTIPHAR occuring word Hekauchasut describing the title of (Father JACOB) the chieftain of the Semitic Shepherds coming from the East. The flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing - the process of separating grains from their husks. Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge sees the flail as representing the pharaoh's role in providing for the people of Egypt and protecting his kingdom and farmlands. JOSEPH‘s biblical role also was providing for the people of Egypt and protecting the kingdom and farmlands. The flail is made from two large sticks attached by a short chain. When one stick is firmly held and swung, the other stick hits the pile of grain and loosens the husks. OSIRIS as deity and first original King over Egypt is holding them crossed over his chest. Shortly before the first Dynasty - according to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich it was the time of the first Eastern Shepherd Kings ruling in Egypt as we know from Chapter Hyksos - the Shepherd's crook was already used as a royal symbol of rulership. In the Second Dynasty the crook and the flail became paired. The crook and flail were carried by Pharaoh to all public appearances and became the most famous symbols from ancient Egypt; They symbolized the power and majesty of the King. Both these items were also associated with OSIRIS, and signified his early rulership over the land.
OSIRIS was the mythical first King of Egypt and the deity of fertility, agriculture, life, the afterlife, the dead, resurrection, and vegetation. He was portrayed as either green, the color of rebirth, or black alluding to the fertility of the Nile floodplain with a King‘s beard (remember Zamonth’s statue with the King‘s beard), wearing a feathered white atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. The crook represents OSIRIS as a Shepherd deity guarding his sheep the people of Egypt. Pharaohs were almost always associated with HORUS during life and with OSIRIS in death. The Divine kingship most likely also firstly had gained spiritual momentum with the cult of OSIRIS.
To sum it up: The strictly biblical rulership time of JOSEPH as Shepherd and King was 1830-1750 BC which was also the archeologically evidenced ruling time of Vizier Zamonth Senwosret Ankh; After the death of this Vizierking the Shepherd King Deity OSRIS became the most popular deity of Egypt which is archeologically evidenced by the climax of relating building and worshipping activities of rulers in that following time period. This takes place in the time the ancient historian Manetho is calling the time of the „Hebrew Shepherd Kings“. OSIRIS was not only the most popular deity of Egypt. He was as deity also the first King of Egypt and and in real life the First Semitic Shepherd King of Egypt before the first Dynasty. This way he is foreshadowing the hero-worshipping of JOSEPH as the great Eastern Semitic Shepherd King who like OSIRIS „provided for the people of Egypt“ and the Eastern World in the time of great famine.
There is even more to it: While OSIRIS as Shepherd and King represents a foreshadow of JOSEPH as Shepherd and King, JOSEPH and DAVID as Shepherds and Kings both represent a foreshadow of the MESSIAH as Shepherd and King (Isaiah40:11,9:1-9, Zechariah9:9, John10:11, Matthew2:2, Luke19:38, Revelation19:16); The review of Rabbinic Judaism leads to the conclusion that the one is providing Leadership (Messiah Ben David) and the other Atonement (Messiah Ben Joseph). Since Ben David/ Son of David cannot come without the atonement of Ben Joseph/ Son of Joseph, the latter is crucial to the whole plan of redemption. Having gone from the seventeenth century back to the early Tanakh period, there is evidence in every period that the death of Messiah Ben Joseph was regarded as having power to atone for the sins of Israel and purify the nations. (C. Messiah ben Joseph: A Sacrifice of Atonement for Israel, January 29, 2020 by David Mitchell in https://brightmorningstar.org/messiah-ben-joseph-a-sacrifice-of-atonement-for-israel/). The idea of atoning death is not at odds with the general current of Israelite thought: It always was an idea relating to the Messiah quite familiar to Rabbinic Judaism. Life-giving death was also a fundamental religious concept in Egypt and the near east and also the death of OSIRIS was thought to bestow benefits on his people and his land.
According to Leading Egyptology the deity Month (remember JOSEPH’s names ZaMonth and Monthuhotep) became merged with the deity OSIRIS by the Egyptians. And indeed this is archeologically confirmed for JOSEPH himself on Stela CGC 20102 inscriptively identifying Vizier ZaMonth as "King OSIRIS, the First of the West, the great G’d, the Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, the Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus .. Nobleman, Mayor of the Town Vizier ZaMonth, blessed, ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of OSIRIS) born from the Lady of the House".
Shortly after his son Sobekhoteph's III death JOSEPH/ Zamonth also dies in 1750 BC: After JOSEPH's death his son EPHRAIM/ Ankhu gives the instruction to restore the Temple of OSIRIS at Abydos, obviously to honor his father's incarnation as King into the deity OSIRIS in his afterlife. This was the common Egyptian religious belief regarding the King in that time. In this time, MANASSE's son HELEQ became Pharaoh Khendjer for over four years. He initiated huge building projects at the OSIRIS temple obviously to honor his deceased uncle and glorious Vizierking of Egypt JOSEPH/ Zamonth. Altogether these indications clearly speak for not only Egyptians but also Israelites heroworshipping JOSEPH as OSIRIS after his death.
The Egyptian deity OSIRIS was also adored in a star constellation much later called Orion in Greece, then much later called „Holy JOSEPH“ in the Christian star catalog.
In historian Manetho's Book of Egyptian History of the 3rd century BC historian Josephus discovers in the 1st century "as for the additions which Manetho has made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales" the following about Israel according to Manetho:
"... they appointed as their leader one of the Priests of Hêliopolis called OSAR-SEPH ... It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Hêliopolis, named OsarSêph after the god OSIRIS worshipped at Hêliopolis; but when he joined his people, he changed his name and was called Moses."
The „Leader“ – whom the legendary tale thinks of as Moses – is named OSAR-SÊPH. The legendary tale is clearly confusing and telescoping here two biblical characters: This name is a hybridization of OSIR - is with Jo - SEPH the Egyptian theophoric element OSIR replaces the Jewish theophoric prefix JO or JEHO (C. Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940).
This is scriptural evidence for JOSEPH having been worshipped as OSIRIS in Egypt not only by the Egyptians before but also by the Israelites after his death. The Egyptian worshipping is manifested in JOSEPH‘s/ Zamonth‘s CGC 20102 Stela Inscription:
" .. A sacrifice that the King is giving .. A sacrifice that the King OSIRIS is giving .. Horus (is the son of OSIRIS identified here as Vizier Senebefni son of Vizier Zamonth) sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier ZaMonth (son of MONTH) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of OSIRIS)"
ASENATH WORSHIPPED AS ISIS
According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german pages 101,103) VirginPriestess Aseneth would have been prophesied to become JOSEPH‘s wife (both of them described as often holding an Ankhsymbol - a cross with a circle), to become a great Mother of many, a great Queen of many and an IDOL OF MANY in the future. This prophecy would become misinterpreted by the Egyptians and would have lead to worshipping her divinely in idolatry and would in later times lead into "depicting her with so many breasts".
Against their will JOSEPH (ZaMonth + KhnumHotep = MonthHotep) and his biblical wife ASENATH or Esenuth (archeologically evidenced as Enutsen/ Henut) would have been together adored and worshipped as OSIRIS & ISIS and Aseneth would have been called "Mother of God's" by the Egyptians: And indeed Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep's wife Henut became an archeologically evidenced mother of several Pharaohs worshipped as gods by Egyptians.
Much archeological evidence is confirming Anna Katharina Emmerick's descriptions: According to Egyptologists the ancient Egyptian goddess Satis or Setet formed as wife of Khnum together with him the married deity couple on the Island Elephantine. Satis or Setet was a female fertility and battle deity and was also conflated with the goddess Isis the wife of the deity Osiris. Originally she was called Iunit or Henut the wife of the deity Month. JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH were called Zamonth and Henut by the Egyptians.
ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit/ Iunit/ Henut"
in Genesis41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD.
Later the deity Iunit became the wife of Khnum. After Khnum was conflated with Ra or Horus she also sometimes became the Eye of Ra or Horus. She was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns, a bow, and arrows holding an Ankh, a cross with a circle, the symbol of enlifement (Aseneth's son Ephraim was named Ankhu). The Egyptian deity Zeneneth - later called Iunit or Henut - was the wife of the deity Month and was later merged with the deity Isis, the wife of Osiris and mother of Horus. In Greece Isis was later merged with Artemis matching Anna Katharina Emmerich’s mentioned g‘dess „with so many breasts“ and finally proving her revelation of ASENATH later becoming „an idol for many“.
Iunit wife of Month
became Isis wife of Osiris
Isis later became merged with Artemis
with "so many breasts"
JOSEPH was hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as
Dewden <=> Khnum <=> Month <=> Osiris <=>
After his death JOSEPH was hero-worshipped by the Israelites as
Dewden <=> Khnum <=> Month <=> Osiris <=>
ASENATH's Biblical name forms were
ASENATH <=> ESENUTH <=> ESENETH <=> SENENETH
ASENATH's Egyptian name forms were
tAhenut <=> hEnutsen <=> Henut <=> Iunit <=> Henu
ASENATH was hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as
Anat <=> Ashtart
<=> Iunit/Neith/Henut <=>
<=> Seteth/Satis <=>
<=> Hathor <=>
<=> Zeneneth <=>
After her death ASENATH was hero-worshipped by the Israelites as
Anat <=> Ashtart
<=> Iunit/Neith/Henut <=>
<=> Seteth/Satis <=>
<=> Zeneneth <=>
IDOLATRY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
ISRAELITES WHO STAYED IN OR RETURNED TO EGYPT AFTER THE EXODUS
LEONTOPOLIS AND THE STORY OF
JOSEPH & ASENATH
"I told them,
'EACH OF YOU is to throw away the detestable things that draw your eyes.
Do not defile yourselves with the idols of Egypt. I am the Lord your G'd.'
'But they rebelled against me; they did not,
EACH OF THEM,
throw away the detestable things that drew their eyes;
and THEY DID NOT abandon the idols of Egypt."
Some Israelites - especially the ones who had achieved profitable arrangements with the Egyptians - preferred going on living their comfortable life in Egypt in contrast to a uncertain future in the dangerous deadly desert in spite of all the ten plagues they had witnessed.
Heliopolis is the town of OSIRIS & ISIS and seven other deities. It has been already identified as On, the oldest town of Egypt. And one of the three enwalled cities the Israelites had to rebuild as slaves after the Hyksos Invasion. According to Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerick, the tribefathers who didn’t belong to the royal house like EPHRAIM, BENYAMIN, and LEVI were settled by JOSEPH in Heliopolis after Jacob's death. Heliopolis/On is also the name of the nome around the town Heliopolis and Heliopolis was a huge town. LeONtopolis was only around 10 kilometres away from HeliO(N)polis and was originally a district of On. It includes some massive rectangular earthwork enclosures of the Second Intermediate Period. Egyptologists assume their purpose to be defensive. The enclosure is very unegyptian and often interpreted by Egyptologists as a fortification built by the Canaanites, generally also known as the "Hyksos Camp": The Septuagint and the fifth-century Latin version of the Book of Jubilees in 46:14 says that after the Canaanite Invasion the King of Canaan announced supervisors over the Israelites "to let them torture them with slavery. And they built enwalled towns for Pharaoh, Pithom, Romasse, and On. And they built all walls and dams which were destroyed (in the invasion by the Canaanites) in the towns of Egypt." The Bible calls JOSEPH‘s father-in-law „POTIPHERA Priest of On“. The Book of Jubilees calls him „POTIPHAR Priest of Heliopolis“. LeOntopolis as a district of Heliopolis is inscriptively evidenced since the 2nd century BC as a Hebrew colony in Goshen. About AD 1160 Benjamin of Tudela was in Egypt; he has given a general account of the Jewish communities he found there. At Cairo (Heliopolis & Memphis) there were 2000 Jews. And up until today this district is called „Tell el Yehudiye“, the "Jewish Mound".
Leontopolis dates evidenced back to the end of the Middle Kingdom. Latest in the reign of Ptolemy VI (180–145 BC) a temple, modelled after that of Jerusalem, was founded by the exiled Jewish priest Onias IV who referred to the Prophecy of Isaiah that a Jewish temple would be erected in Egypt. After the outbreak of the Jewish War in AD 70 the Leontopolis Temple was closed, amid the general backlash against Judaism. The Land of Onias, which included the city of Leontopolis was located in the nome of Heliopolis. According to Josephus, the temple of Leontopolis existed for 343 years, 270 BC - AD 73. The Onias Temple was not exactly similar to the Temple of Jerusalem, he was more in the form of a high tower; The Egyptian Hebrews sacrificed evidenced frequently in the Temple of Leontopolis. There are Talmudic contatradictories about the Temple: there is the question as to whether idolatry was praticed there or not (Menahot 109a; Tosefta, Menahot xiii. 12-14). According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (Das Leben der Heiligen Jungfrau Maria, S. 384) Leontopolis was located between On and the Nile. The rituals in the Jewish Temple (around AD 5) „sunk in abominable idolatry“: a golden calf statue with an ox head, and like ferrets looking ichneumons which were defendant against crocodiles were worshipped as animal images and a false ark of the covenant with abominations inside was placed in the temple. Idolatry with all kinds of secret fornication (Messiah begetting) would have taken place in secrete underground cellars. They also would have sacrificed their misshapen babies and sacrifices of even healthy babies were considered particularly pious.
It took some time until the author fully realized that Leontopolis as original Hebrew district of Heliopolis and up until today always having been called the „Jewish Mound“ was founded by JOSEPH after his father’s death in 1804 BC as Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerich confirmed; All his brothers except Benjamin and Levi as members of the Royal Family were resettled there with their families. When the Canaanites invaded Egypt and enslaved Israel the Israelites had to build walls around Leontopolis to avoid their flight into the Hebrew South and it became a Hebrew Ghetto Slave Town; The Hebrew citizens of Leontopolis are the remaining descendants of the Israelites in Egypt who did not follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt and the descendants of Israelites who had returned to Egypt (Numbers14:45). The other two enwalled Hebrew Ghetto Slave Towns Avaris (biblical Ra-Amzes) and Lahun (biblical Pythom) are together with Leontopolis (biblical On) eaxamibed in Chapter Moses in the Passage about Israel’s different phases of enslavement.
The ancient "Story of Joseph & Asenath" takes place and finds its home base in Heliopolis: Gideon Bohak (1996) and others have drawn attention to the geographical location of the already mentioned Story of Joseph & Asenath in the town Heliopolis (http://www.markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm), more precisely to the „Jewish“ diaspora community centered around the „Jewish“ Temple in Leontopolis as a district of Heliopolis during the Ptolemaic period; they see it as the probable starting point for the Story of Joseph and Asenath. [compare Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press]. Burchard (1985) writes "Every competent scholar since Batiffol has maintained that Joseph & Aseneth is ‚Jewish‘ ... As to the place of origin, the majority of scholars look to Egypt."
The archeological evidence confirming the worshipping of ASENETH & JOSEPH in Heliopolis/On as Setet & Khnum or Zeneneth/Iunit & Month or Isis & Osiris and confirming Heliopolis/On itself as the archeological starting point of the The Story of Joseph & Aseneth lead to the conclusion that the Hebrew citizens of Leontopolis in the last centuries BC and the Hebrew citizens of the so-called Jewish Mound up until today have to be the remaining descendants of Israelites in Egypt who did not follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt and of the Israelites who did come back in Numbers14:45.
These are striking confirmations of The Story of Joseph & Asenath having been originally authoritative writings of Israelites from the time of JOSEPH or his descendants in Egypt. They were well known in Egyptian Judaism and early Jewish Christianity and later then in the 'pagan' Christianity until recent centuries, evidenced for example by catholic art of AD 1490-1500 in Brussels: This picture is called
"Joseph meets Asenath
throwing her idols out of the Tower"
POTIPHAR's and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest of Heliopolis Khnumhotep II and his daughter Henut
serves as archeological evidence for
the roots of the Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH.
(c. Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)
Archeological evidence for Hebrew idolatry by honoring JOSEPH as Osiris are a statuette of his son MANASSE named Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw in the Temple of Osiris in Abydos, and the building projects of MANASSE's sons AVIEZER and HELEQ named Pharaoh Wegaf and Pharaoh Khendjer at the Temple of Osiris.
THE IDOLATRY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT PART II
DID ALL ISRAELITES FOLLOW MOSES AND LEAVE EGYPT?
THE DESCENDANTS OF MANASSE IN ELEPHANTINE IN THE 5TH CENTURY BC
As already shown MANASSE and his tribe archeologically evidenced lived and practiced idolatry in Thebes and Southern Egypt since the beginning of the 13th Dynasty. So MANASSE‘s tribe was spared from enslavement because of not living in Northern Egypt. Being the most evidenced tribe practicing idolatry and always having lived in freedom makes them the most plausible tribe having initiated the "dance around the golden calf". They also were the most plausible tribe having moaned "… in Egypt … we used to sit around the pots with the meat boiling, and we had as much food as we wanted." in Exodus16:3 because meat was by no means the regular food of slaves in Egypt. Meat was
always in the history of mankind the regular food of the wealthy, not of the poor and certainly not of slaves.
Thus a part of the idolatrous egytianised privileged tribe of MANASSE in Southern Egypt is also one of the most plausible groups of people who decided not to follow MOSES into the desert in spite of having experienced the Ten Plagues and their original G'd as the only powerful G'd in contrast to all their worshipped Egyptian idols. But to avoid the tribe of MANASSE becoming the scapegoat for all idolatry committed by Israel in Egypt the author reminds the reader that ALL Israelites were involved in idolatry as Ezekiel20:7-8 reveals.
In Southern Egypt - on the Island Elephantine - the already mentioned deity couple Khnum & Satis (hero-worshipped JOSEPH & ASENATH/ Khnumhotep & tAhenut) and also Amun were still worshipped and had local festivals in the 5th century BC. JOSEPH/ Khnumhotep became hero-worshipped as the deity Khnum in the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History. JOSEPH's wife ASENATH can also be written ESENETH; She became Seneneth/ Satis.
The 5th-century Elephantine Papyri are a collection of by ancient scientists so-called "Jewish" manuscripts dating from the 5th century BCE. They would come from the "Jewish" community at Elephantine in Southern Egypt. But as a matter of fact, there is no proving evidence for all Hebrews of Elephantine descending from the tribe of JUDAH thus not „Jewish“ but instead Hebrew would be the precisely correct identification. To call them Jews is as inadmissible as calling contemporary Samarians Jews. Taking into account all discovered archeological evidence in this work MANASSE was the only tribe always having lived in Southern Egypt as a melting pot of Hebrew Egyptian idolatry. Thus it is more evidence-based plausible to call the oldest original Hebrew inhabitants of Elephantine descendants of the tribe of MANASSE.
This left behind part of the tribe of MANASSE and the fact that the tribe of EPHRAIM included the tribes of EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced six further brothers not mentioned by the Bible does explain the huge difference of the biblical sizes of the two tribes EPHRAIM and MANASSE. Like the different careers and deeds of EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's descendants their different tribe sizes are also an impressive historical fulfillment of Father JACOB's biblical prophecy regarding EPHRAIM and MANASSE in Genesis48.
Anat is attested in Egypt since the 18th century BC. As a warrior-goddess, Anat was one of several Syrian or northwest Semitic deities who was prominently worshipped by the warrior-pharaohs of the 16th Dynasty - mostly grandsons or great grandsons of queenmother ASENATH. Anat was often paired with the goddess Ashtart. During the so-called Hyksos period (14th-17th Dynasty), Anat had temples in Avaris and in Memphis as well as in Beth-shan Israel. She can be identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith/ Iunit/ Henut (see last passage) which are Egyptian name forms of biblical ASENATH/ ESENUTH like also Henutsen. In the Bible the prophets mourned several times about Israel adoring Anat so she was most plausibly and likely also a part of the Hebrew idolatry in Egypt.
JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ASENATH is believed by many experts to derive from the Ancient Egyptian "js.w-n-njt" meaning "holy to Anath" or "belonging to Neith". Neith/ Iunit/ Henut was an already mentioned Egyptian goddess; She was the wife of the deity Month (remember JOSEPH's name ZaMonth) and became later the wife of the deity Khnum (remember JOSEPH's name Khnumhotep).
The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Neith/ Iunit/ Henut was also worshipped as the wive of Month and was later merged with Isis, the wive of Osiris - which are as already explained the idols' names of hero-worshipped Asenath & Joseph according to AK Emmerich. And as we already know Henut was the name of the wife of Zamonth/ Khnumhotep. Thus not only the Egyptians but also the Israelites evidenced practised Egyptian idolatry in Leontopolis as also in Elephantine. Both locations were Hebrew idolatry melting pots which lead to the worshipping of ASENATH & JOSEPH in LeOntopolis as also in southern Elephantine. In the second half of the last Millennium BC in Elephantine ASENATH & JOSEPH had merged into the Egyptian idol pair of Anat & Khnum and into the Hebrew idol pair of Anat & Jahew. While the Egyptian Priests worshipped Anat & Khnum in their temple on Elephantine the Hebrew Priests had their own temple for Jahew (JHWH) worshipped together with Anat which functioned alongside that of the Egyptian deity of Khnum: This caused conflicts between Egyptian and Hebrew Priests which lead to the destruction of the Hebrew temple in the 5th century BC.
Zamonth and Iunit/Henut
are Joseph and Asenath
As already seen for Leontopolis the Hebrew citizens of Elephantine are also remaining descendants of the Twelve Tribes of Israel in Egypt mostly the Tribe of Manasse.
Additional strong indications for this are found in the Elephantine Papyri saying "Now our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the Kingdom of Egypt." The latest real Kingdom of Egypt was the New Kingdom from 1070 BC back to the biblical year 1606 BC the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite Hyksos out of Egypt.
Southern people of the tribe of Manasse were Israelites who decided not to follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt but having experienced themselves the Ten Plagues, especially the night of the Tenth Plague: So they well knew and celebrated the Passover with its rules telling the story of the last night in Egypt. And they consequently worshipped the G'D of Israel - known as Jahew/JHWH - since 1606 BC in Egypt. Jahew/JHWH had turned out to be the by the Ten Plagues evidenced only really powerful g'd of all their Egyptian and Canaanite former worshipped deities. But the Israelites who stayed on the Southern Island Elephantine certainly could not know the Mosaic Law (eg. the Deuteronomic law) which was afterwards given outside Egypt at Mount Horeb in the land of Midian in Arabia in the desert. And MANASSE‘s descendants on Elephantine naturally also did not write down anything about the man, they decided NOT to follow; MOSES, who took all the scriptures from AMRAM, LEVI and JACOB and the older books of Genesis as old family knowledge treasure with him as the Book of Jubilees tells us in various details. Thus the complete Torah - the five Books of Moses - is a treasure ONLY of the descendants of the Israelites who left Egypt 1606 BC but not of the descendants who stayed and were left behind in Egypt and melted their own oral traditions of the days of the Exodus with Egyptian and Canaanite traditions and idolatry. So the left behind Israelites did certainly neither know the stories of the Book of Genesis nor Leviticus or Numbers nor Deutoronomi nor the later Books of the Judges, Kings or Prophets. And in their two centuries of apostasy and idolatry in Egypt 1804-1606 BC their not written down memories about the patriarchs naturally did get lost; This gets all evident and obvious in the Elephantine Papyri. And in the 5th century's Elephantine Papyri the idolatrous left behind descendants of the tribe of MANASSE clearly took care not to reveal their polytheistic idolatry towards the only JHWH worshipping High Priest of Jerusalem - "no other god is mentioned than Yahew/YHWH" - when elaborating a petition to ask for his support in rebuilding their destroyed temple in Elephantine. And naturally, there is no evidence at all that would confirm Jerusalem answering with any support for their well known politheistic idolatry in foreign lands in any way.
Having also access to all the used contemporary archeological and ancient relating scriptive evidence in this work but building on their Bible falsifications based and by Jericho self disproved Ramesses Time Paradigm the leading Egyptologists and “Biblical” Archeologists of today celebrate the Elephantine Papyri however as a further “proof” for the Bible/ Torah being an invented fairy tale and compendium of political lies written one millennium later than it claims. For example Wajdenbaum 2016 in Hjelm's Biblical Interpretation writes:
"There is no hint of any suspicion that the temple could be considered heretical, and they would surely not have appealed to the High Priest at Jerusalem if any doubt about it. On the contrary, they give the impression of being proud of having a temple of their own, and as pious devotees of Ya'u/Yahweh (no other god is mentioned in the petition) seriously distressed at the loss of religious opportunities caused by its destruction... So far as we learn from these texts Moses might never have existed, there might have been no Bondage in Egypt, no Exodus, no monarchy, no prophets. There is no mention of other tribes and no claim to any Heritage in the land of Judah. Among the numerous names of colonists, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Samuel, David, so common in later times, never occur (nor in Nehemiah), nor any other name derived from their past history as recorded in the Pentateuch and early literature. It is almost incredible, but it is true." (Cowley, Arthur 2005, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC Eugene).
In order to better understand the motivational background behind these totally different conclusions the reader can click on the index tab of Chapter Conclusions and study today’s paradigms in Egyptology and Leading Biblical Archeology.
POTIPHAR's and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest of Heliopolis Khnumhotep II and his daughter Henut serves as archeological evidence for
the roots of the Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH.
(c. Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)
Strong archeological indications for the knowledge of The Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH in Elephantine in the Second Intermediate Period are evidenced by statues of their grandson BERIAH/ Vizier Iymeru Aya, discovered in the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine.
(Detlef Franke 1984, Personendaten .., Dossier Nr. 25/26, S.55)
A stela of JOSEPH's son MANASSE as Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw and a plaquette of MANASSE’s son AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf both found inside the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine
serve as archeological evidence confirming Hebrew idolatry in Southern Egypt.
The Hebrew Hero worshipping of Joseph & Asenath
as Month & Zeneneth, Khnum & Henut and Osiris & Isis
in the Second Intermediate Period was exercised in Leontopolis and the Southern Island Elephantine up to the turning point of time.
Archeological evidence unveals MANASSE‘s apostasy in Egypt away from JHWH towards Amun as the root of the alleged and so-called Egyptian „Origin of Monotheism".
Leading Egyptologists’ claim the root of Monotheism would not be the Bible but instead the "earlier" Egyptian worshipping of the sun in the time of Akhenaten turns out to be an archeologically evidenced disproved antibiblical speculative hypothesis based on the by Jericho self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Dogma.
JOSEPH & ASENATH
THE GOLDEN CALF
Heqet is a frog-headed deity, she is the Goddess of fertility, birth and regeneration. JOSEPH’s wife ASENATH gave birth to 18 children and therefore fullfilled father JACOB’s prophecy regarding JOSEPH’s fertility. Heket is referred to as the spouse of Khnum like ASENATH is referred to as the spouse of JOSEPH. Heqet is sometimes spelt Heket and identified with Hathor the Mother Goddess who is also connected with ASENATH as we will see next. Heket is holding the Ankh, the symbol of life, thus giving life to a person. In the resurrection story of Osiris (already identified with JOSEPH), it is Heket who breathes new life into the Godchild Horus. The birth of Horus is deeply connected to the resurrection of Osiris. In this way, Heket became a G’ddess of resurrection and regeneration. Horus is Osiris reborn and regenerated. MANASSE/ Senebefni is identified as Horus son of King Osiris/ Zamonth on Zamonth‘s stela CGC 20102. Heket is depicted as a frog because of the frog's connection with the flooding of the river Nile. Through the biblical frog plague the deity Heket worshipped by tribes of Israel fell under the Almighty’s judgement. Everything altogether clearly speaks for the Egyptians and Israelites having worshipped ASENATH also as Hequet. The statue and stela of MANASSE named Dewen-Month Senebtifi reveals in its inscriptions that one of his mother ASENATH’s names was Hebegeget, a name connectable with the g‘dess Heket.
Hathor, worshipped as cow goddess with the sun disc between her horns (like also the „golden calve“), was the deity of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and of promiscuity. She was seen as mother of Horus (embodied by the living King), the son of Osiris; the Second Intermediate Period is the time of Syncretism of Isis with Hathor. Like Osiris was called the First of the Western, Hathor was evidenced called the First Lady of the Western and the patroness of the western miners. As already revealed JOSEPH’s/ ZaMonth’s wife ASENATH/ Henut was hero-worshipped as Isis in sycretism with many other goddesses. Her son Rensenebu is called son of Hathor „Za-Hathor“ on stela CGC20102 and Zamonth is giving sacrafice to Hathor for the Ka of his wife Henut on stela CGC42.034. This speaks strongly for ASENATH additionally having been hero-worshipped as Hathor; Hathor enables as wife and mother of Kings the reincarnation of the King as Horus; ASENATH/ Henut as the King’s wife gave birth to 2 Vizierkings and 6 Pharaohs.
The Bull deity Apis served as an intermediary between humans and other powerful deities like Ptah or Osiris. Ceremonial burials of bulls indicate that ritual sacrifice was part of the worship of the early cow deity Hathor and a bull represented her offspring, a king who became a deity after death. He was entitled "the renewal of the life" of the deity Ptah but after death, he became Osorapis, i.e. the Osiris Apis, just as dead humans were assimilated to Osiris, the ruler of the underworld. Later Apis was also identified as an incarnation of Osiris.
In order to fully understand the final conclusion of this Chapter it is necessary to remember and thus repeat something: According to Genesis41:43 and explained in Jubilees45:7 Pharaoh(AmenemhetIII) is announcing JOSEPH as Ruler over ALL Egyptians "I am not bigger than You except the throne"and proclaimed him as "G’d, G’d, the Mighty of G’d!" in Old Hebrew "El, El, Wa'Abir El!"This is also the title of JOSEPH in The Story of Joseph & Asenath 3:6 & 18:1:This means that the as a deity worshipped Pharaoh Amenemhet calls him not only the "Mighty of a G’d" but also even a G’d not smaller than himself as a G’d. So for complete Egypt JOSEPH was on the order of the G’d-Pharaoh Amenemhet III worshipped by all Egyptians as a G’d. Abir in old Hebrew means both „the Mighty“ and also „Bull“; Klaus Berger identifies the BULL as SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees50:7 Footnote a P.519) because Moses compares JOSEPH to a BULL and his firstborn sons to the bull‘s horns: „His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, And his horns are like the horns of unicorns: With them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh.“ Deuteronomy 33:17 KJV. And also Joseph’s son Ephraim is called a bullock: „I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the LORD my God.“ Jeremiah 31:18 KJV
The Golden Bull Worshipping by Israel in the Desert - by MOSES derogatively called "the dance around the Golden Calf" - is often tried to be relativized as idolatry by rabbinical scripture interpretations and finally we can see it must indeed be relativized: The Golden Bull must now also be seen in the context of the Bull deity Month and Apis Osiris unvealed as syncretic hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH as Saviour of Egypt and after his death by several tribes of Israel.
The biblical golden calf can also be seen as a COW and then would have to be identified with the cow godess Hathor. Obviously it is again a syncretism and melting together of the COW Hathor and the BULL Month and Apis Osiris and stands for the heroworshipping of ASENATH & JOSEPH melted together into one worshipped deity:
According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich the Egyptians robbed JOSEPH‘s mummified body to prevent the Israelites from fleeing and keeping their promise to take him with them into the promised land. This robbery is archeologically evidenced by his empty robbed (including his sarcophagus) tomb in Avaris excavated by Manfred Bietak and identified by David Rohl. And it is confirmed by a Talmudic rabbinical story, where Joseph was buried in the Nile river, as there was some Egyptian dispute as to which province should be honored by having his tomb within its boundaries. MOSES was able by a miracle to raise the sarcophagus and to take it with him at the time of of the Exodus. The rabbinical Midrash says without Joseph's bones, the Israelites could not leave Egypt, so the Pharaoh had his coffin cast into an underground flooded chamber at the Nile. This was an attempt to prevent the Israelites ever leaving Egypt. The mummified body of JOSEPH united with the body of ASENATH would have been embedded in a sarcophagus formed as a BULL … (Anna Katharina Emmerich, Geheimnisse des Alten und des neuen Bundes, page 109).
MOSES took JOSEPH‘s body with them out of Egypt (Exodus13:19) thus the „dance around the golden calve“ was accompanied by JOSEPH‘s hallowed remains …
The Jewish Apocryphes about MOSES' Ascension, confirmed in the NT letter of Jude (Jude9) in the Bible, clearly reveal that not only after but also before the Exodus the People of Israel was strongly infected by idolatry and did not only have the inclination to worship Egyptian or Canaanite deities in Egypt but also the inclination to hero-worship their own leader. And their great famous leader before MOSES was JOSEPH: The biblical and apocryphal dispute about the body of MOSES between archangel Michael and the devil shows how Michael wants to avoid Isreal's leader to be hero-worshipped a second time by the people of Israel after his death. Archangel Michael concealed the tomb of MOSES to prevent the Israelites from the sin of hero-worshipping MOSES; Thus is obviously the same sin Israel had fallen into regarding JOSEPH & ASENATH archeologically evidenced many times and biblically confirmed by the dance around the Golden „Calf“ ...
Black Snouted "Golden" Bull of the 16th century BC:
"But they rebelled against Me, and would not pay heed (listen) unto Me; they did not EVERY ish (man) cast away the shikkutzim (abominations) from before their eynayim (eyes),
neither did they forsake (abandon) the gillulim (idols) of Mitzraym (EGYPT);
then I said, I will pour out My chemah (fury) upon them,
to vent My anger against them IN the midst of Eretz Mitzrayim (the land of EGYPT)."
Yechezkel/Ezekiel20:8 OJB Orthodox Jewish Bible
All here discovered Egyptian Idols worshipped by the Israelites are later identified as being EXACTLY the same Idols (Hesekiel20:8) that evidenced fell under the Almighty's Judgement through the Ten Plagues (Exodus12:12) to make Israel (Exodus6:7,10:2) and Egypt (Exodus7:5.17,8:10) recognize who is the real ONE and ONLY G'D. (The idols are identified in Chapter Moses in the headlined passage „THE TEN PLAGUES“.) The chaotic inflationary mingling of deities in their development is a phenomenon of the complete history of Egyptian idolatry and is answered by the clear structur and order of the divine judgement of the Ten Plagues in the next Chapter.
There is no evidence PROVING
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty
There is no evidence DISPROVING
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty
Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence in this work
are unvealing the opposite is the case.
Leading Egyptologists’ and Biblical Archeologists‘
postulated paradigms regarding Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves disproved
Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm.
This here disproved dogma is their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without any disproving evidence: Nearly all these ancient writings confirm the time of the Foreign Rulers in Egypt
as the time of Israel in Egypt and the time of the Hyksos Expulsion as also being the time of
the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
Now this is how the Scriptures of Qumran - the Books of Moses and the Book of Jubilees - are bringing the real times of the Second Intemediate Period of Egypt, the so-called "dark period of uncertain highly speculative time estimations" to light and are purifying history from around 75 non existing years, confirming Dr. Roger Liebi's words:
"The Bible is the Diamond,
that cuts the stones of archeology
and not the other wrong way around."
Picture: 12m! high Split Water Rock at Biblical Mount Horeb in Biblical Midian, Arabia east of the Biblical Yam Suph, the Gebel El Lawz east of the Gulf of Acaba.
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Pharaoh Senwosret III
Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Amenemhet-Ankh Khety KhnumHotep
- God Sealer
- Gate of Foreign Lands
- Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
- Arm of Month
- Mouth of Nekhen
- Senewosret- Ankh
- later Mon(th)-hotep
& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut
Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II
- "Mother of Gods"
MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw
Wepwauthotep/ Sobekhotep III
„Kingson“ Khakaw/ Sewadjtew
„Kingson“ Sonb/ Ined
Seneb, Satamun, …
12 Brothers &
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, ZEBULON
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH
Amenemhet's III children:
- later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
- BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha
- EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
- Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV
Vizier Ankhu Senwosret
Co-Rulership with his father JOSEPH:
Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety
Vizierkingship over Egypt:
& Wife Mereret
Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
Vizier Iymerew Aya
2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:
ESER Nebankh &
Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw
also deciphered as Dedwen-/ Dedu-Month Senebtefi
Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun
Illegitimate son (1Chr7:14) of an Aramean concubine:
1. MACHIR Nehy
Legitimate sons (Jos17,1Chron7)
of Egyptian mother Nebetka:
2. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ Vizier Senebhenef
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL Pharaoh name lost
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER Pharaoh Khendjer
- First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
- Archeologically evidenced
King Zamonth and
- Father of the Land
- Father of G'ds
- Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris
- Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV
c. *1794-1714+ BC
Assistance of his Grandfather JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
over Southern Egypt:
(Gen46:21) granddaughter of BENJAMIN
"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR (1Chron7:12) Pharaoh Hor
„Lady of the House“
Former Widow of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
Vizier Iymeru Aya
c. *1786-1698+ BC
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Wifes: ZatJan, Redinetes
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
16th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
13th Dynasty Vizierking
over complete Egypt:
- Archeologically evidenced
of Pharaoh Wegaf
c. *1752-1658+ BC
Son of SHUTELAH's Resseneb's wife and former widow MAACHAH Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
PERESH Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne.
He died early before his sons reaching their kinghship.
He was proclaimed by his sons as
- "Royal Sealer"
- "Father of Gods"
- King as Father of "Kingsons"
& Wife Kemi
died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep
Mother of 2 self-called "Kingsons":
1.REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
2.ULAM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayameru II
c. *1752-1646+ BC
Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH (1Chr7:23) Iymeru Aya
Co-Rulership with father Vizierking Iymeru Aya:
c. 1716-1698 BC
17th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
Reduced to Vizier
Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh
Self-appointed first 15th Dynasty King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt = "A foreign King who arose in enmity above Egypt who did not know Joseph" (Exodus1:8 in literal old hebrew)
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:20) Vizierking Resseneb
2. BERIAH 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:23) Vizierking Ayamerew
3. REFACH 17th Dynasty
(1Chr7:25) Vizierking Ayamerew II
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'
c. *1720-1626+ BC
Son of PERESH/ Haankhef (1Chr7:16)
Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan
Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
Mio Sobekhotep =
1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan
1. MERIS/ Meristheki or Mereryt:
Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan,
Mother of Sobekhotep/ Djadja,
Adoptive Mother of Sobekhotep/ Mio =
2. Hebrew wife Tjan:
Daughter Nebtiunet, later named Queen Tetisheri,
wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose
REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
no reign time due to early death
nephew of Sobekhotep IV
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep'IV'
Co-Rulership as hebrew son in law together with canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC
Thebes: 1666 BC
Switch back from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the
downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover of the Ahmosides 1627 BC
Notes and References
- Wolfram Grajetzki, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, 136-138, 160-161.