Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?  

The 13th Dynasty

Different highly speculative theories without any solid evidence about the time of Israel in Egypt are dominating Biblical Archeology and different highly speculative theories about the chronology of the so-called „Dark“ Second Intermediate Period are dominating Egyptology; The following Chronology is not based on any new theory but solely on the extraordinary amount of over 100 matchings of the Bible with the scientifically recognized contemporary archeological evidence: The REAL Chronology of the 13th Dynasty according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (leading egyptologists' highly speculative estimations in brackets):



acc. to Kim Ryholt 1997 Table 36,46,48,52 

 () = duration in years, BN = Birthname

1798-1785 BC:

1798 BC
The ancient Story of Joseph & Asenath reveals that "Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) left his dominion and his crown of the kingdom to JOSEPH and died." JOSEPH ruled over complete Egypt for 80 years (Genesis50:22, Jubilees46:3, Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) 1830-1750 BC as Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later called Month(u)hotep. He ruled together with his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret above their selected Pharaohs of their royal family.

The Early HekaShasut are partly archeologically identified as Semites by Egyptologists; ancient historian (Josephus) Manetho identifies them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings; Leading Egyptologists Manfred Bietak calls them first "Proto Israelites" but later changes his mind: "They may be called for convenience sake Canaanites."

1798-1785 BC:

Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced Uncle *BENJAMIN is adopted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III as his son-in-law. After 3 years of co-reign, he becomes sole

* Pharaoh Amenemhet IV (9)

After 9 years Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter becomes

  • Pharaoh Sobekneferu (4)

1785-1765 BC ('1803','1783'or'1761'BC):

JOSEPH rules over Egypt as
Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep Month(u)hotep: He is archeologically evidenced not only as Vizier but also
King Zamonth (Stela CGC 20102)
King Khnumhotep (Stela CG 20690) and
King Monthuhotep (Stela Sobekhotep III)

JOSEPH and EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret establish a yearly Family Pharaoh rotation system in order to weaken the power of the Pharaoh position and to avoid Egyptian worshipping of Pharaoh as a deity. The family stabilizes Israel's Rulership as Shepherd Kings evidenced in several ancient writings. 

The first 15 Pharaohs archeologically evidenced belong to the family of EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhew Senwosret (Ryholt 1997 p.209-211). There is no archeological evidence for any reign times of all the 20 Pharaohs;

The rulers of the 13th Dynasty are identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by the ancient historians Africanus and Syncellus citing the around 200 BC Egyptian historian Manetho.

Senna & Kumna Nile water level marks provide the evidence for around 7 decades between Amenemhet's III and VII first reign years 1842-1769 BC (Collier + Ryholt p.197) 

1785-1765 BC:

20 Yearly rotating Pharaohs:
JOSEPH's brothers' (*BINYAMIN & °LEVI) archeologically evidenced lineages:

* Amenemhet's IV BINYAMIN's son
  (1Chron7,6) *BELA is
  Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I  
* his brother (1Chron7,6)
  *BEKHER is Pharaoh Sekhemkare Sonbef
* his brother (1Chron7,6)
  *YEDIAL is Pharaoh Nerikare

ZaMonth's JOSEPH's brother
  °LEVI is Pharaoh Sekhemkare Amenemhet V
° his first son (Gen46,11)
  °GERSHON is Pharaoh Quemaw
his brother (Gen46,11) 
  °MERARI is Pharaoh Siharnedjheritef
(according to Bietak a Semitic name)
° his brother (Gen46,11)
  °AMRAM is Pharaoh Jewefni
Amenemhet's V LEVI's grandson (Ex6:18) 
  °YITZAR is Pharao  Amenemhet VI
son of °KOHAT Antef the father of MOSES‘ father
   AMRAM. He is also °KORACH‘s (Ex6:21) father.

* BINYAMIN's son (Gen46,21)
  *ASHBEL is Pharaoh Nebnun
* his brother (Gen46,21) 
  *GERA is Pharaoh Sewesekhtawy
* his brother (Gen46,21)
  *NAAMAN is Pharaoh Sewadjkare
* his brother (Gen46,21)
  *ECHI is Pharaoh Nedjemibre 
his brother (Gen46,21) *ROSH is
  Pharaoh Khaankhre Sobekhotep II
* Pharaoh Ranisonb is the son of 

  Nedjemibre *ECHI or Sewadjkare *NAAMAN

* BINYAMIN's son (1Chron7,12)
  *IR is Pharaoh Awibre Hor I
his son (Gen46,21) *MUPPIM is
  Pharaoh Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
* his brother (Gen46,21) 
  *HUPPIM is Pharaoh Djedkheperew
BINYAMIN's son (Jos17:7/Gen46,21)
  *ARD/ACHER is Pharaoh Seb
his son
  *SHUSHIM is Pharaoh Kay
* his son is BENJAMIN's great-grandson
  Pharaoh Amenemhet VII

1765-1750 BC ('1757'or'1720'BC):

JOSEPH is evidenced hero-worshipped by the Egyptians
as Father of the Land,
as Father of Gods/Pharaohs and
as Khnum, Month, and Osiris.

His son EPHRAIM co-reigns as Vizier Ankhu Senwosret and controls his Pharaoh brothers by marrying them with his daughters.

1765-1750 BC:

4 Kingsons of #JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Knumhotep Monthuhotep become Pharaohs for 15 years:

# Pharaoh Semenkhkare Imyremeshaw 
# Pharaoh Sehotepkare Antef V
  (wife Aya)
# Pharaoh Meribre Seth
# Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawi
  Sobekhotep III BN Wepwauthotep (4)
  (wifes: Heni & Senebhenas)

1750-1743 BC ('1754-1747'or'1766-1759'BC)

1750 BC: JOSEPH's sixth son Wephauthotep Pharaoh Sobekhotep III is killed in the first battle against the Canaanites by King Makamaron. JOSEPH dies in the same year (Jubilees46:6-8).

EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret becomes the new Vizierking archeologically evidenced as King Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf, the son of MANASSE and previous military commander of Thebes. Pharaoh Wegaf defends Avaris against the Canaanites and stops King Makamaron's invasion attempts (Jubilees46:7).

1750-1743 BC:

This leads to 3 sons of +MANASSE Southern Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw becoming the next Pharaohs: 

 + AVIEZER becomes Pharaoh Wegaf (2,3)

 + HELEQ becomes Pharaoh Khendjer (4,5)
   Jos17:2 (wife: widow Senebhenas)
(Semitic Pharaoh names acc. to Kim Ryholt)

1744-1729 BC:

EPHRAIM King Ankhu Senwosret is announced as Father of Gods by the Egyptians in spite of having no own Pharaoh sons; Manasse as Father of Pharaohs claims this title for himself as his lineage will reveal later on.

1742 BC: MANASSE's family does not accept EPHRAIM’s reestablishment of the yearly rotation of Pharaohs and returns to Thebes.

The reign times of the 14 Pharaohs of this period are not safely evidenced. With exceptions, time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (Ryholt 1997 p.201)

1729 BC
According to ancient historian Manetho together with the Book of Jubilees 46:11-15, the War of Pharaoh Tutimaios (Dedumose) against the Canaanites leads into the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion of Egypt and Enslavement of Israel. The 13th Dynasty collapses 70 years (acc. to Ryholt around '80' years) after Amenemhat's IV reign. EPHRAIM’s Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret's Royal House flees to his brother MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw, Vizier of Thebes. 

1744-1729 BC:

15 yearly rotating Pharaohs

(BN = Birth Name)


+ Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw is Vizier Ibiaw's
   MANASSE's son ASRIEL (Jos17:2)

 # Pharaoh Merneferre Aya
son of JOSEPH's son Pharaoh Antef & Aya

 # Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini
   () BN Amenhotep, son of 
   JOSEPH's son Sobekhotep
   III & Ini/Heni 

  • Pharaoh Sankhnre Sewadjtew 
  • Pharaoh Mersekhemre Ined

 * Pharaoh Sewadjkare Hor II,
   grandson of BENJAMIN's son
   *IR (1Chron7:12) Hor I

 # Pharaoh Merkawre Sobekhotep
   son of JOSEPH's son Sonb

  • Pharaoh Merkheperre
  • Pharaoh Merkare

 # Pharaoh Sewadjare Monthotep V
   son of JOSEPH's son Sonb

  • Pharaoh ..mosre 
  • Pharaoh ..maatre Ibi

 * Pharaoh ..webenre Hor..grandson of
   BENJAMIN's son *IR (1Chron7:12) Hor I

  • Pharaoh Sankhptahi Seheqenre
  • Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose/Tutimaios
    (The last Pharaoh according to Williams & Morenz - the throne name changes after having fled to Thebes ...)

Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?

"Downturned mouths, bags under their eyes, worry lines, hollow eyes - unique facial expressions in Egyptian sculptural history - two 'kings' are showing every sign of hard times in their kingdom" (British Museum). Statues of Amenemhet III and his father Senwosret III as well as contemporary poetic literature show heavy burdens on the Kingship and Egypt of the 12th Dynasty: Pharaoh's Pyramid destruction and an impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by the increasing floodings of the Nile and by hot eastern desert winds.

Father Pharaoh Senwosret III worried face with out turned ears - without the King's beard

Amenemhet III careworn face with open ears for his peoples' concerns - without the King's beard

Their Vizier Zamonth - History's only Egyptian Vizier evidenced wearing the King's Beard …

Their same looking highest official was Semitic - The first Hekashasut Joseph

For learning more about Pharaoh Amenemhet’s III fabricated sculpture of his highest official being Semitic (last portrait above) scroll down to the end of Chapter Hyksos: wwww.IsraelinEgypt.com/Hyksos

To better understand the background of this Chapter You can watch the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4aNyrrpSWA in English or on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v64-PgRZrwM in german (movie pictures are shown on this page) or listen to the biblical story of Joseph on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8kPu7BY7_8&t=11394s in English or in German on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGuKFByG01g&t=10455s. Simply the best way is finally to read the First Book of Moses Chapter 37-50. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as a subtitle. To make life easier for all readers in this work sometimes Wikipedia is the referred source in case no other source is mentioned when citing in quotation marks. In the relating Wikipedia articles, You find the sources they refer to.

Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written. Consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions. In two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes. Letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even not their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables sometimes which is called Metathesis (c. David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, p.604-610). Pharaoh Sjn Wrt can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; This way one person very easily disperses into many different persons in Egyptology. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is Joseph's Master Potiphar, Joseph's father-in-law Potiphera, and Joseph's Chief-of-Prison. Further examples are Potiphar's respectively Khnumhotep's II daughter Asenath respectively Henut. The most important examples are the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of Joseph and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson. They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were famous enough Rulers to own several different names. Joseph is Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep later Mont(u)hotep with his first earlier names Senowsret Ankh and Amenemhet Ankh and his most early original and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Phanea; Joseph's sons Manasse Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw and Ephraim Vizier Ankhu Senwosret, Joseph's grandson Beriah Vizier Iyumeru Aya, and his great-grandson Refach Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru Ayameru II are also evidenced examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two Centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the complete riddles of the officially so-called "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You will learn and see in this work time after time.


The newest discovered or uncovered evidence for this time of Israel in Egypt is lectured by Dr. Roger Liebi on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84, in David Rohl's book "Exodus Myth or History" and in the rentable documentary of Tim Mahoney 'The Exodus' on www.patternsofevidence.com roughly summarized in this work.

According to the first and only strictly biblical chronology, the Bible says (see Chapter Chronology) JOSEPH ruled 80 years as Grand Vizier from 1830 BC until his death 1750 BC. Critical readers who think a kingship of 80 years is impossible and unbelievable should be aware that the British Queen is today looking back on over 70 years of Queenship over Britain and the world’s Commonwealth. The biblical contemporary Pharaohs of JOSEPH are the Pharaohs of the end of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom to the mid of the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. After 13 years in slavery - according to Genesis37:2.41:46 10 years in "free" slavery and 3 years in prison (Jubilees46:3) - in the year 1830 BC JOSEPH rises suddenly up to become the Vizierking of Pharao Senwosret III and his son Pharaoh Amenemhat III (Genesis41:46). He is given Rulership over all Egyptians by Pharaoh. The historical background is explained by David Rohl's lecture on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4C618MkFej8&t=4361s. Pharaoh's historically evidenced worries are about the Pyramid destruction and the impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by increasing floodings of the Nile. The complete harvest is additionally threatened by extremely hot eastern winds as Pharaoh's biblical dreams indicate; Biblical Joseph read the dreams the Pharaoh suffered of and recommended a solution against the deadly famine which was going to greatly burden Egypt and Pharaoh's rulership.

Pharaoh was so impressed by JOSEPH divine wisdom that he handed over his complete rulership over Egypt and all Egyptians to him so that Joseph as a totally new kind of Vizier became Grandvizier and King = Lifelong Ruler of Egypt - under Pharaoh only as long as Pharaoh lived as we will see later. The Bible describes the relationship of JOSEPH to Pharaoh Amenemhet III as being "a father to Pharaoh". Archeological evidence describes the relationship as Joseph Vizier Zamonth being a "Real Friend" to Pharaoh:

"You will be in charge of my household; all my people will be ruled by what you say. Only when I rule from my throne will I be greater than you." Pharaoh said to Yosef,
"Here, I place you
in charge of the whole land of Egypt."
Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Yosef's hand, had him clothed in fine linen with a gold chain around his neck, and had him ride in his second-best chariot; and they cried before him,
"Bow down!" Thus he placed him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.
Pharaoh said to Yosef, "I, Pharaoh, decree that
without your approval
no one is to raise his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt
Genesis41:40-44 CJB

"And Yosef was the Shalit Al HaAretz the Ruler over the Land ..." Genesis42:6 CJB

Without the permission of Pharaoh Joseph can call his complete family to come to Egypt: „So it was not you who sent me here, but God;
and he has made me
a father to Pharaoh,
Lord of all his household and ruler over the whole land of Egypt.
Hurry, go up to my father, and tell him, ‘Here is what your son Yosef says:
“God has made me
Lord of all Egypt! Come down to me, don’t delay!“
B'resheet (Gen)‬ ‭45:8-9‬ ‭CJB‬‬

„Then Y’hudah approached Yosef and said, “Please, my Lord! Let your servant say something to you privately; and don’t be angry with your servant, for
you are like Pharaoh himself.“ 
B'resheet (Gen)‬ ‭44:18‬ ‭CJB‬

Huge granaries and a reservoir sea (Lake Moeris of Fayyum) with a Canal to the Nile, up to today called "Bar Yusuf" = Joseph's Canal are able to control the floods and ensure 7 years of plenty from 1829 to 1823 BC. According to David Rohl, there is also archeological evidence for a "major reorganization of the administration" to ensure these activities; A department of state was set up to take in the grain during the 7 years of plenty before the famine. The Bible says, in order to save Egypt from the famine the Pharaoh hands over the complete rulership over Egypt to Joseph and sets every Egyptian but himself under Joseph; This is the biggest power of a Vizier in Egyptian history and it is archeologically evidenced by the King's beard of Vizier Zamonth and also by title King for Zamonth Khnumhotep. King is a middle ages word and means nothing less than Lifelong Highest Ruler, we will learn that JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep and his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senowsret were the only archeological evidenced Lifelong Highest Rulers of the 13th Dynasty in contrast to over 40 rotating Pharaohs.

In 1822 BC the dams begin to be flooded by further "3 meters" Nile level increasing in 3 years, the "17th to 20th reign year" of Amenemhet III followed by biblical worldwide 7 years of famine from 1822 to 1816 BC. In 1815 BC the extensions of Joseph's Canal reached sufficient size and the hot eastern winds ceased; 7 years of famine came to its end. One of Joseph's different Vizier names is Kethy and is found engraved together with the 29th reign year of Amenemhet III near his office at Joseph's Canal in 1810 BC. According to David Rohl, the Nile flooding made plowing and planting impossible; the hot eastern wind burning the ears of wheat were the central causes of threat in the two dreams of Pharaoh according to Genesis41:18.23. Through the geological evidence proven concrete biblical year 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Plagues Science could now synchronize the chronologies of Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia thanks to the Bible as the most reliable historical source of ancient times; The Bible clarifies in Genesis41:57 that in 1822-1816 BC these environmental phenomenons caused the 7 years of famine. 


First discovered Oldest Alphabetical Inscription
by Flinders Petrie in Serabit El-Khadim in the Sinai Desert

Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board

Enjoy Your Deciphering Discovery Journey


David Rohl is convinced Joseph has invented the first Alphabet. 2200 years old Scriptures of Qumran - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees - confirm this by revealing Joseph to be the only Israelite in Egypt in the year 1822 BC one year before his family arrives in Egypt. Only he could have invented the in 1822 BC oldest found Semitic Alphabet with Hebrew fonts and words and with uniquely biblical events and characters. They were discovered, examined, and proven by Douglas Petrovich. Paradigmatic followers of the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm and thus passionate adversaries of several biblical time figures like David Sharp tried hard but were not able to disprove Petrovich's results. The oldest Alphabet inscriptions were found by the father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie in an ancient slave work copper and turquoise mine site in Sinai today called Serabit El-Khadim. More alphabetical inscriptions were found in 1999 by the Darnells close to Thebes in today's Wadi El-Hol and in the Semitic slave worker's town Lahun in Fayum in upper Egypt; They date into the reign years 26 and 29 of Amenemhet. One alphabetical inscription was found together with an Egyptian inscription on the same rock from the 20th year of Amenmhet's III reign - the year 1822 BC - which is Joseph's biblical 8th year as Grand Vizier and the first year of the great famine. 1822-1812 BC is the biblical timeframe in which JOSEPH (Genesis41:46) was traveling through complete Egypt preparing the country for the seven years of famine; It is also the timeframe of the best datable alphabetical engravements. You can rent Tim Mahoney's exiting documentary "The Moses Controversy" with evidence for the first Alphabet being Hebrew on www.patternsofevidence.com. This archeological evidence for JOSEPH's sojourn in Egypt 1822-1813 BC and his authorship of the first Alphabet is also proving evidence for MOSES obviously clearly being able to write the Bible in easily readable and for the people learnable alphabetical letters instead of complex cuneiform letters; Leading 'biblical' archeologists claim this would be impossible. The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" (Exodus17:14) and to the people of Israel "write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" (Deutoronium6:9,11:20).

In Chapter Moses, You will find a Hebrew engravement with his name on it and in this Chapter You will later find a Hebrew engravement with ASENATH's name on it and You will be invited into the discovery journey to decipher them with the help of Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board. You can see Petrovich's time estimations in the top line of the board, based on a 430 years instead of the 215 years sojourn of Israel in Egypt leading into a period of time 1876-1446 BC instead of 1821-1606 BC (compare with Chapter Chronology and the beginning of Chapter Moses).

The Book of Jubilees explains, that before his death JACOB did let his son LEVI RENEW and TRANSFORM the forefather's books of Genesis. It was written in cuneiform letters by the forfathers and transformed into alphabetical letters by LEVI. One of the oldest Alphabet inscriptions was found in Lahun in Fayum as already mentioned. Tim Mahoney's documentary "The Moses Controversy" on www.patternsofevidence.com reveals that the first Alphabet was created in Egypt and it was created distinctively for Hebrew words; The Hebrew alphabetical words came up in Egypt in the true biblical time when Israel came up in Egypt in 1821 BC. The Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions disappeared in Egypt in the true biblical time of the Exodus when Israel disappeared from Egypt and the Hebrew alphabetical words came up again in Canaan in the strictly biblical time when Israel had conquered Canaan.

It is also revealed by archeology that the world's first found scripture at all was the Cuneiform script in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Tanakh (Old Testament) says HENOCH lived in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Book of Jubilees4:17 says HENOCH was the first man being who learned to write and this would have happened in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC.
The Book of Jubilees confirms that the scriptures of the Book of Genesis would have from then on been taught and handed over from Henoch on through generations over NOAH to ABRAHAM. According to the Bible Adam was as eyewitness from the beginning on still alive for nearly the whole earthly lifespan of Henoch and that Enoch’s father was still alive for more than half of the lifetime of Noah and that Noah was still alive as eyewitness of the stories of Genesis when Abraham was born. The Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees were part of the scriptures and they even remained holy scriptures for Jews and Christians in the land of Kush/ Ethiopia up until today.

Jubilees46:16 says that LEVI received all scriptures from his father JACOB and his forefathers before JACOB's death in the biblical year 1804 BC in Egypt in order to preserve and "RENEW" them in Egypt for the next generations.

JOSEPH was the only Hebrew person in Egypt when the Alphabet firstly came up in Amenemhet's archeologically evidenced reign year 20 which was 1822 BC, one biblical year before the arrival of Israel in Egypt. And as Grand Vizier over Egypt, only JOSEPH was able to combine his knowledge about the Hieroglyphs' superiority over the paternally learned Cuneiform with his Hebrew language: Easy recognizable phonetic spelling symbols reduced to a minimum of letters. The first Alphabet.

According to Jubilees8:2,11:16,19:14,47:9 NOAH, ABRAHAM, and JACOB learned to read and write Cuneiform from their forefathers; So LEVI's grandson AMRAM also learned to read and write JOSEPH's Hebrew Alphabet and he also taught scribing and scripture according to Jubilees47:9 to his son MOSES before MOSES lived as a Prince in Pharaoh's palace and learned the hieroglyphic scripture and everything about Egyptian culture. 

As already explained the modernistic leading "biblical" archeologists and egyptologists are biased by their dogmatic faith in the antibiblical paradigm that all biblical facts confirming writings of ancient historians are per se corrupted and nowadays discarded as sources of evidence in science:

"Moses was the first wise man and the first
that imparted grammar to the Jews,
the Phoenicians received it from the Jews,
and the Greeks from the Phoenicians."

Eupolemus 150 BC

"Here we have the result at a date
some five centuries before the oldest Phonecian writing that is known ...
it finally DISPROVES the hypothesis that the early Israelites,
who came through this region into Egypt and passed back again
could NOT have used writing."

Flinders Petrie
Founder of Egyptology

According to Jubilees4:17.19,2:1 the first Book of the Bible was written from 3400 to 1800 BC in Cuneiform by HENOCH, NOAH, ABRAHAM, ISAAC, JACOB, and LEVI before it was RENEWED into alphabetical scripture by LEVI; the second and third book of the Bible and the Book of Jubilees was written 1606 BC at Mount Horeb; the fourth and fifth book was written from 1606 to 1566 BC in the desert. They were written by MOSES with the very first Alphabet introduced by JOSEPH. 

Altogether these facts lead to ONE challenging QUESTION
towards modern "Biblical" Archeology and Egyptology:

HOW are the Torah and the 200 BC in Israel evidenced spread and read
Book of Jubilees with their oldest copies from the 2nd Century BC 

(Qumran) able to identify the correct archeologically confirmed centuries AND countries WHEN and WHERE scripture first came up (Cuneiform) 3200 years earlier and then was RENEWED (Alphabet) 1600 years earlier if they are allegedly just a compendium of invented political lies of the first millennium BC (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Z-7qKFTOys) as Leading "Biblical" Archeology claims?

12 Garden graves at Joseph's palace - Austrian Archeological Institute

Joseph's grave in Shechem 


(Genesis50:26) JOSEPH's first biblical grave with his removed body was excavated by Manfred Bietak but recognized and thus discovered by David Rohl in the Garden of JOSEPH's Palace in Avaris at the Nile Delta. It is a little pyramid with a grand statue of a clearly identified foreign Semitic extremely high official, honored uniquely in Egyptian history. He owns a uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew property - a multi-colored coat like JOSEPH did own in the Bible. Tim Mahoney's reconstruction picture of this statue of Grandvizier JOSEPH is shown as a portrait on the overview front page of this book and as a full statue at the end of Chapter Hyksos. The digital reconstruction of the palace with 12 pillars and 12 garden graves mirroring the 12 tribefathers of Israel is shown in the rentable recommended documentary "Patterns of Evidence - The Exodus" on www.patternsofevidence.com and in the lecture of Roger Liebi, who precisely proofs accordance with the strict biblical chronology and reveals even more striking evidence on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84

According to Briand Windle, the palace has the same layout as those big houses typical of Israelite settlements in the later Iron Age.

Next to JOSEPH's grave are 11 other graves of his brothers the patriarchs in different sizes and constellations. Their sizes and positions result from actual family roles and future roles in forefather JACOB's prophecies; LEA's sons RUBEN (2), LEVI (5), and ZEBULON (3) are buried together with JUDA (1), who as most important brother owns the biggest grave, BANJAMIN's grave (4) stands between his brothers' pyramid (12) and LEA's sons' graves. The other graves (6-11) are standing further apart in one row. According to the Book of Jubilees, Father JACOB had already been buried by his sons in Israel in the time of the first battle between Egypt and the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur. 


(Genesis50:25) JOSEPH's final grave with his buried skeleton is up until today visited and honored in Shechem/Sichem in Israel. According to the Bible Joseph did let his family promise to take his body with them into the Promised Land when they would leave Egypt. According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107 ff.) the Egyptians would have tried to rob Joseph’s and Asenath’s mummified bodies and a midwife called Sarah, daughter of the tribe of Asher, and Pharaoh‘s Hebrew daughter Segola (see passage the Ahmosides in Chapter Moses) would have helped Moses to find the mummified parts of Joseph’s and Asenath’s bodies to take them with the Children of Israel to the Promised Land and burry them in Shechem. This story is also confirmed by the Rabbinical traditions (Ex.R.xviii.8 and Sotah13a; Ex.R.xx.17; "D.Y."l.c.; "S.Y."p.126), here she is called Serah, daughter of Asher. After the second funeral of JOSEPH in 1560 BC in Shechem Israel in Joshua24:32, a battle with Canaan follows in Judges1:1. This is the third battle with Canaan in connection with a funeral of the forefathers: Recently before JOSEPH's funeral in Egypt in 1750 BC, his Pharaoh had been killed in a battle with Canaanite King Makamaron according to Jubilees46:6. 21 years later during the funeral of the eleven forefathers, Canaanite King Semquen/Salitis defeats Pharaoh Tiatimos/Dedumose, conquers Avaris 1729 BC, and executes his plan to enslave Israel according to Jubilees46:47 (see Chapter Hyksos).

Picture: 12th Dynasty limestone stele Nizzoli collection Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale number 2579 room 2 

(JOSEPH) Vizier Senwosret-Ankh - holding a lotus flower in his hand - and his wife (ASENATH) Enutsen. According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich JOSEPH held a lotus flower in his hand to his engagement with ASENETH.

1830-1750 BC

It can occur in millennia of history that a great person becomes dispelled into presumed different persons and this way his historical grandness erodes. Egyptologists confirm that in the Middle Kingdom and the Intermediate Period always only one single Grand Vizier ruled the country under Pharaoh. Further occurring two Vizier names at the same time are identifiable co-reigning sons as successors of the Grandvizier. The two ancient Qumran Scriptures from about 200 BC - the Torah and the Book of Jubilees - claim to be written in the biblical year 1606 BC by Moses and there has been no evidence so far disproving this or any other biblical date (see Chapter Chronology). So the Bible says JOSEPH ruled as Grandvizier over complete Egypt from 1830 BC to 1750 BC and that he traveled through complete Egypt after being announced as Vizier which is mirrored in the evidence of five different Vizier names at different locations in the time when only one Vizier ruled over Egypt. The time of his Pharaoh Amenemhet III (partly co-ruling with his father Senusret III) documents five different contemporary Vizier names:


Senusret, Senuseret, Senowsret and Sesostris are same as Amenemhet, Amanemhat and Ameny different versions for one and the same Pharaoh name. Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT/ESENUT in biblical Egyptian. The contemporary Vizier Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh was archeologically evidenced married (see photo above) to a woman named Enutsen or Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing as the biblical Egyptian name ASENAT/ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing in hieroglyphs and in  Hebrew writing. Senwosret-Ankh or Amenemhet-Ankh (on relief fragments in the art trade - List of Viziers German Wikipedia) means Enlivenment of Pharaoh Senwosret III and Pharaoh Amenemhet III or bringing new life to these two Pharaohs. That's exactly what JOSEPH did when he released the two from their main worries regarding their people and country in the year 1830 BC nine biblical years before his family discovered him being alive and settled in Egypt. According to Kenneth Kitchen the biblical Egyptian name of Joseph Gen41:45 - Zafenat Pa'Aneah - is a metathesis of Zatenaf Pa'Ankh which is a garbled form of Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh meaning "He who is called the enlivenment" of Senwosret and Amenemhet (compare David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, pp.604-612). Thus biblically and archeologically evidenced JOSEPH's earliest throne name as Vizierking was Zafenat pa'Aneah or Djeduenef pa'Ankh. Later - most plausibly around 1804 BC when JOSEPH's two sons are grown-up and Father Jacob died - JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM becomes his Co-Vizier and inherits JOSEPH's first royal names as Senwosret Ankhu and Ameny Ankhu, as we will see later, showing he was preferred by Pharaoh to his brother MANASSE Senebefni following grandfather JACOB's special blessing and prophecy. In Genesis41:42 the Bible says Pharaoh "put the gold chain around his neck" in front of his courtiers when he made JOSEPH "ruler over all the land of Egypt". Senewosret-Ankh's statue found at Ugarit shows inscriptions confirming "the gold of praise was given to him in front of all courtiers". This gold chain, Pharaoh's signet ring and the white garments of Byssus = finest linen - all described in Genesis41:38,42 and Jubilees50:7 -became from exactly that time on the three signs of every Vizier in Egyptian History. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Sesostris-Ankh or Amenemhet-Ankh that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt.


Another contemporary Vizier's name is "famous" Kheti/Chety. His name was found near to the up until today called Bar Yusuf = "Joseph's Canal" which leads water from the Nile into a storage lake to reduce the threatening Nile floodings. Khety held an office there in reign year 29 of Amenemhat III in the biblical and archeological year 1810 BC. He was regulating the Nile water level and this way secured the harvest, a task which matches exactly JOSEPH's biblical tasks as new Vizier. His name Khety also reminds us of the biography of his obvious name-giver Khety I the 13th nomos/nomarch of the 10th dynasty who was famous for realizing many new irrigation canals, the maintenance of the old ones, and the bestowing of grain to also save his people from a famine. Vizierking JOSEPH impoverished in the 7 years of famine his elite associates, the top elite of royal officials and nobles of Egypt. They biblically gave away their complete property as payment for grain to survive and Joseph gave it all to Pharaoh. In a later papyrus about the history of Viziers, it says about the "famous" Kethi/Chety: "He impoverished his associates for the benefits of the others". In ancient historian Artapanus' Fragment 2 in Eusebius pr ev IX 23,1-4 JOSEPH ensured a socially "fair distribution so that the weaker were not disadvantaged anymore". There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Kethi that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. 


Biblically Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT/ESENUTin biblical Egyptian. The contemporary Vizier Zamonth was married to a woman named Enutsen or Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing as ASENAT/ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing in hieroglyphs and in  Hebrew writing. And ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit/Iunit/Henut" in Genesis41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD.

Vizier Zamonth ruled under Pharao Amenemhat III in his 9th reign year according to Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. According to Grajetzki "He is perhaps the founder of the Vizier's family in which the office was held for at least three generations." (Wolfram Grajetzki: Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009 p.36, pl.3) There is no evidence like any grave or skeleton proving Zamonth is a real separate person and not only one of the several names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. More striking indications and evidence will follow. Looking at his sculpture (portrait photo at the beginning of this chapter, full-body picture in the middle of this chapter) leads to the question 

Why is Zamonth the only Vizier in Egyptian history wearing a King's Beard?
The Bible's answer is because Joseph was made King over Egypt by Pharaoh.


Vizier Mon(t)uhotep of the 13th Dynasty is archeologically evidenced by a seal (Mnw-htp, Martin, Seals, Nr. 555). His name's close connectivity with the Viziernames Khnumhotep and Zamonth has to be explained later in this Chapter after the reader has the necessary background knowledge. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Vizier Month(u)hotep that would prove him to be a real separate person and not just one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizierking of Egypt JOSEPH.


One of Vizier Khnumhotep's (III) further titles in his "father's" Khnumhotep II biography is "Gate of Foreign Lands" which is exactly mirrored in the 7 years of famine when all foreigners came to JOSEPH to buy grain and also in his biblically mentioned expeditions through the complete country. Detlef Franke confirms him being Vizier under Pharaoh Senwosret III and possibly under Amenemhet III which is exactly the biblical time of JOSEPH. But he is confusing the eastern desert expeditions on the stele of Wadi Gasus from Senwosret's II first reign year with being Vizier Khnumhotep's ones in spite of his "father" Khnumhotep II being the dedicated responsible overseer of the eastern desert in that time which will be explained later further on. Khnumhotep (III) is the only contemporary Vizier name archeologically connectable with a grave found together with a skeleton, so we take now a deeper look into it:


Khnumhotep means "The deity Khnum is happy/satisfied". Khnum was usually depicted as a sheep ram-headed man assumed by many as the Egyptian oldest and creator deity, father of fathers, creator of men, breathing life into newborns, Lord of the created things. This deity is described like JOSEPH would have described his own G'D to an Egyptian and the Egyptian would have thought he is talking about Khnum: For example when he would talk to his biblical master and later adoptive father in law noble high royal official POTIPHAR/POTIPHERA of Genesis39:1,41:45. This deity Khnum later melted together with the deity Amun when JOSEPH's son MANASSE most plausibly learned this "egyptianised" identification of the One God of Israel from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR and followed him in his footsteps as Egyptian highpriest transforming Hebrew monotheism into Egyptian semi-monotheism as we will later deeper examine and learn in this Chapter. 'Khnum' is also the guardian of the life-spending river Nile. The Nile is the basis and place of Pharaoh's dream, unraveled by JOSEPH, which makes him the highest man below Pharaoh in Egypt (Genesis41:15). So JOSEPH becomes the guardian of the life spending (and destroying) Nile water level. Thus the role of Khnum is mirroring the biblical role of JOSEPH in the eyes of Egyptians which makes this name a most plausible candidate for naming JOSEPH.

Vizier Knumhotep's (III) tomb stands attached to the one of Pharaoh Senwosret III. It plausibly was not built directly attached to his son Pharaoh Amenemhet's Pyramide because his Pyramide already showed troubles: It was built too near to the flooding Nile water and thus was damaged and unstable. JOSEPH's biblical diffidence is reflected by the noticeable small sizes of his tombs. The size of JOSEPH's grave pyramid built in his palace's garden in Avaris is also small. On the other hand, the size of his statue in his small pyramid is impressively tall: And indeed, this statue was manufactured in Pharaoh Amenemhet's stonemason's workshop as a likely present from his grateful friend (David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth or History, 07 Joseph the Vizier)

The scientific identification of the skeleton in Vizier Khnumhotep's III grave as to be Khnumhotep's own skeleton is strikingly questionable: all three graves (Senwosret III, Amenemhet III, Khnumhotep III) were Kenotaphs, not selected for the real burial. And the rest of the later found grave inscribed biography reveals that not the original owner - who had already been identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep - but a later legal buyer of the grave was afterward buried here. In spite of these two strong indications for the skeleton not being Vizier Khnumhotep's body, the second grave owner is - as well as the first grave owner beforehand - again identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep. Thus the biography of the second grave owner (link to biography) has been misleadingly mixed up with the biographical evidence of the original owner Vizier Khnumhotep. Conclusion:


The scientific biography of Khnumhotep III is polluted 
- not only with Khnumhotep's II biography evidence - 
but also with biographical content of the later buyer & user of his grave.

Finally, there is no serious evidence for Vizier Khnumhotep's buried body, no evidence for any buried body or grave of Vizier Kethi, no evidence for any body or grave of Vizier Zamonth, and no evidence for JOSEPH's body in his small pyramid tomb with his statue in his palace in Avaris in Goshen.

There is only evidence of one grave together with the body of the former Grandvizier and King of Egypt JOSEPH: It is in Shechem in Israel, where JOSEPH told his people to bring his body when they would leave to the Promised Land. And except the name Montuhotep all names are standing for a Viziership in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhat III in a time when only one single Vizier at a time was the case according to leading Egyptologists.

In the case of Vizier Khnumhotep (III) we can learn much better, who he was when we take a deeper look into the history of his "father" Khnumhotep II:



Khnumhotep II was born into one of the most powerful noble nomarch families of Egypt. His career biography is inscribed in his tomb. His predecessor and relative died early so that he had to build the tomb for him. Thus already in his young years, he became the highest member of the elite Irypat as Count and Hatya Mayor of his town Menat Khufu (today called Al Minya between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan), Overlord of the town Nekheb (between Thebes and Edfu across from Nekhen/Hierakonpolis), and Governor/Overseer of the Eastern Desert in the biblical year 1881 BC (Egyptologists estimate '1895' or '1859' BC) which was the 19th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhat II as inscribed in his grave tomb. Time after time he became also appointed the "Sole Friend" of Pharaoh - most plausibly by the following Pharaoh Senwosret II as explained later. Khnumhotep II was the Royal Sealer and the Treasurer of Pharaoh, so he was also responsible for products entering the Royal Palace. So he owned the most important position at the royal court below the Vizier in case there was one at all in his best time. Most details of his tomb descriptions in Beni Hasan in this work result from the most commonly known article of Egyptologist Janice Kamrin which can be examined and checked linked here.

In his tomb inscriptions, Khnumhotep II is also called "Stolist Priest of Pakhet and Horus"; The High Priest of the deity Horus/Ra (Syncretism) was also the High Priest of the town Heliopolis/On. He is also called 'sar tabbah' meaning Chief Executioner and Highest of Court and Law Enforcement. The Highest of Law Enforcement was additionally the Chief of the Royal Prison (compare Genesis39:20 & Jubilees39:14) at that time as we will see later. According to Khnumhotep's II most famous tomb picture, Janice Karmin explains "He is the Priest of Pakhet, a lioness deity with links to the eye of Horus who is closely associated with the desert ... Directly in front of the scribes of Khnumhotep II - one of whom is a royal document scribe and thus associated with the royal central administration - are three officials, one of whom restrains a prisoner of some sort by holding him around the neck with a staff.": You can discover this Royal Prison official restraining a prisoner in the full tomb picture later shown in this chapter: The prison official and the prisoner are the third last and second last men standing in the lowest line in the lower right corner. You are invited to scroll down to the full tomb picture and check them: the officials of Khnumhotep's royal prison and of his ministerial offices are shown and listed in this lowest tomb picture line and in the second line above. Janice Karmin describes this scene of the prisoner but cannot explain it - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees give the explaining answer as You will see later ...

Janice Karmin also explains that Khnumhotep's II position as "Administrator of the Eastern Desert provided a direct connection with prospecting and mining activities ... Sydney Aufrere ... concludes that Khnumhotep II controlled the northern part of the Eastern Desert from the Wadi Hammamat to the southern Sinai and thus the route to Canaan from his seat at Menat Khufu/Al Minya (between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan)."

You may ask Yourself why are all these facts about Khnumhotep II so strikingly relevant that You have to read them? The answer is because they are all already telling the story (Genesis37:36.39) of biblical POTIPHAR ...

Gustavo Camps Picture: Beni Hasan Tomb North Wall BH3
Find the Semitic Family in the third line from above.
Find the Royal Prison Official restraining a Prisoner in the lowest line in the right corner. He is archeological evidence for Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR being Chief of the Royal Prison as revealed by the Book of Jubilees:




In the biblical year 1843 BC, 17-year-old JOSEPH is sold by his jealous brothers as a slave to Medanites/Ishmaelites from Gilead/Shutu, who sold him most likely at the Egyptian border in one of the copper or turquoise mining slave worker towns. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II visits as usual the mining places in his eastern governance territory and inspects the new slaves, selecting some for his home palace. He chooses JOSEPH to test him as a home palace slave and takes him to his country residence in Men'at Khufu (today Minya). Genesis39:4 says JOSEPH was so tremendously blessed with successful work that he became highest under his master and managed everything - even everything POTIPHAR managed beforehand himself thus POTIPHAR retired on his estate regarding all his former tasks and decisions. 

POTIPHAR's Khumhotep's II role at Pharaoh's palace is biblically called Royal Court Official. His special task is being the sar tabbah - meaning Chief Executioner or Highest of Court or Minister of Law Enforcement (compare Genesis37:36,41:10.12) - and so he was also the Chief of the Royal Prison and its prison officials (see Genesis39:20 Jubilees39:14): These titles were biblically sometimes anachronistically translated as Eunuch instead of Chamberlain, as chief cook instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing, as chief of bodyguards or captain of the guard instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel and as chief prison keeper instead of Chief of the Royal Prison. These are all archeologically evidenced roles of Khnumhotep II as we learned already and they match exactly the Bible together with the Book of Jubilees.

Khnumhotep II POTIPHAR was also archeologically and biblically evidenced as the High Priest of On/Elew/Heliopolis which matches Jubilees34:11,40:10. In Genesis41:45 his name seemingly has transformed from POTIPHAR into POTIPHERA but in reality, it has stayed exactly the same if You take into account that Hebrew writing just as hieroglyphic writing did not have any vocals: In the 1875 Allioli Bible he is still called PUTIPHARE as JOSEPH's father in law in Genesis41:45 and in its footnote (18) it says a shorter version of this name is PUTIPHAR but without identifying both PUTIPHARS explicitly as the same person. POTIPHAR was JOSEPH's Master and his Chief of Prison at the same time. This is revealed in Genesis39:22,40:3. Jubilees39:14 reveals additionally the House of Prison being the House of the Chief Cook or Chief of Foodstuffs Purchasing, which is exactly one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II archeologically evidenced titles. Genesis40:3 reveals the House of Prison being the House of the Chief of Bodyguards or Captain of the Guard or Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel, which has been beforehand already explained as being one biblical title of POTIPHAR. Noble POTIPHAR was not only JOSEPH's Master but he was also the Priest of Heliopolis like noble Khnumhotep II archeologically evidenced was and he later also was JOSEPH's Father in Law POTIPHERA at the same time: This is revealed by Jubilees34:11 (Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees 40,10a footnote) and in Origines' ancient writings. At last Jubilees40:10 reveals that JOSEPH marries the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis named POTIPHAR - instead! of POTIPHERA - who is also the Chief Cook/ Overseer of ingoing Foodstuffs which is one of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II official titles. And Jubilees34:11 reveals JOSEPH being sold to POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, the eunuch or better Chamberlain, the chief cook or better Overseer of the Royal Palace ingoing foodstuffs and finally the Priest of Elew/Heliopolis. This is altogether strong evidence confirming POTIPHAR is POTIPHERA is Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH's slavemaster and later JOSEPH's Chief of Prison. 

Pictures: 1843 BC JOSEPH becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II slave for 10 years. After being accused of sexual harassment by his noble wife, JOSEPH becomes for 3 years his prisoner in the Royal Prison POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II is Chief of. In both cases, JOSEPH's work is so tremendously blessed that he is appointed highest under him, takes over all his tasks, and gains his very most trust.

1843 BC JOSEPH arrives as slave at POTIPHAR's Palace

POTIPHAR's Wife accuses JOSEPH of sexual harassment

1833 BC POTIPHAR put's JOSEPH into prison

The biblical failed try of POTIPHAR's wife to seduce JOSEPH into adultery lead into the next step of JOSEPH's miraculous fate: After the high noble nomarch Lady accused the slave JOSEPH of sexual harassment, her husband was legally forced to punish his most competent and trusted man in the house: The Genisis39:20 footnote 14 comment in the Allioli Bible says the honor of wives was legally protected, therefore Joseph had to be taken to the Royal Prison. As a slave without interrogation and without defense. Thus JOSEPH was taken away by POTIPHAR into the Royal Prison. The Royal Prison was led by POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II himself as the Chief of Prison. This way, POTIPHAR makes JOSEPH for the second time the highest under him but now in his Royal Prison and JOSEPH again manages absolute everything for him.

JOSEPH Khnumhotep III becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II only full trusted "sole friend" as the Beni Hasan grave inscriptions confirm. This was originally an honorarium given to Khnumhotep II himself by his most beloved Pharaoh Senowsret II, the last Pharaoh who strongly supported the noble nomarchs and Khnumhotep II was his highest and most beloved one: For a Pharaoh, it was hard to find a trustful man in the royal palace with enough integrity to always give an honest answer. Later on, JOSEPH becoming Grand Vizier Zamonth was also archeologically evidenced announced as Pharaoh Amenemhat's III "Real Friend". After JOSEPH had read Pharaoh's dreams and consulted him on how to save Egypt out of 7 deadly years of famine, Pharoh made JOSEPH the highest under him to let him manage and decide everything, the complete Rulership over Egypt. This kind of complete handover of tasks happens to JOSEPH now for the third time in Egypt. POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II adopts JOSEPH as his son to make him an Egyptian. He gives to him his own nomarch honorary name Khnumhotep (III) and he also gives to him his daughter ESENUTH Henutsen/ Henut as a wife - a marriage biblically blessed and ordered by Pharaoh Amenemhat III as later archeological evidence will confirm.


JOSEPH's Story and further evidence for JOSEPH being Khnumhotep (III) is shown in Khnumhotep's II biography lines 1-17 in the inscriptions in his tomb translated by Kanawati and Evans (2014:31-36): They exactly mirror POTIPHAR's relationship story with JOSEPH: 

He (POTIPHAR) strengthed the name of his council
(through JOSEPH) being advanced according to his offices
and the most trusty one among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants.

This story is told in the Beni Hassan tomb inscription not recognized and thus translated and interpreted by Evans and Kanawati as: 

"He (Khnumhotep II) strengthened the name of his council
() being advanced according to their offices
and the trusty ones among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants"

This is an essential part of the biblical relationship story between JOSEPH and POTIPHAR told in tomb inscriptions as a part of the historical relationship story between Khnumhotep III and Khnumhotep II. 

1830 BC: JOSEPH becomes Pharaoh Senwosret's III and his son Amenemhet's III Grandvizier firstly called Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh and later Zamonth and he additionally becomes adoptive son in law of POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II and is thus also named Khnumhotep III. In his tomb pictures, Khnumhotep II calls JOSEPH his "Sole Friend". 1826 BC Potiphar's daughter ASENAT/ESENUT Henutsen gives him two sons: The dizygotic twins EPHRAIM named (Senwosret-)Ankhu and MANASSE named Senebefni/Senebtefi Ibiaw.

JOSEPH becomes Vizierking of Egypt & Sole Friend of POTIPHAR

POTIPHAR becomes JOSEPH's Adoptive Father in Law 

POTIPHAR's Daughter ASENATH becomes JOSEPH's Wive  


Khnumhotep II and POTIPHAR are 
archeologically and biblically evidenced 
one and the same person.

POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was archeologically and biblically evidenced Royal Court official responsible for the royal personnel, Chief Executioner, Highest of Court and Law Enforcement and thus Chief of the Royal Prison, Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing and High Priest of Heliopolis.

The same as in the case of JOSEPH's different Vizier names  
POTIPHAR became dispelled into different individuals 
- Slave Master, Chief of Prison, and Priest of Heliopolis - 
in the biblical translation and copying processes of millennia.




Beni Hassan Tomb Pictures are shown above, several below, the logo in the left corner above and on the Homepage. The fourth grave in connection with JOSEPH is the tomb of Noble Nomarch Khnumhotep II identified now as biblical POTIPHAR. It was completed no later than at the end of the 19th century BC most plausibly by his "son" Knumhotep III identified now as JOSEPH, Vizierking under Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III (see Chapter Chronology). 

The key evidence for Khnumhotep's II tomb DATING
and the deciding refutation of the traditional datings is examined in

The funeral procession pictures inside the grave show a family of important Semites in the focus of the royal house as described by egyptologist Janice Karmin: They have light skin, are wearing an up until today unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut, throw sticks, and compound bows and wear uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew properties - white or lengthways striped filigree patterned multicolored clothing - and they are bringing offerings to the deceased. The biography of the deceased confirms about Vizier Khnumhotep JOSEPH that he became Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend" which would by no means be a plausible honorarium title for a blood son of his own: A blood son would have followed his father's footsteps as the nomarch of the 16th nome - like his son Khnumhotep IV as a matter of fact did. Egyptologists are not able to explain these circumstances but they recognize that Khnumhotep (III) must have received his name from Khnumhotep II thus they identify him as the blood son. More plausible is the case that Vizier Khnumhotep had become as Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend" also his adoptive son: As a foreigner, JOSEPH was additionally married to his daughter and Khnumhotep II adopted him as his Father in Law. This way JOSEPH became an Egyptian citizen. Only in Khnumhotep's II tomb inscription Vizier Khnumhotep's name shows up the number III as part of his name. In all other inscriptions, he only needed to be called Vizier Khnumhotep in order to be recognized which fits JOSEPH's biblically confirmed bigger fame than POTIPHAR's former fame as second highest in Egypt in these times. 

The funeral picture is showing two Egyptian officials coming together with an obviously highly relevant Semitic Family as funeral guests who are bringing offerings to the deceased. The two Egyptian officials are identified as Neferhotep - the Vizier's royal scribe bowing down in front of Khumhotep II and presenting a poster with an announcement which will clarify later the tomb dating - and the second royal official bringing the Semite family: He is called Khety in his inscriptions above; Khety is one of the five different Viziernames 1830-1750 BC in the biblical Vizier Kingship time of JOSEPH as explained at the beginning of this Chapter.
On https://benihassan.com/dictionary/Khnumhotep+II+Tomb+3/A+procession+of+foreigners/ the madainproject describes Khety: "The second man is labeled jmj-r nww Htjj ‘the Overseer of Hunters, Khety’." As his best man as a slave and later as his sole friend JOSEPH - named Khety and Khnumhotep - logically accompanied POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II on his hunts in the desert: Such a hunt scene is also depicted in the tomb and deeper described later. In his role as the Vizier of Pharaoh, one of JOSEPH's Khety's common tasks was accompanying the Pharaoh's huntings in an official role called the "Overseer of the Hunters". This shows for the second time that Khnumhotep II is often honored in his tomb like a Pharaoh which is confirmed by leading Egyptologists.

Khnumhotep is mentioned on the poster of Neferhotep in the text "the Aamu (the Semites) that the son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep, brought": In his analysis of the tomb picture, Detlef Franke concludes that the “son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep" in the poster text refers to Khnumhotep III who would allegedly "accompany the standing figure of his father on this wall". (Franke 1991, 57–60 - click here to check on page 25 and check the full tomb picture above where You can see him in the upper right corner).
But the son that is accompanying the standing figure of his father on this wall is most plausibly Khumhotep's II blood son Khnumhotep IV and egyptologists like Franke have to explain why his real blood son and follower as nomarch would be otherwise missing in the complete tomb pictures of his father.

But Franke correctly identifies Khnumhotep III with Vizier Khnumhotep who brought the Semites called "the Aamu" to Khnumhotep II as clearly described on the poster. And the tomb picture unambiguously additionally shows how he brings the Semitic family to his adoptive father; The open question remains, why he is called (Vizier) Khety in the picture but (Vizier) Khnumhotep in the poster text and the obvious conclusion is, that two different Viziernames of JOSEPH in that time are archeologically evidenced Khnumhotep and Khety and both his names are mentioned in the tomb inscriptions. Thus as described on the poster and visualized in the picture JOSEPH named Khnumhotep AND Khety is bringing his Semitic family to his adoptive father-in-law POTIPHAR Khumhotep II. This is only one of many following pieces of archeological evidence for the different Vizier names of JOSEPH in the biblical time between 1830 BC and 1750 BC.

The close relationship and loyalty of POTIPHAR Knumhotep II to the Royal House of Pharaoh are emphasized in inscriptions and pictures several times: This is happening in the biblically stated time of JOSEPH as Semitic Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut) over the Royal House together with his Semitic family members as King's Shepherds appointed by Pharaoh over all his sheep and cattle herds of Egypt according to Genesis47:6 as we will examine in the next passage ...

From the left: BENJAMIN, Father JACOB, JOSEPH named Khety Khumhotep and his royal scribe Neferhotep who's poster and further hieroglyphs are analyzed in the following chapter
(Neferhotep's beard is missing in the original painting)


Khnumhotep and Khety 
are archeologically evidenced two different Vizier names 
of the same Vizier over Egypt 
1830-1750 BC in the biblical time of JOSEPH 
ruling as Vizierking over complete Egypt.

The poster royal scribe Neferhotep presents towards Khnumhotep II




The first hieroglyphs which have to be taken a closer look at are the ones on the poster the royal scribe Neferhotep is presenting towards Khnumhotep II in the tomb picture (see picture above): Neferhotep is the first in the tomb picture line of the Semitic family when You start on the right-hand side. The date on the poster is the used fundament of egyptologists trying to date the age of the tomb picture and the age of the tomb itself. The date is connected by egyptologists with the arrival of the Semitic 'Aamu' in Egypt. This means that egyptologists, denying strictly this family could be Israel arriving in Egypt, nevertheless are convinced that the year of the Semitic family's arrival in Egypt is the most important year worth mentioning in the whole tomb and in Khnumhotep's II whole life besides his first career year. As a matter of fact, the only really shown event in the tomb is their participation in an offering procession of the deceased and not their arrival in Egypt, which is a subjective baseless interpretation. There are further alternative egyptologists' examination results bringing more light to this date:

The egyptologists Kessler and Rabehl assume the tomb wall picture is related to an anniversary festival celebration and "can be seen as an allusion to the celebration of the New Year’s Festival". The observation leads already in the right direction but the conclusion does not yet take all relevant data into account:

According to Jürgen von Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on the IV Peret Day 14 as the most plausible Day of the Death of Pharaoh Senwosret II; Senwosret II stands for the last flourishing time of the power of the Egyptian Nomarchs and POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend" was the most Pharaoh beloved and powerful Nomarch of this time. The power of Egyptian nomarchs was firstly broken archeologically evidenced by Senwosret III and at last after POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II death totally diminished in the time of the biblically evidenced and archeologically indicated Great Famine: The Nomarchs had to sell all their property to their Vizierking JOSEPH who gave it all into Pharaoh Amenemhet's III hand. This leads to the following most plausible conclusion: 

The tomb inscribed 6th year of Senwosret II on the poster is representing
the decennial Going Forth to Heaven Festival, 
which was in 1819 BC the 50th Anniversary Festival of Senwosret's II death

in his 6th official (sole) reign year 1859 BC. 

Senwosret II was the last glorious nomarch-friendly Pharaoh. He appointed Nomarch Potiphar Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend": thus Senwosret II was especially honored and celebrated by POTIPHAR's Oryx Nomarch Clan. The poster in the tomb picture is shown to Khnumhotep II by a royal official together with Vizier Knumhotep Khety "receiving" the important Semitic family bringing offerings to the deceased.

In the biblical year 1821 BC Israel's clan of 70/75 people arrived in Egypt in the land of Goshen and settled in Avaris. Two years later 1819 BC they participated as offering guests on this festival. In the tomb the royal official is announcing this arrival of POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend's" and (adoptive) son's family together with Senwosret's II 50th Death Anniversary Festival celebrated by the complete Nomarch Clan of Khnumhotep II. "May these offerings and all other festival offerings benefit You forever in eternity" would be one of the most plausible key messages of this impressive tomb picture. This confirms the egyptologists' assumption that the grave pictures try to honor Khnumhotep II as much as normally only a Pharaoh is honored. Three years after complete Egypt has honored the death of Amenemhet's III famous father Senwosret III - the greatest Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, who was worshipped as a deity still long time after - JOSEPH honors his adoptive father in law and dearest Egyptian friend with one of the most extraordinary tombs in Egyptian history controversially discussed up until today...


The announced "6th Reign Year of Senusret II" 
1859 BC on the poster in Khnumhotep's II tomb

is neither the date of the arrival of the Semitic family in Egypt nor the building date of the tomb as assumed by egyptologists.

It is the Festival Title of the 50th Anniversary Feast of Pharaoh Senusret's II death in his 6th Reign Year
celebrated by Khnumhotep's II Oryx Nomarch Clan in 1819 BC shortly before Khnumhotep's death. 


Now we take a closer look at the hieroglyphs above the first two Semites in the famous tomb picture. If You want to precisely study all hieroglyphs of the picture of the Semitic family You can do this on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LIM3KfStZg&t=4393s. The whole tomb biography is starting from the right because the reading direction is revealed by the view direction of depicted participants and on this picture and in the hieroglyphs it goes from the right to the left facing the eyes of the coming people. In case You look not only isolated on the phonetic meaning of the hieroglyphs but also observe the precise meaning of a single hieroglyph You are discovering indications for JOSEPH's biblical story (see picture below): 

The first Hyroglyph at the left shows twenty-two and fifteen as numbers. Fifteen Semites are shown in the picture, further twenty-two of them were plausibly present at the announced festival on the poster at the right end of the line. Science is discussing if the number only stands for the shown procession visiting group or more generally for a group of Semitic families from Canaan arriving in Egypt to start a new living. The Scriptures of Qumran gave the answer already 3600 years ago: 70 descendants of Israel(Genesis46:27) arrived in 1821 BC in Egypt. This number excludes 5 descendants (Acts7:14) who died early without children in Egypt: GAD's son ERI (Genesis46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA and SALOMON (Jubilees44:20 footnote d Klaus Berger and Jubilees44:29); The reason for their childless death is explained by Jewish beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerick (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes page 104) and in the famous ancient narrative of Joseph & Asenath later introduced. The two sons of JUDAH ER and ONAN had died already beforehand in Canaan (Genesis38:7.10) and are also not included in the number 70. This is also the explanation for the different numbers 70 and 75 in the Greek Septuagint around 200 BC and the Qumran evidenced Torah around 200 BC. It is revealed by the Book of Jubilees like all seeming differences between the famous Stephanus speech and the Torah in Acts7 debated cluelessly up until today.

Estimated names according to 
A) family ranking 
        B) relationship to Joseph 
     C) age from the right: 
Royal Scribe, JOSEPH, Father JACOB, BENYAMIN, 

Then You see a hieroglyph group of three or four hieroglyphs, 'Aamu' spoken, translated by Egyptologists as "Asiatics" of "the Southern Levante" which means Semites of Canaan. According to the leading Egyptologist for this tomb picture - Janice Karmin - 'Aamu' is generally agreed by egyptologists to be a Semitic (thus possibly Hebrew) loanword and the bulk of scholarly opinion would place the homeland of the Aamu of Shu in the "Southern Levant" which fits Hebron where Israel or Father Jacob and his family came from. Redford concludes that it is derived from a west Semitic word and can be linked to the root Alamu meaning mankind or People.

According to David Kahn, it is in the tomb of Khnumhotep II that the earliest instance of encoded writing in history is found. It is posited that this was intended to be highly stylized funerary language rather than secret communications which are re-examined now for the hieroglyphs of the word 'Aamu': Translations of the several inscriptions reveal that some uncommon hieroglyphic symbols were used in place of the more ordinary ones. There are also inconsistencies in the grammatical syntax. Some Egyptologists believe that particular passages in Khnumhotep II's funerary inscription were deliberately transformed in order to obscure the original meaning. Thus we will take a second more closer, differentiating, and precise look on the single hieroglyphs of the so-called hieroglyph group 'Asiatics':

The first hieroglyph is showing a Semitic slave or prisoner: Indeed You see clearly a Semitic man with a beard and light skin kneeling tied at the back (see picture above and logo in the left corner above). The tomb of Knumhotep II was finished about a century before the enslavement of Israel thus this can not be the historical background of this famous hieroglyph in case not only read as a phonetic letter of the by Egyptologists used word "Asiatics". Biblically the only well known Semite of Canaan in exactly that time, who once arrived as a slave and ten years later was thrown into prison tied behind his back on his knees in Egypt like in the hieroglyphic picture, was a man called JOSEPH, later better known as great famous Vizierking and Savior of Egypt out of famine.

The next shown hieroglyph is a throwing stick. It is by no means representing Canaanites, there is no proving evidence at all for this option in the time of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs, the time of the 15th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology). These are unique Semitic foreigners with their own by Manfred Bietak excavated unique Mesopotamian, northern Syrian, and Canaanite attributes (= the life locations of ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB) from a century before and clearly different to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur according to the Book of Jubilees and confirmed by Bietaks archeological conclusions. Here they are called the Aamu and they use in contrast to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' throw sticks like JOSEPH's statue from the same time (see Chapter Hyksos) did already proof. The hunt as a sport has been up until today a royal and noble privilege since the upcoming agriculture civilization over 4 millennia ago. Grand Vizier JOSEPH alias Vizier Khnumhotep III alias Vizier Kheti/Chety taught his friend and noble adoptive father in law POTIPHAR alias Khnumhotep II - in one of his common Vizier roles as Pharaoh's Overseer of the Hunters - how to use his family's throw stick - the evidence is shown in the tomb pictures. This is again confirming the theory of leading egyptologists that Khnumhotep II is treated and honored like a Pharaoh in his tomb; Treated by Vizier Khnumhotep III like a Pharaoh. Khnumhotep III is identified by leading egyptologists as the one who lead this burial project and JOSEPH as Vizierking Khnumhotep is according to the Bible the only man in Egypt besides Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) who is powerful enough to decide such an extraordinary honorship. Janice Karmin additionally confirms: "a second man wears a white garment; he carries a throwing stick that is very similar in form both to the hieroglyph used in the word for Aamu and to the weapon wielded by Khnumhotep II himself in the marsh hunting scene on the east wall. The fact that this type of weapon is used as a determinative for Aamu supports the theory that it was typical hunting and perhaps also a military tool in their culture. The Tell el-Daba dignitary mentioned above (Joseph's statue in his Pyramide grave in Chapter Hyksos is meant) also holds a throwing stick against one shoulder." 

Estimated names according to 

A) family ranking 

        B) relationship to JOSEPH 

     C) age from the right: 

on the donkey JUDAH'S last sons PEREZ and ZELACH, RUBEN's last son KARAMI, 

JACOB's last still alive wife ZILPA, RUBEN'S wive ADA, GAD's young daughter SARA, JUDAH's second wive SUA, a donkey, ISSACHAR, and ZEBULON 

"Ye shall not cut the edge of your scalp,
neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard"

Vayikra/Leviticus 19:27 OJB

The "Early Hyksos"
the Foreign Semites in Egypt of the 19th century BC
are wearing an up until today
unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut
in clear distinguishing contrast to any depicted Canaanites.
(See more distinguishing evidence at the end of Chapter Hyksos)

Photographed Original: Family Picture of unique Semites in the focus of the Royal House together with Vizier Khnumhotep/Kheti bringing offerings to the deceased Khnumhotep II

In contrast to any depicted Canaanites, these Semites wear unbandaged not edges cut neck free hair instead of bandaged edges cut shoulder length mushroom head haircut and a not corner's cut full beard without mustache instead of a corner's cut goatee beard or a corner's cut full beard with mustache.

Sidenote: If You look at JOSEPH's Semitic (Chapter Hyksos) and Egyptian (this Chapter) sculpture You will discover that the hair is not his hair but a wig and that his Egyptian King’s beard is not his beard but artificial so that he doesn’t break any later written down law.

Israel in Egypt Khnumhotep II Grave


Conclusion: The famous picture of Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hassan shows JOSEPH's Father JACOB bowing down gratefully in front of the man who cared so wonderfully for his son JOSEPH in his absence. He is offering an Oryx Antilope honoring the Oryx nomarch standing barefoot together with his son JOSEPH, POTIPHERA's adoptive son and son-in-law named Khnumhotep Kheti. The antelope is also a special one of the few kosher animals which are belonging to the typical Hebrew sacrifice animals: For the Israelites, she‘s famous for her special beauty and is found in the ancient Hebrew Song: 

„Come away, my beloved,
and be like a gazelle
or like a young stag
on the spice-laden mountains.“

Songs 8:14

Behind father JACOB comes his second favored son of JACOB's already departed beloved wife RAHEL called BENYAMIN with a second now female Oryx Antilope offering, also certainly barefoot because of being part of the holy sacrifice offering process. JACOB himself later was buried by his sons also barefooted and weaponed carrying his coffin according to the apocryphal Jewish Book of Jasher/ Book of the Righteous Chapter 56. Carrying one's weapons at a rifle brother's funeral is up until today a custom in most societies, but nevertheless, the egyptologists are cluelessly surprised about the weapons on the picture, still convinced these offering guests being total strangers to Khnumhotep II which does make no sense for any funeral scene. 

According to Jewish beatified blessed Anna Katarina Emmerich POTIPHAR would have become a good friend of Father JACOB. He would have received the circumcision and would have served the G'D of Israel at the end of his life (AKE Geheimnisse des Alten und Neuen Bundes, page 107). Behind BENJAMIN the sons of already deceased LEA called RUBEN, LEVI, JUDAH and SIMEON follow, then JUDAH's last two sons on the donkey, RUBEN's last son and then JACOB's wife SILPA, LEA's maid as last alive wife of JACOB. RAHEL's maid BILHA and LEA's daughter DINA had died already after JOSEPH's presumed death according to Jubilees34:16. In the end, two further sons of LEA are following - ISSACHAR and ZEBULON. The reasons for not depicted brothers can be read in the ancient story out of Egypt "Joseph and Asenath" http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm and in AK Emmerich's Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes S. 104. The names derive from Jub34:20ff.44,12ff.

The hieroglyphs for the title Hekachasut, "Shepherd King" or "Ruler of Foreign Lands", from which the name "Hyksos" is derived, can be connected with the old bowed leader as the Shepherd King to the left-hand side of the hieroglyph, with his sons behind him or it can possibly also be connected with JOSEPH himself on the right-hand side as Ruler of Foreign Lands, identified by Egyptologists as the royal official (Vizier) Khety. 

Father JACOB's inscribed name is identified as the Hebrew (Genesis24:2) biblical name Abi-shar "my father is king" or Abisharie "my father is strong". If this is how JACOB called himself in front of the Egyptians, it would fit his comment in front of Pharaoh regarding his forefathers in Genesis47:9. If this is how his sons called him it is a kind of 'My Sir Father' addressing but much more personal: Aba means rather a dad than a father, thus big dad could also be a translation that fits a dad leading a family of 70 descendants and their wives after all their slaves had been set free in Canaan according to the Book of Jubilees. 

Egyptologists conclude that further inscriptions claim that the Hekachasut, the "Rulers of Foreign Lands", came from the land of Shutu. According to Aharoni (1979, page 146) the land of Shutu the Shepherd King/ Ruler of Foreign Lands comes from is probably an ancient term for Gilead. The Bible says the Midianites/Ishmaelites who took JOSEPH as a slave with them down to Egypt came from Gilead Genesis37:25 which could have led to the Egyptian conclusion JOSEPH and his family would have come from Gilead. All in all, these are additional strong archeological indications confirming the Bible.

1821 BC    JACOB's Clan Israel is entering Egypt for the Ensettlement in the land of Goshen 
           Father JACOB may see his dead believed son JOSEPH at last again being alive 



We have already learned that biblical POTIPHAR gave as much responsibility to his slave JOSEPH as possible because of his tremendous talents. When JOSEPH became Vizierking over Egypt POTIPHAR gave to him his daughter ASENAT or ESENUT and his name Khnumhotep - which is a sign of adoption - and made him an Egyptian on this way. We have already shown that biblical POTIPHAR was archeologically evidenced called Khnumhotep II and Vizier Khnumhotep is confirmed by Egyptologists as his (adoptive) son. So it would not surprise if POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II who was Mayor of different towns would also share his responsibilities as Mayor with JOSEPH as Vizier Khnumhotep. If two of JOSEPH's Viziernames are Khnumhotep and Zamonth we probably would find archeological evidence for interconnections between noble nomarch Vizier Khnumhotep II and the Vizier Zamonth: 

According to JOSEPH's wive's biblical name ESENUT archeologically evidenced as Enutsen or Henut, one of JOSEPH's Vizier names was ZaMonth, meaning Son of Month. Because of having saved Egypt out of death by famine and because of his great wisdom he was adored so much by the Egyptians that he could not avoid being more and more worshipped - not only as the son of the Egyptian deity Month but also even as the Egyptian deity Month himself as later shown by further evidence. In this way Month remained in Egyptians memories as a famous popular deity even up until the 13th century BC: For example, to praise Pharaoh Ramesses II in the Papyrus Anastasia II he was extraordinarily called the "deity Month in both lands .. and Vizier who is friendly minded to Egypt". Why does a great Pharaoh like Ramesses II compare himself with a "smaller" Vizier in order to look greater? Biblical History gives the answer: JOSEPH was the Vizier and King who was as friendly-minded to Egypt and he was worshipped and glorified not only as the son of Month but later even as the deity Month himself as we will prove later. 

JOSEPH Vizier ZaMonth was also appointed as "Mouth of Nekhen" the spokesman or speaker of the town of Nehkhen (between Thebes and Edfu) and soweth most plausibly was also the mayor of Nekhen, in greek called Heirankopolis = Hawk City. A hawk or a falcon was representing the syncretized deities Month, Nekheny, and Horus. Nekhen is one of the oldest religious places in the world and was the Egyptian religious center from 3500 BC up to the turn of times and it was the center of the cult of the hawk deity, Horus, Nekheny or Month, the divine Patron of the Kings: Joseph biblically served as Patron of the Kings Senwosret III and Amenemhat III. 

Nekhen's companion town Nekheb (today El-Kab) on the opposite bank of the Nile was up until JOSEPH's time the more influential noble nomarch town of Egypt. And POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was the "Overlord of Nekheb". In JOSEPH's time, Nekhen overtook Nekheb's influence and became an important tomb town of the Intermediate Period. Later in the New Kingdom Nekheb "eclipsed in the city of Nekhen". JOSEPH's Zamonth's son and follower EPHRAIM Ankhu is also on a later stela inscribed as Judge and Keeper of Nekhen (Cairo, Egyptian Museum, CG 20403)

Thus POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH Zamonth, and EPHRAIM Ankhu were all Mayors of the twin town Nekheb-Nekhen. These are already the first strong indications for the Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth being a noble name and a royal name for one and the same Vizier at the same time as further proved later.

All indications together lead more and more to the question: Are Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep three different names of one and the same famous Vizierking of Senwosret III and Amenemhet III from 1830 BC until 1750 BC, the time of biblical JOSEPH as Vizierking? Egyptologists state the Middle Kingdom had only one Vizier per Pharaoh as a kind of nowadays prime minister or chancellor and a Ruler over Egypt owned four to six different honorary names. Thus it is most plausible that a unique Grandvizier like JOSEPH - as extraordinarily announced Ruler/ Vizierking over complete Egypt and as the Saviour of Egypt out of the Great Famine standing above every Egyptian except Pharaoh - also owned several different names.

We finally leave now Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hasan and its overwhelming amount of archeological evidence confirming Israel in Egypt. But we will return to Khnumhotep's II tomb as soon as we will learn to know closer JOSEPH's wife ASENATH ...




We have already seen there is clear evidence for Kheti, Khnumhotep, and Zamonth as Viziernames in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III. First indications for all three being JOSEPH are found in Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures and hieroglyphs and in many further contemporary inscriptions. Finally, the Vizier years of Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep are biblically correspondent with JOSEPH's Vizier years and are strikingly matching archeological and biblical evidence - in a time when according to science only one Vizier ruled over Egypt.

The most striking evidence for JOSEPH's two different Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth is rooted in JOSEPH's wife's name and her linguistically associated modifications. She is biblically called ASENATH or ESENUT; This matches Vizier Zamonth's/JOSEPH's wife's and Vizier Ankuh's/EPHRAIM's mother's name Henut or Henutsen or also Henut-pu. Vocals are missing in Egyptian as in Hebrew writing and letter orders often became confused in writing or copying processes. Biblical ESENUT is also the daughter of POTIPHERA (already identified as POTIPHAR already identified as Khnumhotep II). She again turns up on a dead mourning scenes stela of the Vizier Dynasty Family Clan of her beloved husband JOSEPH both just having lost one of their later sons - in Egyptian called Wpwauthotep:

(Source: 803-028-251 Stele CG 20690 Cairo, Egyptian Museum, see Lange/Schäfer, Grab- und Denksteine ii, 316-18; Wikipediasearch: Resseneb attestations)

The so-called Wpwauthotep Stele is showing three different dead mourning scenes with three different groups of Wpwauthotep's relatives on three different pictures one beneath the other. Being the deceased himself Wpwauthotep is not shown in person on the stela but in the inscriptions; He is always the first related person. The first two pictures are focussing on Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep and his wife Itineferu taHenut. Henut is also Vizier Ankhu's mother's and Vizier Zamonth's wife's name as already explained. Her husband the Vizier Dynasty Clan Father is here named Khnumhotep, hatia/Mayor (remember Zamonth's role as Mayor of Nekhen) and godsealer. According to egyptologists, godsealer was one title of Vizier Khnumhotep III. It can mean expedition leader of the godlike Pharaoh or Priest of Osiris or both. On the Wpwauthotep Stele, he acts as Priest of Osiris. Hatia/Mayor is one of the highest-ranking titles of royal officials and a commonly used title of Viziers. You could also be a Mayor (Highest) of a certain town. Scientific evidence confirms Mayor being also a title of Khnumhotep II which he bequeathed to one unidentified son thus it is even more likely that JOSEPH Vizier Khnumhotep inherited the title from his adoptive father. 

is the linguistically corresponding
biblical name
revealing JOSEPH's wife's name 
is Zamonth's wife's name 
is Khnumhotep's wife's name. 

The Wedding Stele consists of three pictures among themselves. As long as there is no photo available a detailed scene description is necessary to evaluate its pictural and hieroglyphic information:
1) In the first picture You see deceased Wpwauthotep's daughter Neschi Hotepi and his son called Khnumhotep standing and his son Chonsu kneeling in front of a sacrifice table. Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep on the other side sits in front of the death sacrifice. Khnumhotep's hieroglyphically identified wife Itineferu tAHenut stands behind him with her hand on his shoulder. His granddaughter and daughter-in-law hieroglyphically identified as Wpwauhotep's wife and thus widow and mother of their three children is called Senebhenas. She is standing behind her grandmother tAhenut/Henutsen. The Wpwauthotep Stele inscribed used prename of tAhenut as Great Royal Wife of the Ruler Khnumhotep and Queen-mother of his four generations Vizier Dynasty is the name ItiNeferu: ItiNeferu is the most used name for a Great Royal Wife or Queen Mother from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Prominent examples are for the 11th Dynasty Neferu II as the wife of Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (see Chronology of Israel in Egypt) and for the 18th Dynasty NeferuAtenNefertIti as the wife of semimonotheistic Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful, and refers to the heart so it's more an adjective than a name.

2) The second picture shows two further children of Wpwauthotep standing together in front of their grandfather and lifelong ruler of Egypt and his wife, Khnumhotep and Itineferu taHenut; The further son of the deceased is called Amenhotep, he is titled mayor and big of the council of the ten of upper Egypt. Behind him stands the further daughter Nebherchuites. The dead mourning scene takes place in the house of a lady called Ineh. This is the only picture with Wpwauthotep's wife Senebhenas missing thus the most plausible conclusion is Wpwauthotep's further children on the second picture are not Senebhenas children but the children of the Lady of the House Ineh as Wpwauthotep's second wife. She is standing with her daughter Neferuwen behind the father and mother of the deceased, Khnumhotep and taHenut. Ineh and Neferuwen are not visible as persons on the stela but the hyroglyphs behind Khnumhotep and tAhenut/Henutsen introduce them.

3) The third picture shows JOSEPH's son, successor, and already for long co-ruling Vizier EPHRAIM in his official Vizier's wardrobe together with his wife Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereryt and their daughter Senebhenas the widow of Wphauthotep. EPHRAIM is hieroglyphically identified as Vizier Ankhu, who is identified by leading Egyptologists as the son of Vizier Zamonth. Senebhenas' brothers Vizier Resseneb and Vizier Iymeru with biblically named SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1Chr7:20) are kneeling in front of them expressing compassion to their father and to their sister as brother and widow of their deceased uncle. They are holding flowers.

Picture 1) and 2) show father Khnumhotep in front of a sacrifice table with further crucial explaining text:
Picture 1): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Osiris (or the King Osiris gives), Lord of the Holy Land .. he shall give sacrifice and foods for the sole of lower Egyptian sealer .. Wpwauthotep sired by the mayor and godsealer Khnumhotep .."
Picture 2): "A sacrifice, the King gives to Wpwaut (deity) .. that he shall give all good things to the sole of .. Khnumhotep .."

Wpwaut, Upuaut, or Wepwawet is Wpwauthotep's name-giving patron deity. Wepwawet is a wolf and the deity of war. He was said to accompany the Pharaoh on his hunts led by the Vizier. Wpwauthotep means the deity of war is satisfied which is an obvious indication of Wpwauthotep being a successful military leader of the ruler and probably having gained honor in a war: He most likely died in the first battle against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jub46:6 because this makes the sacrifice to his name connected diety most plausible.

For decoding the sacrifices texts correctly it is important to understand the historical background: The strictest all valid definition of the word King instead of Pharaoh is lifelong ruler. In Egyptian history normally Pharaohs were the commonly lifelong rulers and therefore the Kings of Egypt. But there is an exception phase in Egyptian history: The Second Intermediate Period. In this time Pharaoh's ruling time even went down from a few years to only one year each. At least 12 Pharaohs with only one year of reign time existed in this time. Thus a Pharaoh in this time can not really be meant mentioning a lifelong ruler = King in this text. According to the Bible, the only real lifelong ruler of Egypt at that time was JOSEPH and all Egyptians adored him as Savior and Ruler of Egypt. Thus Father Khnumhotep is most likely meant with the lifelong ruler = the King in this text. Wpwauthotep is hieroglyphically called the "Sealer of the King/Crown" in the first picture.


Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH/ESENUT 
are named Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen.

 Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen 
are also named Vizier Khnumhotep and his wife taHenut.

They are the adoptive son in law and the daughter of 
Nobleman POTIPHAR/-ERA also named Nomarch Khnumhotep II. 


We jump back now to the beginning of the 13th Dynasty 1798 BC: After Pharaoh Amenemhet's III death the reign of his until recently by egyptologists erroneously assumed blood son Amenemhet IV and his daughter Nofrusobek followed. Then the so-called Dark Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began. It contained 48 years of JOSEPH's reign as part of his complete biblical 80 years he was ruling over the entire land of Egypt (see also Jubilees46:4). His brothers were not only by Senowsret III appointed the King's Shepherds overall flocks of sheep in Egypt Genesis47:6,47: Some of them even became Shepherd Kings as Pharaohs. JOSEPH ruled over all Egyptians and the complete House of the Pharaoh - as originally commanded by Senwosret III in Genesis41:40 - for 80 years. JOSEPH's royal Vizier names, in the beginning, are Senewosret-Ankh and Amenemhat-Ankh (="bringing new life" to the two Pharaohs). As later Zamonth (picture) he is announced as "Real Friend" of the King which exactly describes the biblical relationship between him and Amenemhet III: Amenemhet gave him as a gift his own signet ring, his own chariot, and his priest's Knumhotep II daughter. And he is biblically so pleased and happy (in hebrew jatab) with JOSEPH that when he hears about JOSEPH's reunion with his brothers that he lets them know: "take your father and your families and come to me! I want to give you the best of my land of Egypt and you shall eat the fat of the land" (Genesis45:16). This is by no means any plausible Pharaoh's reaction towards one of several contemporary Viziers: These are true most trustful feelings and not the last grateful deed to his exclusive "Real Friend". Vizier Zamonth Knumhotep's wife's name is Henut, Henut-pu or Henutsen. After Amenemhet's death, they are together additionally named Montuhotep and his wife Neferu Juhetibu. In old biblical Hebrew JOSEPH's wife is called ASENATH, OSNAT, ASNIT, ASNET, or ESENUT (Jubilees, Klaus Berger 1981 p. 495, footnote 20m) the daughter of POTIPHAR, POTIPHERA, PUTIPHARE, PUTIPHAR or Khnumhotep II, Priest of On/Heliopolis. According to Jewish Beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerich JOSEPH's brothers would have settled in Heliopolis after Father Jacob's death (1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Vol. 3 german page 406). Historian Josephus also confirms Heliopolis/On as the location of the Shepherd Kings' Grasslands. This would be the time when Father JACOB's 12 pillars Semitic palace excavated by Manfred Bietak in Avaris was rebuilt as JOSEPH's palace with twin chambers for EPHRAIM Ankhu and MANASSE Senebefni. The Septuagint and the 5th-century Latin translation of the Book of Jubilees enumerate On next to Ra-amezez and Pithom as the cities rebuilt as eastern boundary fortresses by Hebrew slaves after their Hyksos Invasion destruction. Thus On/Heliopolis must have been to an essential extent inhabited by Israelites. It even shows very late evidence for never moved away Israelites up until the 4th and 3rd century BC excavated in LeONtopolis near Heliopolis. LeONtopolis is up until today called Tel El Yahudiya which means Jewish Mound …

Picture: Vizier Ankhu's Father Vizier ZaMonth: The only Vizier in Egyptian History wearing the King's Beard as the token for lifelong highest rulership/kingship is archeologically proven biblical JOSEPH, Vizierking over complete Egypt 1830-1750 BC
Inscription: „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor … for the Ka of the Vizier‘s wife Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of the sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … priest of Amun (both titles of Khnumhotep II).“

1819 BC: Oldest Egyptian upright weight loom in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's Tomb in Beni Hasan
Khnumhotep's II wife Khety in the center - Mother of sevenlings?



According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick AKE (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 99 ff.) JOSEPH's wife ESENUT, here called ASENET, would have been an adoptive daughter of his slavemaster and Priest of Heliopolis PUTIPHAR who would have later employed her as astrologer and priestess of Heliopolis due to her visionary talents. She would have been wise, beautiful, and later would have become a "leading mother of many". She also would have „introduced the first loom“ as known in AKE’s 19th century (the upright weight loom) in Egypt: This would have to be archeologically confirmed by the first Egyptian depicted upright weight loom in her lifetime between 1850 BC and 1750 BC, and indeed You find the firstly depicted upright weight loom scene in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures of shortly after 1819 BC in Beni Hasan as You can see in the picture above. As Queenmother ASENETH would also have imported the first cows (zebu/bos indicus) into Egypt. And indeed around her strictly biblical lifetime (1848-1752 BC) the zebu cows firstly came up in Egypt (Wikipedia). 

Her husband JOSEPH would have introduced at the same time the ancient Mesopotamian seed plow invented by his great grandfather Abraham in the 21st century BC in Mesopotamia according to the Book of Jubilees (Jubilees11:23). And indeed Mesopotamia and Egypt are seen as the countries of origin of the plow: The oldest plow found in Europe was initially dated into the

a) 4th millennium BC and later then dated into the late Neolithic period around 2000 B.C. and then later secondly corrected and dated into the
b) the Early Bronze Age (1940 to 1510 BC).

Therefore we can assume that the oldest plows in Egypt yet speculatively estimated  into the
a) 4th millennium, will also be sooner or later corrected dated into the 

b) end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (Joseph's rulership time began 1830 BC)
Irrespective of this, JOSEPH‘s ruling time is the time of further development of the plow in Egypt and the
seed plow is such a further development.

According to AKE ASENATH would have been as a matter of fact additionally the daughter of Father JACOB's daughter DINA following DINA's biblical premarital intercourse with SHECHEM. To save her daughter from being killed as a bastard by her brothers the child would have been brought to Egypt and sold to PUTIPHAR. Father JACOB recognizing her birthmark after having arrived in Egypt would have revealed to JOSEPH that she is not only his wife but also the daughter of his beloved and missed sister. Later JUDA and BENYAMIN would have prevented JOSEPH from being killed by his brothers DAN and GAD; They would have been stirred up by Pharaoh's son beforehand who desired ASENATH as his wife.

The consequence of this deadly sin of DAN and GAD was already mentioned in Chapter Hyksos: GAD'S son ERI (Genesis46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA, and SALOMON, (listed in the  Book of Jubilees 44:20 footnote d and in Klaus Berger's translation of Jubilees44:29) had to die early in Egypt without children. Another plausible consequence is the deadly punishment GAD and DAN and probably also their more passive two brothers NAPHTALI and ASHER must have feared after their father JACOB's death in 1804 BC: It does not make much sense that all of JOSEPH's brothers did fear and try to avoid being punished by JOSEPH after their father's death by referring on JACOB having said before his death JOSEPH shall forgive all his brothers in Genesis50:15-21; JOSEPH forgave them already 17 years earlier in 1821 BC when he revealed his identity to his brothers and invited them all to come to Egypt (Genesis45:5). But it does make very sense, that DAN and GAD were in fear to be punished deadly for their second attempt to murder JOSEPH stirred by Pharaoh's son thus most likely they will have been the ones in Genesis50:15-21 who referred on their father to achieve forgiveness from JOSEPH. 

According to Angela Standhartinger (Wikipedia: Asenath) the traditions in the Midrash and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, that trace ASENATH to the family of JACOB also reveal that she was the daughter born to DINAH following her rape by SHECHEM. JACOB's sons wanted to kill the infant. DINAH left ASENATH on the wall of Egypt. POTIPHERA found her, brought her to his home, and gave her a wet nurse. POTIPHERA's wife was barren (with sevenlings?), and she raised ASENATH as her own daughter. Consequently, she was called “ASENATH daughter of POTIPHERA”, for she was raised in the home of POTIPHERA and his wife as if she were their own daughter (Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer [ed. Higger], chaps. 35, 37; Midrash Aggadah [ed. Buber], Genesis 41:45).

The story of "Joseph & Aseneth"  is a narrative that referred to itself as contemporary from the time of Joseph. It is readable on http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm. Scientists date it between 200 BC and 200 AD (H.F.D. Sparks, The Apocrypha Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp.473-503). It is oldest evidenced in the same time as the Qumran evidenced Torah and Book of Jubilees. It was never disproved but rather confirmed regarding its origin in Egypt so it may also be of the time near its occurrences which would be the 19th century BC.

In this narrative of Joseph & Asenath "Pentephres (Potiphar) had a virgin daughter of about eighteen years of age, tall and beautiful and graceful, more beautiful than any other virgin in the land. And she was quite unlike the daughters of the Egyptians but in every respect like the daughters of the Hebrews. And she was as tall as Sarah, and as beautiful as Rebecca, and as fair as Rachel, and this virgin's name was Aseneth ... And seven virgins had the remaining seven rooms, one each. And they used to wait on Aseneth, and were of the same age as she was, for they were all born on the same night as Aseneth; and they were very beautiful, like the stars of heaven, and no man or boy had ever had anything to do with them ... And there were four gates to the court, overlaid with iron; and eighteen strong young men-at-arms used to guard each one of them."

It's a wonderful spiritual Hebrew love story and a dramatic action story: ASENATH is married to JOSEPH, whose brothers DAN and GAD plot to kill him for the sake of Pharaoh's son, who wants ASENATH to be his wife and who wants his father and JOSEPH to be killed. This is avoided firstly by JOSEPH's younger brother BENYAMIN (also confirmed by Test Jos, Josephus, Antiquitates 2.39–59) and additionally by the sons of Leah:

"And on the third day, Pharaoh's son died from the wound of Benjamin's stone. And Pharaoh mourned for his eldest son, and he was worn out with grief. And Pharaoh died at the age of one hundred and nine, and he left his crown to Joseph. And Joseph was King of Egypt for forty-eight years. And after this Joseph gave the crown to Pharaoh's grandson; and Joseph was like a father to him in Egypt."

Pharaoh Amenemhet III died in 1798 BC and JOSEPH died in 1750 BC. Amenemhet's daughter Mereret married EPHRAIM Ankhu, so their son, Amenemhet's grandson Resseneb, is also Joseph's grandson SHUTELAH as You will learn later in this Chapter. He indeed became Vizierking.

ASENATH is hieroglyphically written in old Egyptian Henut which is also the most famous female name in her (adoptive) father Khnumhotep's II nomarch genealogy: Henu was the grandmother of the first Oryx nome nomarch Khnumhotep. Thus Henu was the name of the Nomarch Dynasty Clan Mother of Khnumhotep II. According to Egyptologists the southern fourth wall in Beni Hasan (next big picture) shows Khnumhotep's II wife Khety sitting in front of a full offering table and eight daughters are standing behind her in the same row and in the next row and there are also many further sons so they had a lot of children. Thus three of the eight daughters are standing beneath in the next line of the tomb picture and are accompanied by 18 strong young men many or even all of them sons of Khumhotep's II wife Khety. So we have one plus seven beautiful young virgins as possible daughters of Khnumhotep and Khety in the tomb picture: This matches exactly the narrative of Joseph & Asenath regarding all numbers. One of Khnumhotep's II daughters is called Tjat and has special economical talents: As a sealer, she is responsible for all valuable goods of Khnumhoteph II and is depicted with two slaves (half size) who support her work. She‘ll become later the wife of Khnumhotep IV evidenced as Lady of the House in his tomb. Khnumhotep IV is after Khnumhotep III (JOSEPH) the second adoptive son of Khnumhotep II for what reason Khnumhotep III is next to Lady Kethy‘s oldest son „nht“ also called „the eldest“ in the tomb inscriptions.

ASENUT/Henut being POTIPHAR’s/Khnumhotep’s II daughter is already evidenced in the inscription of JOSEPH‘s/Zamonth‘s sculpture (CG42.034): „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor … for the Ka of the Vizier‘s wife Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of the Sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … Priest of Amun (both titles of Khnumhotep II).“

But is there any Henut ASENATH in the tomb picture of Khnumhotep's II family?

For further confirming evidence Henut being Khnumhotep's II (adoptive) daughter, You are invited to search for the hieroglyph of her name-giving goddess Henut in form of a Pelican in his tomb in Beni Hassan. In the tomb hieroglyphs You can identify different birds, enjoy Your discovery adventure journey:

Beni Hassan Khnumhotep II Tomb South wall, west, the family of Khnumhotep II in the offering 
(After Kanawati, N., Benu Hassan, pl. 139)


In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 found as Hebrew identified oldest alphabetical inscriptions. This one was discovered in the Sinai and it says:

"The House of the Vineyard of ASENATH
and its Innermost Room were engraved.
They have come to live."

The inscription was engraved by an Israelite in the Wadi Nasb in the Sinai Desert in the strictly biblical year (see Chapter Chronology) 1752 BC ('1772' BC). This is the year of ASENATH's death in the third year before JOSEPH’s death according to AK Emmerich (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes, p.107). You can study in ASENATH's (adoptive) father POTIPHAR's tomb pictures in this Chapter how eg. Khnumhotep's II Innermost Room was engraved in order to come to live as an Egyptian burial cult act.

Sinai 376 Serabit El-Kadim (Gerster p.65):
Reading from the top right downwards

Deciphering Board:
Enjoy Your Discovery Journey!



(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

According to UN estimations in 2013 about 343.000 over 100 years old persons lived on our planet and at least 3,2 million are estimated for 2050. In Germany in 1900 AD born people had the chance of 1% to get older than 100 years and in 2017 16.500 people got older than 100 years. The Bible says JOSEPH died 110 years old and the Book of Jubilees says his older brothers all died after him.

In 2017 AD in Britain, one mother had 20 children and in Uganda, one mother had 38 children, in most African countries the average number of children in a family is 5. The Bible says the average number of children of the 12 sons of Israel was 5 when they arrived in Egypt but from then on the people of Israel multiplied enormously in their time in Egypt (Genesis15:16, Exodus1:2.6:16). After the biblical 4 generations in Egypt, calculated with an average of 8 children, Israel would have numbered over 3 million people which is biblically confirmed by the number of 600.000 Hebrew men in 1606 BC who left Egypt in the Exodus.

According to the Bible JOSEPH did not have only two sons but received the most fruitful family of descendants of all his twelve brothers: In Genesis48:5.6 his father JACOB tells him that all (male) descendants, JOSEPH has begotten after JACOB had arrived in Egypt - thus after his two first sons Ephraim and Manasse were born - shall remain to belong to JOSEPH whereas his two firstborn sons shall belong to JACOB as adoptive sons: „And thy sons, that thou begettest after them, shall be thine; they shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance.“ In Genesis49:22 JACOB prophesized that JOSEPH (as a father of sons) would become the "fruitful tree at the fountain" with "daughters/twigs tendring over the wall". The female "tendring twigs of a tree" are in old Hebrew also a picture and translational option for female descendants. Thus the Bible clearly states that JOSEPH would become a father of many more children than his solely namely mentioned sons EPHRAIM and MANASSE:

According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107), ASENATH and JOSEPH would have become parents of 18 children including several twins. EPHRAIM/Ankhu and MANASSE/Senebefni or Dedu-Month Senebtefi are the only ones with biblically revealed names following Father JACOB's decision that all the other children of JOSEPH shall be counted under and called after the names of EPHRAIM and MANASSE in their inheritance share of the Promised Land according to Genesis48:6.7. Now let's try to identify JOSEPH's further sons, who were enthroned by JOSEPH as Pharaohs for three to four years each after peaceful calm 20 years of the yearly rotating Pharaohs from his loyal brothers' BENYAMIN and LEVI's families:

We already found out that Wpwauthotep was a military leader of the ruler and his father Grandvizier Khnumhotep was also called ZaMonth, son of Month. Wpwauthotep most plausibly died in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jubilees46:6. Wpwauthotep's wifes were called Senebhenas and Ineh. Now we take a look at the most plausible Pharaoh for the first battle against the Canaanites already mentioned in the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology: Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. Same as Wpwauthotep he was also a military leader and "troup commander of the ruler". And he died most plausibly in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC. Finally deciding is the fact that his wives are also called Senebhenaes and nIneh like Wpwauthotep's wives so Wpwauthotep clearly has to be identified as the later Pharaoh Sobekhotep III: He was called a "Kingson" which means a son of a lifelong ruler and his father is called "Father of God's Monthhotep". Monthhotep means "the diety Month is satisfied with him" like Khnumhotep means "the deity Khnum is satisfied with him". JOSEPH's royal name and adoptive noble name Zamonth Khnumhotep as double name melted together into one name result - the name Monthhotep. Khnumhotep's wife Henut, Wpwauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III mother is also called Juhetibu. The only lifelong ruler = King of this time was according to the strict biblical chronology Grandvizier JOSEPH together with his co-ruling son Ephraim. As Viziers they are as later shown assumed by several Egyptologists to be the real ruling power behind weak Pharaohs. Pharaohs were changing down to yearly that time, so Pharaohs could not have been meant when mentioning a "King" = lifelong ruler in the 13th Dynasty. Thus only Grandvizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Ruler of Egypt could be meant as Sobekhotep's III Father and King Monthhotep. His additional title "Father of God's" reveals that he was most highly adored and hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and that he was a father of several ("godlike") Pharaohs, seen by the Egyptians as living deities. JOSEPH‘s title „Father of God’s“
is also confirming Anna Katharina Emmerich’s observation that JOSEPH’s wife ASENETH was called „Mother of God’s“ against her will by the Egyptians. We see that JOSEPH's rejection to become Pharaoh in order to avoid being worshipped as a deity didn't really work out.

Pharaoh Sobekhotep III (who has a daughter called Juhetibu like his mother) has two brothers: Seneb/Sonb (who has two daughters called Henut and Juhetibu like his mother and a son called Monthhotep like his father) and Khakau (who has a son called Khnumhotep like his father). The names of their children reveal how most plausible it is that JOSEPH's different names were Khnumhotep and Monthhotep and that his wife's ASENATH's different names were Henut and Juhetibu. Seneb/Sonb and Khakau were also both called "Kingsons" meaning their father had to be a King/ lifelong Ruler of Egypt.

ZaMonth KhnumHotep MontHotep JOSEPH died shortly after his son's Wpwauthotep's death in 1750 BC. Wpwauthotep/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep III had three "King brothers" who reigned as Pharaohs before him: The first brother is Pharaoh Imyremeshaw, who was also called a "military leader of the ruler". His sculpture is wearing a King's beard which shows his rivalry against his brother Ephraim as future heir of Kingship. The second brother is Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef, who shows the archeological evidence of all three of them being called "King brothers" and having "ten Kingsisters". And then the third and last Pharaoh before Sobekhotep III was his brother Pharaoh Seth Meribre

Thus JOSEPH/Monthhotep and ASENATH/Henut secondly named Juhetibu had 18 archeologically confirmed children which exactly matches the already mentioned number of 18 children according to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich stating ASENETH was prophezised to become a „leading mother of many“.

Becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III, Wpwauthotep was married to Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s daughter Senebhenas. One of Sobekhotep's brothers when becoming Pharaoh was also married to one of Ankhu's/EPHRAIM‘s daughters; she was named Aya and her husband was additionally named Sobekhotep (according to Egyptologist Kim Ryholt it has to be Pharaoh Imyremeshaw or Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef). To marry his daughters with his brothers was a strategic action of EPHRAIM to keep his brothers' Pharaoh power under control and to avoid them taking over the rulership. Marrying his third brother Pharaoh Antef with his daughter Aya to better control him is most plausibly a reaction of EPHRAIM/Ankhu on the rivalry ambitions of his second brother Pharaoh Imyremeshaw which are evidenced by his sculpture's King's beard. EPHRAIM was clearly the dedicated throne heir of Kingship as Vizier and had to protect this claim. That EPHRAIM's fifth brother Sobekhotep III initiated a war against the Canaanites can also be seen as an attempt to become as a successful leader in war the next King of Egypt. His ambitions were controlled by having to take EPHRAIM's daughter Senebhenas as his second wife. Thus all in all EPHRAIM can't have been very happy with his father's decision to let his brothers co-rule as Pharaohs for several years. He must have missed the good old peaceful times of the most likely by himself invented yearly Pharaoh rotation system with his uncles and cousins as Pharaohs: This is seen in him reestablishing this yearly family rotation system after two troubled decades in his last twenty years of life.

That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became archeologically evidenced fulfilled. But his prophecy even lasted longer into the following generations as we will see in the next passage ...

Pictures: JOSEPH's 3rd son and 6th son became Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 13th Dynasty in the time before JOSEPH's death and the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur 1750 BC

('1759-1754') 1765-1760 BC:
Pharaoh Imyremeshaw
the 3rd son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
with the King's beard as a sign of rivalry between him and his brother Crown Prince EPHRAIM

('1740-1756') 1754-1750 BC:
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III
the 6th son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
DualRelief Brooklyn Museum
Handover of the Kephresh the Blue War Crown before his war against the Canaanites 



All four mentioned brothers of EPHRAIM were selected Pharaohs for one, two, or three years - selected by JOSEPH to stabilize the Dynasty and keep the Pharaoh's power weak below him as Vizierking; An additional stabilization action was the mentioned marriage of Ankhu's brothers with his own princess daughters to better stay in control regarding their ambitions. The Pharaoh's reign times of JOSEPH's and ASENATH's four sons all took place in the time before Joseph's death 1750 BC according to the Bible (Genesis30:23,50:26)/ and the Strict Bible Chronology. This is dating Sobekhotep's III death into the year of the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' according to the Book of Jubilees (evidenced by the Table at the start and the Passage at the end of this Chapter).

Three totally different Hebrew Pharaohs have been erroneously identified as Sobekhotep's III younger brothers and successors by leading Egyptologists. The reason was, they were also called "Kingsons" without an identifiable Pharaoh father. The same way also Sobekhotep III and his older brothers had a non-Pharao and thus allegedly "nonroyal" identified father. He was also called "father of gods" and not identifiable as any Pharaoh. These with Sobekhoteph III timely thrown together Pharaohs are Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV. Sobekhotep's IV as a matter of fact archeologically proved one century later rulership in the time of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan is explained later and has already begun to be discussed in Egyptology because of the new excavated challenging evidence (see Chapter Moses).

The mentioned stabilizing marriages lead to the question of how Ankhu/EPHRAIM further stabilized his rulership after his father JOSEPH's death: We find further answering indications in the names of the succeeding Pharaohs: Pharaoh Khendjer was married with Anhu's daughter and Wephauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III widow Senebhenas; Pharaoh Merneferre Aya is most plausibly the son of Ankhu's brother Pharaoh Sehetepkare Intef and Ankhu's princess daughter Aya. And Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini most plausibly is the son of Sobekhotep III and his first wife Ini/Ineh/Neni - in this Chapter, he has already been identified on the Wephauthotep stela as Amenhotep the son of Wephauthotep which is Merhotepre Ini's pre intronization original name and Sobekhotep's III pre intronization original name. 

The Hebrew word for daughter and granddaughter is the same and means female descendant and JOSEPH's granddaughters were married to JOSEPH's Pharaoh sons AND Pharaoh grandsons. That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became a second time archeologically evidenced fulfilled.


Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III pre intronization name is Wephauthotep.
He is Military Commander of his King and Father Knumhotep

Sobekhotep III is evidenced Kingson of JOSEPH King Khnumhotep.
JOSEPH's names
ZaMonth and Khnumhotep melted into Montuhotep.

JOSEPH is the father of several "godlike" Pharaohs and thus
was worshipped by Egyptians as "Father of Gods" Montuhotep.

ZaMonth, KhnumHotep, and MontuHotep are archeologically evidenced different Viziernames of one and the same Vizier 
in the biblical Rulership time of JOSEPH.

Stela CGC 20102:

Vizier Zamonth (on the right) wearing the King's Beard 
with his son Priest Senebefni

- JOSEPH with his son MANASSE -

Stela Inscriptions: " .. Seneb Daughter of Zamonth and Henut-Nu .. A sacrifice that the King gives on the part of his son whom he loves .. Speaker Vizier Senwosret .. Rensenebu Clerk and Head of House .. Mother Henut .. A sacrifice that the King Osiris is giving, who is the First of the West, the great God, Lord of Abydos, Wepwaut, Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier ZaMonth (son of Month) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of Osiris)"



The above inscribed and two times archeologically evidenced "Speaker" of Vizier Zamonth is called Vizier Senwosret and dates Zamonth's Rulership as Vizier into the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty (1830-1770 BC: Franke Dossier Nr.526/173/492/537 & AVB S.218 f.) which is exactly the strictly biblical time of Joseph's rulership in Egypt. The start of this Chapter has already revealed that Senwosret is also one of JOSEPH's many Vizier names. This leads to the conclusion that this speaker's name is the second name of his son Vizier Ankhu EPHRAIM inherited from his father. Another Viziername in JOSEPH's Viziertime - Chety/Kethi - has been found at the Joseph's Canal/Bar Yusuph and confirms this conclusion: Ankhu's/EPHRAIM'S firstborn son is named Resseneb/SHUTELAH. Two Mayors of Lahun under Vizier Chety/Kethi are called Senwosret (year 9-24 of Amenemhet) and Khakheper-Resseneb, son of Senwosret (year 37 of Amenemhet) which are exactly the timeframes matching with JOSEPH's son and grandson being young Viziers supporting their King and Father/Grandfather: JOSEPH Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep Chety also called Senwosret had a son EPHRAIM/Ankhu also called Vizier Senwosret, who was like his own son SHUTELAH/Resseneb for some years archeologically evidenced as the Mayor of Lahun under his father JOSEPH/Chety. In the time after JOSEPH's death when EPHRAIM had become Vizierking of Egypt Pharaoh Wegaf is mentioned on a plaquette from Elephantine (Legrain 1907, p.248-275) together with a "King Senwosret". This confirms EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu Senwosret archeologically evidenced as King of Egypt - announced as such in the very time when his rival brother MANASSE's ambitious sons became Pharaohs: A good reason to clarify by inscription who is the real King above Pharaoh and Egypt as we will understand more deeply later.


Vizier Zamonth is archeologically evidenced 
as King of Egypt.

JOSEPH King Zamonth is by Stela CGC 20102 
archeologically evidenced hero-worshipped as Osiris. 

JOSEPH/Zamonth, also named Khnumhotep, is under BOTH names evidenced Nobleman, Mayor of Town, Vizier, and KING. 

EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu also named Vizier Senowsret 
is archeologically evidenced 
as KING Senwosret above Pharaoh Wegaf AVIEZER

The biblical time of JOSEPH's 80 years of rulership over Egypt is
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
(Genesis50:22, Jubilees46:3, CodexAthodKoutloumenos178,10,11r-13r)

The Speaker of Zamonth named Vizier Senwosret
dates Zamonth's Viziership ALSO into

the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty. 



According to David Rohl, Ankhu is archeologically evidenced contemporary called pa-Aam which means "Eastern Semite" or "Asiatic" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58): EPHRAIM, JOSEPH'S second-born son is appointed as Co-Vizier Ankhu already under Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III honored him preferentially by calling him like he already called his father JOSEPH before: His Enlivenment = Ankh(u). He additionally honored him preferentially by giving to him his daughter Mereret as his wife. Ankhu and Mereret both had grown up together at the royal palace. Mereretis often called the King's Daughter in inscriptions. Her tomb may not have been placed directly next to her father's Pyramide for the same reason as JOSEPH's tomb: Amenemhets Pyramide lacked stability, it was built too near to the flooding Nile, which could have been the reason for Mereret having been buried near to the next pyramid, her grandfather's one. Therefore Egyptologists concluded that she would be the daughter of King Senwosret III. But among her personal adornments, there were pieces with the name of King Amenemhet III found as probable evidence for him being her real father. But Senwosret III had several wives and lived until 1819 BC so Mereret could also be his very late daughter and Amenemhet's very young sister. EPHRAIM/Ankhu was born in 1832 BC. After his Co-Rulership 1798-1750 BC with his father JOSEPH, he became the next ruling Grandvizier and King of Egypt in 1750 BC (compare Beckerath 1964, p. 98-100). While Ankhu/EPHRAIM already as Vizierprince took over more and more business, JOSEPH/Khnumhotep against his will was more and more adored and worshipped by the Egyptians as a deity, and latest after his death also by parts of his own people as we will see later. He was not only adored as their Savior out of Famine but also as a so-called Father of "God's" = as a father of "god"-like Pharaohs. And he obviously was worshipped as the deity Month, as the deity Khum and later evidenced also as the deity Osiris

For the later decades, according to Egyptologists Vizier Ankhu is "often seen as actual real power at the royal court and is considered to be one of the most significant officials of his period and pattern example for a stable management in the 13th/14th Dynasty ..." (Rice, Michael: Who's Who in Ancient Egypt 1999 24-25 and Beckerath 1964 98-100) and "His situation illustrates, that during his period the Viziers were the real power behind weak Kings (the Pharaohs are meant). The Kings were only in power for a short period, while the Viziers remained in power for longer periods." (W.C. Hayes 1955 p. 146-47 and Helek, Geschichte, 118-119 and Junker, die Völker des Antiken Orients, 104-105). The Encyclopedia Britannica states "In government, the vizier assumed prime importance, and a single family held the office for much of a century." and "In little more than a century about 70 kings (the Pharaohs are meant) occupied the throne."

The Leading Egyptologists have up until today not realized that the quickly rotating Pharaohs of the 13th dynasty could not have been seen as so-called Kings = Lifelong Rulers of Egypt anymore and that the title King walked over to the real lifelong rulers of Egypt: Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep (JOSEPH) and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret (EPHRAIM). Ankhu implemented with his father a yearly Pharaoh Rotation System to further weaken Pharaoh's former power and to stabilize peace in this Vizierking Dynasty. In 1765-1743 BC JOSEPH and EPHRAIM tried to strengthen the Vizierkingship by appointing JOSEPH's sons as Pharaohs and by marrying them with their brother EPHRAIM's daughters. That these mariages were necessary is shown by the King's beard of JOSEPH's third son Pharaoh Imyremeshaw: It's signalizing the claim to the King's dignity towards his brother EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's heir of Kingship. JOSEPH dies shortly after the death of his sixth son Wepwauthotep/Pharaoh Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites in The Valley of Assur. EPHRAIM evidenced continued as new Vizierking the Pharaoh succession traditions by electing further grandsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs until his own death after the 'Hyksos' Invasion 1726 BC (see Chapter Moses).

When EPHRAIM/Ankhu had married Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereret in his younger years, he became the father of his two biblical sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1Chr7:20). Both two sons were equally announced as Viziers and were probable twins like EPHRAIM and MANASSE. Their Egyptian Vizier names are Resseneb and Iymeru Aya (or Ayameru as we will see later). As we will also see later, the 13th Dynasty - JOSPEH's Vizierking Dynasty - went over into the Southern 16th Dynasty after the 'Hyksos' Invasion, their conquest of Avaris and their lost battle with the fled 13th Dynasty Clan in Thebes. David Rohl mentions in his book "The Exodus" that an "Aamu" = an Eastern Semite "Kui" was archeologically evidenced contemporary called "Resseneb" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58) which confirms a second time that Vizier Ankhu and his sons - Vizier Zamonth's family clan - are archeologically evidenced Semites.

EPHRAIM's/Ankhu's both sons and his grandson later ruled as Vizierkings over the 16th and 17th Dynasty. This great future of EPHRAIM and his seed was prophecied by his forefather JACOB before he died in Genesis48:19 and finds its echoes in the time of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt in form of an archeologically evidenced "Ankhu's office" in Southern Thebes (see chapter Moses). Thus for over one complete century until at least the 'Hyksos Invasion' in 1729 BC, JOSEPH and EPHRAIM obviously had a striking influence on the election of Pharaohs and EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH were trying to continue this tradition in Thebes as later shown in Chapter Moses. The Pharaohs' often by egyptologists so-called "nonroyal" ancestry and their Semitic names also reveal that they were selected as egyptologists begin more and more to realize. A yearly Pharaoh election and rotation system also explains the seemingly intransparent reign times and the minimum of spectacular reign attributes, monuments, and buildings in the 13th Dynasty:

 "Ludwig Morenz believes that Dedumose's stele text
'acclaimed to the kingship'

may confirm the controversial idea of Eduard Meyer 
that certain Pharaos were elected to office." 




(The reader is invited to use the Chronology of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

As we have already seen JOSEPH's further sons can be evidenced identified as Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. This finally leads to the question, if the way of stabilizing JOSEPH's Vizierking Dynasty by announcing family members as Pharaohs may already have been originally initiated directly after Pharaoh Amenemhat‘s III death.  Genesis50:22 (together with Jubilees46:3 and Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) reveals that JOSEPH ruled over complete Egypt for 80 years. He is archeologically matching Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later called Month(u)hotep:

The Story of Joseph & Asenath states that "Pharaoh left his DOMINION and his CROWN of the KINGDOM to JOSEPH and died.": In the ancient Hebrew Story of Joseph & Asenath originated in Egypt (http://markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm) JOSEPH's only full blood brother of the same mother RACHEL BENYAMIN and his half brother LEVI - both sons of Father JACOB - are described as JOSEPH's most beloved and trusted brothers. His brothers DAN and GAD and Pharaoh Amenemhat's III predeceased son are described as having the deadly worst relationship to JOSEPH: Amenemhat's III only blood son would not only have tried to kill JOSEPH as his foreign throne and marriage rival but he even would also have tried to kill his own father who had chosen JOSEPH to continue his rulership over Egypt after his death. So his memory would most plausibly have been fully deleted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III after his son's failed murder attempt and his own violent death. Thus JOSEPH's biblically evidenced beloved only full-blood brother BENYAMIN would be the most trustful and best candidate for JOSEPH to be appointed as the first Pharaoh succeeding Amenemhet III. And indeed, according to The Story of Joseph & Asenath Pharaoh Amenemhet III obviously agreed fully with this idea because he adopted BENYAMIN as Amenemhet IV and taught him in a co-reign phase how to behave as a Pharaoh. Leading Egyptologist for this time period Kim Ryholt confirms Amenemhat IV does not seem to have been a blood son of Amenemhat III because of his non-queen mother and because Amenemhet‘s III Kingdaughter and later Queen Nofrusobek's inscriptions were ignoring his existence. This is also clear archeological evidence for the rivalry Joseph had to handle somehow between Nofrusobek as blood daughter of Pharaoh and Benyamin Amenemhet IV as the by Pharaoh chosen heir. Amenemhat's III daughter Nofruptah died before her father died. She is the Egyptologists' discussed wife of Amenemhat IV who would have become by this way also the adopted son-in-law of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. According to the Book of Jubilees 34:20, BENYAMIN indeed married in Egypt an Egyptian woman. In The Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) BENYAMIN is described as an 18-year-old "sturdy lad indescribably handsome and as strong as a young lion". This description is precisely confirmed by the picture of BENYAMIN in Khnumhotep's II grave in Beni Hassan already analyzed in this Chapter. And indeed, Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced to Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) family (Vallogia, RdE21, 109-113) and is identified by leading Egyptologist Kim Ryholt as Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) "Uncle" (Kim Ryholt 1997 p. 209-211)!

Pictures: JOSEPH's brothers/ EPHRAIM's uncles BENYAMIN and LEVI
become Pharaohs/ Shepherd Kings and Fathers of Shepherd Kings

Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's brother BENYAMIN with Hebrew beard 20 years before he became Pharaoh

BENYAMIN/ Pharaoh Amenemhet IV, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard as token for lifelong highest rulership

Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's half brother LEVI with Hebrew beard 38 years before he became Pharaoh

LEVI/ Pharaoh Amenemhet V, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard, the token for lifelong highest rulership

Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced
to Vizier Ankhu's
(EPHRAIM's) family  
and is identified by leading Egyptologist Kim Ryholt
as Vizier Ankhu's

This means BENYAMIN was the first Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty named Amenemhet IV by his adoptive father-in-law Amenemhet III. 
He was Zamonth's/JOSEPH's only full-blood brother.

14 following Pharaohs are all archeologically evidenced members of Amenemhat's IV & Ankhu's (BENYAMIN's & EPHRAIM's) family clan.
(all marked with * in the table at the start of this Chapter)



After the by Egyptologists so-called last 12th Dynasty Pharaohs Amenemhat IV (BENYAMIN) and Amenemhat's III daughter Sobekneferu, the following Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I is the first so-called Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. He and following Pharaoh Sonbef are regarded by Kim Ryholt and other leading Egyptologists, including Darrel Baker, as sons of Amenemhat IV (BENYAMIN) (Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC, Stacey International 2008).

This leads to further Hebrew Pharaoh candidates and their Biblical descendants shown in brackets in the table "JOSEPH's Pharaohs - the 13th Dynasty Pharaohs" at the start of this Chapter and in the table "MOSES' Pharaohs" at the start of Chapter Moses. At the end of every Chapter, You find a table of the Genealogy of Israel in Egypt with an overview table of the most relevant key players of the ruling lineage of Israel in Egypt.

In the Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) JOSEPH's brother LEVI is the one he most trusted besides Benjamin and Kim Ryholt's Chronology of Pharaohs (at the start of Chapter Joseph) reveals that all other here yet unclarified Pharaos are family members of the lineage of Amenemhat V who thus most plausibly must be LEVI. All in all, the reader will find sufficient evidence in this work to most plausibly realize that all Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty were Israelites and that JOSEPH and EPHRAIM were the only real Kings in the meaning of Lifelong Rulers of Egypt in the 13th Dynasty.

This all sheds a totally new light on the title HekaShasut/Hyksos - translated as "Shepherd Kings" of Egypt in nearly all relevant ancient writings and identified by the historian Manetho as Hebrews. Let us now look a second time on this title like we did already do at the end of Chapter Hyksos:

The first known instance of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings called HekaShasut is an inscription in the Beni Hasan tomb and the only statue of a Semitic Foreign Ruler at all in Avaris - both of the end of the 19th century. The second known instance of the HekaShasut as Hebrew Shepherd Kings are the three Hebrew Pharaoh names Siharnedjheritef, Wegaf, and Khendjer in the 13th Dynasty. The third known instance of the HekaShasut - this time not by the Egyptians but only by themselves appointed as 'Hyksos' - is attested on Scarabs of the Canaanite Nile Delta 14th Dynasty. The fourth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is Manetho's description of the Hyksos and scarabs and inscriptions confirming Hyksos as Canaanite self appointed Northern Pharaoh title of the 15th Dynasty. The Canaanites were soldiers instead of shepherds so the meaning of HekaShasut became reduced to the general translation Foreign Kings time after time. Another reason is the growing generalized Egyptian hate against all eastern foreigners having overrun complete Egypt in the time of the 15th Dynasty and parallel 16th/17th Dynasty. Canaanite and Hebrew Semites are less and less differentiated by Egyptians, they have all become hated foreigners. The fifth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in Sextus Julius Africanus's epitome of Manetho for the rulers of the Southern 16th Dynasty of Thebes: They are identified by Manetho (in Josephus) as Hebrew Shepherd Kings. The sixth known indication of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in the Southern 17th Dynasty of Thebes: In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is also given the title Hyksos, a fact which a second time confirms that Manetho like the Egyptians after the Exodus of Israel and the Expulsion of the Canaanites did less and less differentiate between Canaanites and Hebrews as Semites; Life was much easier when trying to forget the Ten Plagues and their responsibility for the Enslavement of their Savior's people and when only remembering an Expulsion of all hated Foreigners by the victorious Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Moses). Finally the only unambiguously evidenced EGYPTIAN Pharaohs of the complete Second Intermediate Period are the Ahmosides of the last thirty years of the 17th Dynasty.

Pictures: Pharaohs of the first Phase of the 13th Dynasty - Hebrew Shepherd Kings 

1785 BC:
Pharaoh Sobekhotep I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son/
BENJAMIN's 1st son BELA 
Without the King's beard as a token for lifelong highest rulership

1769 BC: 
Pharaoh Hor I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son/
BENJAMIN's 9th son IR

The King's beard shows the growing rivalry of Pharaohs with the heir of Kingship EPHRAIM

Pictures: Pharaohs of the last Phase of the 13th Dynasty - Hebrew Shepherd Kings 

1741 BC: 

Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini Sobekhotep'V', son of JOSEPH's son Sobekhotep III & Ini/Heni

1740 BC: 

Pharaoh Khahotepre Sobkhotep'VI'

1738 BC: 

Pharaoh Ined is
or LEVI's grandson

The King's beard shows the growing rivalry of Pharaohs with the heir of Kingship EPHRAIM



(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

We have learned already that JOSEPH's brothers BENYAMIN and LEVI and their sons and grandsons were elected as yearly rotating Pharaohs to stabilize JOSEPH's Vizier Kingship Dynasty. And after 20 years JOSEPH's further younger sons had reached the age to claim their rights as Kingsons to become Pharaohs so until JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM's brothers co-ruled as Shepherd Kings over Egypt. EPHRAIM had to take care of his throne rights as the next Vizierking. The Bible mentions only two further sons of EPHRAIM in 1Chr7:21 called ESER and ELEAD, who had been killed by JOSEPH's brother GAD's descendants in Egypt, thus EPHRAIM/Ankhu had no further sons to enthrone them as Pharaos like his father JOSEPH did. As explained in Chapter Moses MANASSE's sons of his Egyptian wife are AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, SHEMIDA, and his biblically illegitimate son of an Aramean concubine is MACHIR (1Chr7:14).

After JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM did not appoint his further brothers and Kingsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs anymore. The Canaanites didn't stay in Assur after having killed EPHRAIM's brother Wpwauhotep/Sobekhotep III and after having defeated his Egyptian army: They instead chased after them and tried to conquer Avaris and invade Egypt. Thus EPHRAIM needed the help of his because of idolatry "exiled" brother MANASSE from Southern Thebes, who must have visited Avaris with his family clan to take part in the funeral ceremonies for MANASSE's deceased brother Wpwauhotep and his deceased father JOSEPH. That time MANASSE's son AVIEZER was the "Big Chief of Troups" of MANASSE's southern army which is evidenced by a scarab (Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches Teil II: Die sogenannte “Zweite Zwischenzeit” Altägyptens. In: Orientalia. Nove Series. Band 57, Nr. 3, 1988, S. 249, Nr. 5.) so AVIEZER was enthroned by EPHRAIM/Ankhu as Pharao Wegaf to defend Avaris against the invading Canaanites. This explains the Book of Jubilees telling in 46:6 "And he (Makamaron) killed him (Sobekhotep III) there and chased after the Egyptians until he reached the Gate of Ermon (Heropolis). And he was not able to enter because a second new King (Wegaf) was King for Egypt and he was stronger than him ...".

AVIEZER/Wegaf and MANASSE's second son HELEQ/Khendjer are archeologically seen as the most significant Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty because of their striking building activities and their longest reign times (still only 2,3 and 4,5 years): Both facts show their attempts to break the traditions of the yearly Pharaoh rotation system under new Vizierking Ankhu/EPHRAIM in order to occupy the throne of Kingship as Pharaohs. Their Hebrew origin is shown by their Semitic Pharaoh names. Thebes or at least Southern Egypt is their original home which is archeologically confirmed by the Southern locations of most of their archeological footprints: Karnak, Elephantine, and Abydos. EPHRAIM as Vizierking seemed to have enough power to change the Pharaoh 2,3 years after AVIEZER/Wegaf had besieged the Canaanites but he also seemed to have been still dependant on the military power of MANASSE's Southern clan so that he had to enthrone as Pharaoh a further son of MANASSE: To ensure better control over MANASSE's son HELEQ, Ankhu/EPHRAIM did give his daughter Senebhenas - widow of his brother Wephauthotep/ Sobekhotep III and experienced as a wife with controlling tasks - to his nephew HELEQ, named by King Senwosret-Ankhu Pharaoh Khendjer. MANASSE and EPHRAIM are archeologically evidenced looking after MANASSE's son's ambitious idolatrous Pyramide building project namely as "Chamberlains of the Palace Senebtefi and Ameny". MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Culture & Idolatryis evidenced in AVIEZER's/Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen and in HELEQ's/Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple: Osiris was the incarnation of the King in his afterlife so this indicates the probably already begun Egyptian AND Hebrew hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH after his death as the deity Osiris. With his Pyramide, HELEQ/Khendjer was preparing himself as a Half-Egyptian for his afterlife as a "godlike Pharaoh" in the eyes of the Egyptians. This shows how in contrast to EPHRAIM and his lineage, MANASSE and his lineage quickly became rather Egyptian than Hebrew. Many donations in the form of deity statues for the temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into this pattern of evidence for idolatry going through the complete lineage of MANASSE as later shown in this Chapter and also in Chapter Moses. Like AVIEZER, MANASSE's son HELEQ also received as Pharaoh through his g'dfearing uncle EPHRAIM/Ankhu a Semitic Pharaoh name: Not only in order to be reminded of being Hebrews instead of Egyptians: "hnzr" - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - is the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater. This is a further strong indicator of the tension field between MANASSE's family trying to assimilate as Egyptians and worshipping Egyptian idols and EPHRAIM and his family at least trying to stay Hebrews and more or less loyal to the one G'd of their fathers ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB. It also explains the striking absence of typical Egyptian pharaonic insignias and temples in the 13th Dynasty with the exception of the time of MANASSE's sons as Pharaohs. The third son of MANASSE following in the footsteps of his brothers is ASRIEL. He is the next Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw, whose second Egyptian name Ibiaw is also the second Egyptian name of his father MANASSE/Senebefni-Ibiaw. Pharaoh Ibiaw only reigns for one year like all his following successors which means the yearly Pharaoh rotation system had been reestablished successfully again by EPHRAIM/ Vizierking Senwosret-Ankhu also called Ameny-Ankhu (as already explained JOSEPH and EPHRAIM both were called Ankh = Enlivement towards by their original Pharaohkings Senwosret & Amenemhat). This is also an indication for EPHRAIM meanwhile having established again a sufficient strong own military force after their defeat against the Canaanites. The Canaanites meanwhile hadn't gone back to Assur after having failed to invade Egypt. Instead, they stayed in the Nile Delta and established the so-called 14th Dynasty of Egypt. 

The successors of MANASSE's sons AVIEZER/Wegaf, HELEQ/Khendjer and ASRIEL/Wahibre-Ibiaw as following Pharaohs show strong indications for being further nephews of EPHRAIM/ Ankhu again - as sons of his former Pharaoh brothers: Pharaoh Merneferre Aya and Pharaoh Merhotepre Heni are most plausible candidates for being the sons of EPHRAIM's brothers' Pharaoh Antef's wife Aya and Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III wife Heni.

Pharaoh Merneferre-Aya is the last archeologically evidenced Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt which means following Pharaoh Merhotepre-Heni has already an official counter Pharaoh in Thebes claiming the rulership over Southern Egypt as a reaction to MANASSE's clan having returned to Thebes because of their failed attempts to achieve the Kingship over Egypt and because of EPHRAIM's/Ankhu's re-establishment of the traditional yearly Pharaoh rotating system.

This does mean simultaneously to the 13th Dynasty the 16th Dynasty of Thebes already started after JOSEPH‘s death in 1750 BC as an attempt of establishing two Kingdoms under the rulership of MANASSE's clan. 1742 BC - as soon as MANASSE and his sons in Northern Egypt realized that their attempts to take over the rulership had failed - they decided to return to Thebes. Meanwhile, MANASSE‘s son HEPHER (Jos17:2) as the successor of his father in his role as Vizier & Mayor of Thebes will have announced himself additionally as Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt before his returning brothers were able to proclaim this title for themselves: Vizier Senebhenef - MANASSE's son HEPHER - became Thebe’s Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep VIIIfor 16 reign years, which is the longest safely evidenced reign time of any Pharaoh in the Second Intermediate Period at all.

Picture: MANASSE's 2nd son HELEQ (Jos17:2) becomes Pharaoh Khendjer. Khendjer has to marry EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's daughter the widow Senebhenas in order to be under better control. His name Khendjer is Semitic according to Kim Ryholt and his reign time of 4,5 years is the longest one of the 13th Dynasty, which shows his ambitions to achieve Kingship power. EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's answer on his kingship ambitions and his idolatry and his attempts to appear as an Egyptian is naming him by his Hebrew throne name as a wild pig: He is named boar.



According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's sons are derivable by Numbers26, Joshua17, and 1Chronicles7. Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua17 corrected a little bit by 1Chronicles7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Thus MANASSE would have had five sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. His first son AVIEZER decided to be a warrior and became an archeologically evidenced officer of the town regiment of Thebes before his coronation as Pharaoh Wegaf. His coronation is also a most plausible reconciliation of EPHRAIM with his twin brother MANASSE after father JOSEPH's death. The second son of MANASSE was called HELEQ and is the most plausible candidate for the second Pharaoh after JOSEPH's death Pharaoh Khendjer. According to the Bible, the three first sons had no own sons in contrast to their further two brothers and the confirming archeological evidence. Identifying MANASSE's second Viziername Ibiaw led to the identification of two further Pharaohs from his family: Khendjer's successor is called Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw. He is MANASSE's (Senebefni Ibiaw's) biblical son ASRIEL.

According to Kim Ryholt, the first Pharaoh of the next 16th Dynasty in Thebes (see Chapter Moses) was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti; His wife was called Montuhotep thus she shows indications belonging to JOSEPH's lineage. Djehuti was Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty of Southern Egpyt after 1750 BC and before MANASSE's clan returned from the North to Thebes after the Pharaoh's reigns of Wegaf and Khendjer and after having rejected the reinstallation of yearly rotating Pharaohs by EPHRAIM. EPHRAIM's reason for this must have been attempts of MANASSE's sons to take over the highest rulership claiming MANASSE's original rights as the firstborn, which are indicated by the huge building projects of Pharaoh Khendjer (HELEQ) and his over average long reign time.

Thebes had been ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier. His Co-Vizier and successor was his fourth biblical son HEPHER called Vizier Senebhenef, who must have been ruling over Thebes while his father and brothers tried to take over the rulership in the North. Pharaoh Djehuti was the son-in-law of Vizier Senebhenef (HEPHER) and only co-ruled for a year in Thebes. Before MANASSE's clan returned to Thebes because of EPHRAIM's re-institutionalization of yearly rotating Pharaohs HEPHER shows Mannasse’s clan’s claims of original righteous Kingship by his additionally to his Viziertitle announced title as Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII. This is also a clear message of MANASSE's lineage to EPHRAIM not accepting the 13th Dynasty anymore by founding their own Southern Dynasty in Thebes - the 16th Dynasty. It is also probably empowerment insurance of HEPHER against his from the North returning brothers and Ex-Pharaohs over Egypt. This all happened between JOSEPH's death and the Hyksos Invasion. Thus from around 1750-1729 BC the 13th and 16th Dynasties co-existed in parallel.


The Bible mentions in 1Chr7:14 also an Aramean concubine as the second wife of MANASSE; Her illegitimate son is biblically called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons are PERESH and SHERESH, their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, which is the region their later tribes lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM. ULAM had a son called BEDAN. They will be all identified as Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage in Chapter Moses. ULAM/Sobekhotep IV, son of PERESH/Haankhef was a grandson of MACHIR/Nehy who according to all explained archeologically evidenced strong indications in Chapter Moses must have been the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE. This lineage will further on show strong ambitions for claimed power in rivalry to EPHRAIM's lineage as we will see later on in Chapter Moses.




In the beginning, JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE and his second-born son EPHRAIM, according to Rabbinical Seder Hadorot 2233 both born as (probably dizygotic) twins (in 1824 BC), were treated strictly equally, evidenced by their exact equal palace twin residences in JOSEPH's Palace in Avaris (see picture at the beginning of this chapter). This changes shortly before JACOB's death in 1804 BC: JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE, 20 years old and grown up in the expectation of all privileged rights of a firstborn son is set behind his younger brother EPHRAIM by his grandfather JACOB's blessing. MANASSE was announced as evidenced Vizier Dedu-Month Senebtefi/-efni (compare german Wikipedia List of Egyptian Viziers) but EPHRAIM is the one who marries Pharaoh's daughter and who is treated as the most by G'd blessed one by his father JOSEPH. MANASSE, suffering under this decision, decided to follow in his mother ASENATH's/Henut's and grandfather POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's former footsteps and became Senebefni, the Priest of the Egyptian deity Amun in Thebes. His second Viziername was Ibiaw.He is also archeologically evidenced as the Mayor of Thebes. His titles Royal Sealer and Highpriest are partly archeologically confirmed inherited from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II: "his grandfather also held the title Priest of Amun" (Grajetzki Court Officials p.98). Meanwhile, POTIPHAR and ASENATH had converted to the G'D of Israel according to The Story Joseph and Asenath and Anna Katharina Emmerich (1882, Secrets of the old and new Covenant p.107).

Amun is the invisible creator and highest father deity, deity of the herds, shepherds, and grasslands wearing a sheep ram's head like the syncretistic connected deity Khnum who is one of the name-giving deities for JOSEPH's Egyptian names. Amun had his main cult center in Thebes where MANASSE from then on lived as Priest of Amun and ruled as Mayor of Thebes and Vizier, responsible for Southern Egypt: This time was the climax for "Amun's position as King of Deities developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other deities became manifestations of him." This virtual Egyptian semi-monotheism was evidenced proceeded by MANASSE's lineage and Pharaoh descendants of the 17th Dynasty. After the Ten Plagues, the last Egyptian Ahmoside of the 17th Dynasty and the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Ahmose I changed his highest deity from the moon deity Khonsu to Amun as the highest worshipped deity. Amun melted together with the sun deity Ra and became Amun-Ra. This semi-monotheism found its climax in the re-separated sun deity Ra of Pharaoh Akhenatenthree centuries later in the 14th century BC before Pharaoh Tut Ankh Amun returned to Amun as the highest deity of Egypt. Syncretism can be seen in Amun melted with and replacing the battle deity Month (JOSEPH was hero-worshipped as the son of Month and as Month himself) as patron of Thebes before the time of Israel in Egypt. Month in his manifestation of sun deity Ra was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc or later alternatively manifested as a BLACK SNOUTED BULL. Thus Amun and Month are two of the most likely deities of Hebrew idolatry in Egypt - biblically evidenced mixed by Israel with Baal the highest Canaanite deity. Baal was associated often with a bull and melted by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' with the Egyptian evil desert deity of chaos Seth who again in return was "equated with the deity Amun" as Egyptologists confirm. Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris and dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's idolatry towards Baal/Seth. Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non evidenced and nonexistent years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology) and the unsafe excavation layer datings the author proposes a Seth Temple construction date after 1729 BC, which is the historical year of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion into Avaris, correctly revealed by the ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction. Syncretistic idolatry and apostasy are biblically (Hesekiel20:8) the origin and root cause of any suffering phases of Israel and it all began in Egypt with the Enslavement of Israel.

JOSEPH's/Zamonth's son MANASSE/Senebefni was Royal Sealer and High Priest like his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR/Khnumhotep. As the Highpriest of Amun in Thebes, he was also evidenced Mayor of Thebes and had an essential impact on the religious traditions of the tribe of MANASSE - they were Hebrews who always lived in Southern Egypt and thus were most probably spared of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt; The nome Heliopolis and its town LeOntopolis and the Island Elephantine in Southern Egypt will remain a melting pot for Hebrew idolatry up until the 5th century BC as we will see later. In Chapter Moses, we will learn to know a family clan of three generations around a so-called Royal Sealer Haankhef - a grandson of MANASSE - whose family was like MANASSE especially attached to the cult of Amun (Ryholt 1997 p. 226): Haankhef's son and MOSES' stepfather Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV (1666-1648 BC see Chapter Moses) grew up partly in the Temple of Amun in Thebes. He mentions on a stela that was placed in the temple of Amun: "I saw the vigor his majesty (Amun) at every single feast when I was a child who could not yet conceive." According to Kim Ryholt (1997 p. 226) archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's/Sobkehotep's IV family was especially attached to the cult of Amun: One of his sons is even named Amun-hotep. Sobkehotep's IV grandfather/ Haankhef's father Nehy most plausibly was the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE called MACHIR as we will examine deeper in Chapter Moses.

One century earlier in the time when father JOSEPH had appointed most of his sons as Pharaohs until his death 1750 BC and afterward EPHRAIM had become Vizierking there is one Pharaoh with the Semitic non-biblical name Khendjer whom EPHRAIM/Ankhu marries with his own daughter Senebhenas, the widow of his brother Pharaoh Sobekhotep III: Pharaoh Khendjer thus could not have been a son of EPHRAIM because EPHRAIM had no other sons anymore except SHUTELAH and BERIAH, the Viziers Resseneb and Iymeru. Thus he is most plausibly his brother MANASSE's son, whom EPHRAIM has to compensate for his being set behind after father JOSEPH's death; MANASSE's idolatry logically threw a shadow on the relationship with his father and his career. And his life in Thebes can be seen as his own separation or even as his semi-exile forced by his father - far away from his family because of his apostasy ad idolatry.

(Sidenote: Manasse‘s apostasy is echoed over one millennium later 697-643 BC by Judah’s King Manasse, who was most likely the son of a mother of the tribe of Manasse. King Manasse was the biggest idolater in the time of the Kings.)

As already explained but important to repeat here MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Idolatry and culture is also seen in AVIEZER's/ Pharaoh Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen, in HELEQ's/ Pharaoh Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple and certainly in his Pyramide making himself a deity in his afterlife in the eyes of the Egyptians. Also, many donations in the form of deity statues for the temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into this pattern of evidence. Consequentially MANSASSE's son was given as Pharaoh by his godfearing uncle EPHRAIM Vizierking Ankhu a Semitic Pharaoh name - h(n)zr - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - which is a best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater ... 

Egyptian deity Khnum/Amun
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg
One of Joseph's names was 
Khnumhotep = Khnum is happy

Egyptian Bull deity Month
Museum Louvre Paris

Joseph's names were also ZaMonth = Son of Month and Monthuhotep = Month is happy 




This work is revealing on and on that the 13th Dynasty of Egypt is as a matter of fact Israel's Dynasty over Egypt. For Egyptology, it may stay a riddle but for the Egyptians, in that time this rulership was even not a behind-the-scenes but a well-known Amenemhet III ordered rulership of their Savior out of Famine over all Egyptians until his death and beyond. Also, Egyptologists' convincement that over 30 rotating Pharaohs in less than 50 years were respected as and called Kings/ Lifelong Rulers is by no means plausible. Until the Middle Kingdom, the lifelong Kings/ Lifelong Ruler always was worshipped by the Egyptians as a deity thus their beloved Savior out of Famine and Lifelong Ruler Grandvizier JOSEPH/Zamonth was more adored as King than his son EPHRAIM Ankhu. JOSEPH was even worshipped against his will as a deity by the Egyptians, confirmed by his striking lifelong avoidance to take over also the role as "godlike" Pharaoh for himself. Thus JOSEPH/Zamonth was given many different names like all other former Kings of Egypt. For example, the Wadi el-Hol stela depicts JOSEPH's son Wphauthotep becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and describes him as standing before the deity Month and receiving an Ankh and a Was-scepter as reign attributes from Month. Sobekhotep is depicted followed by his father ZaMonth/JOSEPH - meanwhile here called Monthhotep - and also by his mother Henut, here called Juhetibu (remember her granddaughters' names Juhetibu and Henut) as ASENATH's third name. And he is followed by Khnumhotep's/JOSEPH‘s granddaughter and Sobekhotep's wife Senebhenas. Vizierking Month(u)hotep/JOSEPH was the one from whom the reign attributes are received by Sobekhotep on the picture thus in fact JOSEPH is identified here with the deity Month

As already explained the battle deity Month was the Patron of Thebes: in his manifestation of the sun deity Ra he was falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc or in his later alternative manifestation he was a BLACK SNOUTED BULL. According to Genesis41:43 and explained in Jubilees50:7 Pharaoh (SenwosretIII) is announcing JOSEPH as Ruler over ALL Egyptians "I am not bigger than You except the throne" and proclaimed "God, God, the Mighty of God!" in Old Hebrew "El, El, Wa'Abir El!": This means that the as a god worshipped Pharaoh Senwosret calls him not only the "Mighty of a God" but also even a God not smaller than him as a God. So for complete Egypt JOSEPH was on the order of the God-Pharaoh Senusret III worshipped by all Egyptians as a God. Abir in old Hebrew means Mighty and Bull and Klaus Berger identifies the BULL as the SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees50:7 Footnote a P.519). 

Israel itself becoming infected by Egyptian idolatry through hero-worshipping JOSEPH against his will is indicated several times in the Bible: Before the JOSEPH unvealed himself being their brother JUDAH called JOSEPH „LORD“ and himself his „slave/servant“ and therefore recognized fully JOSEPH‘s position as g‘dlike King: „ … you are like Pharaoh himself.“ (Genesis44:18). JOSEPH‘s bothers did not only bow themselves before him like before a G’d with their faces to the earth three times before they knew he was their brother (Genesis42:6,43:26,44:14 as JOSEPH saw in his dream in his youth): They also „fell down before his face“ (Genesis50:18) as an act of worshipping after their father’s death and JOSEPH had to clarify that in spite of being worshipped by the Egyptians he is no G‘d at all: 

„Fear not. 
For am I in the place of G‘d?“

Several Egyptologists believe OSIRIS had been a former living ruler - who must have been (they speculatively assume in the Predynastic times) „a shepherd, in the Nile Delta, whose beneficial rule led to him being revered as a god“ which is exactly matching JOSEPH‘s story. Osiris was associated with the accoutrements of the shepherd, the crook and the flail - once insignia of the Delta deity Andjety. (Strudwick, Helen (2006). The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 118–119)

According to Leading Egyptology the deity Month became merged with the deity OSIRIS: This is archeologically confirmed on Stela CGC 20102 inscriptively identifying Vizier Zamonth as "King OSIRIS, the First of the West, the great God, the Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, the Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus .. Nobleman, Mayor of the Town Vizier Zamonth, blessed, born from the Lady of the House Satip". Shortly after his son Sobekhoteph's III death JOSEPH also dies in 1750 BC. JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM/Ankhu gives the instruction to restore the 12th Dynasty temple of the deity OSIRIS at Abydos, obviously to honor his father's incarnation as King into the deity OSIRIS in his afterlife - this was the common Egyptian religious belief regarding the King in that time. According to David Rohl, this is archeologically confirmed by inscriptions on two stelae in the Louvre from the funerary chapel of the priest AmenySeneb. In this archeologically evidenced time, MANASSE's son HELEQ became Pharaoh Khendjer for over four years and initiated huge building projects at the OSIRIS temple.

The Egyptian deity OSIRIS was also adored in a star constellation much later called Orion in Greece, then much later called „Holy JOSEPH“ in the Christian star catalog.

According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german pages 101,103) Virgin Priestess Aseneth would have been prophesied to become JOSEPH‘s wife (both described as often holding an Ankh symbol - a cross with a circle), to become a great Mother of many, a great Queen of many and an Idol for many in the future. This prophecy would become misinterpreted by the Egyptians and would have lead to worshipping her divinely in idolatry and would in later times lead into "depicting her with so many breasts". Against their will JOSEPH (ZaMonth + KhnumHotep = MonthHotep) and his biblical wife ASENATH or Esenuth (archeologically evidenced as Henut or Enutsen) would have been together adored and worshipped as the deities Osiris & Isis and Aseneth would have been called "Mother of God's":

And indeed Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep's wife Henut became an archeologically evidenced mother of several Pharaohs worshipped as gods by Egyptians. 

In historian Manetho's Book of Egyptian History of the 3rd century BC historian Josephus discovers in the 1st century "As for the additions which Manetho has made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales" the following about Israel according to Manetho:

"... they appointed as their leader one of the priests of Hêliopolis called Osarsêph ... It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Hêliopolis,
named Osarsêph after the god Osiris, worshipped at Hêliopolis; but when he joined his people, he changed his name and was called Moses."

The leader – whom Manetho thinks of as Moses – is named
Osarsiph. Manetho is clearly confusing and telescoping two biblical characters: This name is a hybridization of “Joseph” with “Osiris” the Egyptian theophoric element “Osir-” replaces the Jewish theophoric prefix “Yo-” or “Yeho-.” (Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940). 

This is a strong scriptural indication for Joseph having been worshipped as Osiris in Egypt not only by Egyptians but also at least partly by the Israelites in Egypt, manifested in JOSEPH‘s/Zamonth‘s CGC 20102 Stela Inscription:
" .. A sacrifice that the King is giving .. A sacrifice that the King OSIRIS is giving .. Horus (the son of OSIRIS = Senebefni) sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier ZaMonth (son of MONTH) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of OSIRIS)"

And even more archeological evidence is confirming Anna Katharina Emmerick's descriptions: According to Egyptology the ancient Egyptian goddess Satis or Setet formed as the wife of Khnum together with him the married deity couple on the Island Elephantine which is also locationally the archeological starting point of the manuscript "The Story of Joseph & Aseneth". Satis or Setet was a female fertility and battle deity and was also conflated with the goddess Isis the wife of the deity Osiris. Originally she was called Iunit or Henut the wife of the deity Month. 

And as already mentioned ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit/Iunit/Henut" 
in Genesis41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD. 

Later the deity Iunit became the wife of Khnum. After Khnum was conflated with Ra or Horus she also sometimes became the Eye of Ra or Horus. She was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns, a bow, and arrows holding an Ankh, a cross with a circle, the symbol of enlifement (Aseneth's son Ephraim was named Ankhu). The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Iunit or Henut was the wife of the deity Month and was later merged with the deity Isis, the wife of the deity Osiris and mother of the deity Horus. In Greece Isis was later then merged with Artemis:

Iunit wife of Month later Khnum
became Isis wife of Osiris

Isis later became merged with
Artemis with "so many breasts" 

JOSEPH was hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as

 Khnum <=> Amun <=> Month <=> Osiris

ASENATH's Biblical name forms are


ASENATH's Egyptian name forms are

tAhenut <=> hEnutsen <=> Henut or Iunit <=> Henu

ASENATH is hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as

Anat or Ashtart <=> Henut or Iunit or Neith <=> Seteth or Satis 

Zeneneth <=> Isis <=> Artemis



The Golden Bull worshipping by Israel in the Desert - by Moses derogatively called "the dance around the Golden Calf" - is often tried to be relativized as idolatry by rabbinical scripture interpretations and it must indeed be relativized: The Golden Bull must now also be seen in the context of the Bull deity Month unveiled as hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH Saviour of Egypt and Israel by the Egyptians and also by the people of Israel especially the egyptianised idolatrous tribe of Manasse. The Jewish Apocryphes about Moses' Ascension, confirmed in the NT letter of Jude (Jude9) in the Bible, also reveal that before and after the Exodus the People of Israel was strongly infected by Egyptian idolatry and did not only have the inclination to worship Egyptian or Canaanite deities but also to hero-worship their own leader: The famous dispute about the body of Moses between archangel Michael and the devil shows how Michael wants to avoid Isreal's leader Moses to be hero-worshipped by the people of Israel. Archangel Michael concealed the tomb of Moses to prevent the Israelites from the sin of hero-worshipping, the sin which Satan had hoped to lead them into as he did already do regarding JOSEPH through the dance around the Golden Bull ...

Black Snouted "Golden" Bull of the 16th century BC 

"But they rebelled against Me, and would not pay heed (listen) unto Me; they did not EVERY ish (man) cast away the shikkutzim (abominations) from before their eynayim (eyes),
neither did they forsake
the gillulim (idols) of Mitzraym (Egypt);
then I said, I will pour out My chemah
(fury) upon them,
to vent My anger against them 
IN the midst of Eretz Mitzrayim
(the land of Egypt)."

Yechezkel/Ezekiel20:8 OJB Orthodox Jewish Bible

All here discovered Egyptian Idols worshipped by the Israelites are later identified as the same Idols (Hesekiel20:8) that fell evidenced under the Almighty's Judgement through the Ten Plagues (Exodus12:12) to make Israel (Exodus6:7,10:2) and Egypt (Exodus7:5.17,8:10) recognize who is the real ONE and ONLY G'D. (The idols are identified in Chapter Moses in the headlined passage THE TEN PLAGUES.) For example the golden bull is additionally mirroring the in Chapter Moses archeologically evidenced Hebrew worshipping of the cow goddess Hathor also seen as the creator goddess. The chaotic mingling of deities in their development is evidenced in the complete history of Egyptian idolatry.



MANASSE and the tribe of MANASSE archeologically evidenced lived and practiced idolatry in Thebes and Southern Egypt since the beginning of the 13th Dynasty. So MANASSE‘s tribe escaped through not living in Northern Egypt from the enslavement of Israel by the Canaanite 'Hyksos' and the Egyptian elite. Being the most plausible tribe practicing most of the idolatry and always having lived in the freedom they are also the most plausible tribe having initiated the "dance around the calve". And they were beside the royal lineage of EPHRAIM the only plausible tribe having moaned ".. in Egypt .. we used to sit around the pots with the meat boiling, and we had as much food as we wanted." in Exodus16:3 because meat was never at all the regular food of slaves in Egypt, it always in the history of mankind was the regular food of the wealthy and not for the poor.

Thus one part of the people of the idolatrous egytianised privileged tribe of MANASSE in Southern Egypt is also the most plausible group of people who could have decided not to follow MOSES. And this in spite of having experienced the Ten Plagues and thus their G'd as the only powerful G'd of all their worshipped deities. But in order to avoid the tribe of MANASSE becoming the scapegoat for all idolatry committed by Israel in Egypt the author reminds the reader of Ezekiel20:7-8:

"I told them,
'EACH OF YOU is to throw away the detestable things that draw your eyes.
Do not defile yourselves with the IDOLS of EGYPT. I am the Lord your G'd.'

'But they rebelled against me; they did not, EACH OF THEM, 
throw away the detestable things that drew their eyes; 
and THEY DID NOT abandon the IDOLS of EGYPT." 


Many Israelites of the tribe of MANASSE and of the royal house most likely preferred going on living their comfortable life in Egypt to a future in the dangerous deadly desert:

Heliopolis has been already identified as On, one of the three fortified cities the Israelites had to rebuild as slaves after the Hyksos Invasion. According to Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerick, the eleven tribefathers settled in Heliopolis after Jacob's death. Heliopolis is also the name of the nome around the town Heliopolis. LeOntopolis is a town in the nome Heliopolis and includes some massive rectangular earthwork enclosures of the Second Intermediate Period, their purpose is probably defensive. The enclosure is very unegyptian and often interpreted by Egyptologists as a fortification built by the Canaanites, generally known as the "Hyksos Camp": The fifth-century Latin version of the book of Jubilees46:14 says after the Canaanite Invasion the King of Canaan announced supervisors over the Israelites "to let them torture them with slavery. And they built fixed towns for Pharaoh, Pithom, Romasse, and On. And they built all walls and dams which were destroyed (by the Canaanites) in the towns of Egypt." The Bible calls JOSEPH‘s father-in-law POTIPHERA Priest of On. The Book of Jubilees calls him POTIPHAR Priest of Heliopolis. LeOntopolis in the nome Heliopolis is inscriptively evidenced since the 2nd century BC as a Hebrew colony in Goshen and up until today it is called Tell el Yehudiye, the "Jewish Mound" ... 

Also the ancient "Story of Joseph & Asenath" takes place and finds its home base in Heliopolis: Gideon Bohak (1996) and others have drawn attention to the geographical location of the already mentioned Story of Joseph & Asenath in the town Heliopolis (http://www.markgoodacre.org/aseneth/translat.htm), in an important Jewish diaspora community centered on a Jewish temple in Leontopolis, located in the nome of Heliopolis during the Ptolemaic period seeing this as the likely starting point for the Story of Joseph and Asenath. [Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press]. Burchard (1985) writes "Every competent scholar since Batiffol has maintained that 'Joseph and Aseneth' is Jewish ... As to the place of origin, the majority of scholars look to Egypt."  


POTIPHAR'S and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest Khnumhotep II and his daughter Enutsen/Henut
in his tomb in Beni Hassan
is serve archeological evidence for
the roots of the Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH.

(Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)

A stela of JOSEPH'S SON MANASSE as Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw and a plaquette of his son AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf both found inside the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine
serve as archeological evidence confirming the roots of Hebrew idolatry in Southern Egypt.

Strong archeological indications of the knowledge of the story of JOSEPH AND ASENATH in Elephantine for 3700 years are evidenced by the statues of their grandson BERIAH named Vizier Iymeru Aya discovered in the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine.
(Detlef Franke 1984, Personendaten .., Dossier Nr. 25/26, S.55)

Archeological evidence for Hebrew idolatry through honoring JOSEPH as Osiris are a statuette of his son Manasse called Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw in the Temple of Osiris in Abydos and the building projects of MANASSE's sons AVIEZER and HELEQ named Pharaoh Wegaf and Pharaoh Khendjer at the Temple of Osiris.
(KS 1839) 

These are all strong indications for the Story of Joseph & Asenath having been originally authoritative scripture of Israel from the time of JOSEPH until the time of JESUS and further on of first Jewish and then 'pagan' Christianity until recent centuries, evidenced for example by catholic art 1490-1500 AD in Brussels, in this picture called:

"Joseph meets Asenath 
throwing her idols out of the Tower"

In Southern Egypt on the Island Elephantine, the already mentioned deities Khnum & Satis (hero-worshipped JOSEPH & ASENATH/ Khnumhotep & tAhenut) and Amun were still worshipped and had local festivals in the 5th century BC. Deity Khnum became hero-worshipped JOSEPH named Khnumhotep in the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History. JOSEPH's wife ASENATH can also be written ESENETH and became the deity Seneneth which was another name for Satis. According to Egyptologists - like its predecessor - the so-called "Jewish" Temple at Elephantine until the fifth century BC - the later Temple of Leontopolis of the 4th to 1st century BC - would have been the only "Jewish" sanctuary outside of Jerusalem where sacrifices were offered. According to Josephus, the Temple of Leontopolis existed for 343 years (Wars of the Jews VII. 10, § 4). The 5th-century Elephantine Papyri are a collection of ancient scientists so-called "Jewish"  manuscripts dating from the 5th century BCE. They would come from the "Jewish" community at Elephantine. As a matter of fact, there is no evidence at all for the Hebrews at Elephantine descending from the tribe of JUDAH or BENYAMIN thus Hebrews or Israelites would be the only unbiased neutral correct identification. To call them Jews is as manipulative and inadmissible as calling contemporary Samarians Jews. Taking into account all discovered archeological evidence in this work regarding MANASSE as the only tribe always having lived in Southern Egypt as a melting pot of Hebrew Egyptian idolatry it would be much more evidence-based to call them the most plausible descendants of the tribe of MANASSE. This division of the tribe of MANASSE and the fact that the tribe of EPHRAIM included the tribes of EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced six further brothers not mentioned by the Bible does explain the huge difference of the biblical sizes of the two tribes. Like the different careers and deeds of EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's descendants their different tribe sizes are also an impressive historical fulfillment of Father JACOB's biblical prophecy regarding EPHRAIM and MANASSE in Genesis48.

Anat is attested in Egypt since the 18th century BC. As a warrior-goddess, Anat was one of several Syrian or northwest Semitic deities who was prominently worshipped by the warrior-pharaohs of the 16th Dynasty - most likely (great-) grandsons of ASENATH. Anat was often paired with the goddess Ashtart. During the Hyksos period, Anat had temples in Avaris and in Beth-shan Israel as well as being worshipped in Memphis. She can be identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith/Iunit/Henut (see last passage) which are Egyptian name forms of biblical ASENATH/ESENUTH like also her Egyptian name spellings Henutsen/Henut. In the Bible, the prophets mourned several times about Israel adoring Anat

JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ASENATH is believed by other experts to derive from the Ancient Egyptian "js.w-n-njt" meaning "holy to Anath" or "belonging to Neith". Neith/Iunit/Henut was an already mentioned Egyptian goddess; She was the wife of the deity Month  (remember JOSEPH's name ZaMonth) and became later the wife of the deity Khnum (remember JOSEPH's name Khnumhotep).

The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Neith/Iunit/Henut was the wive of the deity Month and was later merged with the deity Isis, the wive of the deity Osiris - which are the idols' names of hero-worshipped Asenath & Joseph according to AK Emmerich. And as we already know Henut was the name of the wife of Zamonth "as also" Khnumhotep. Thus not only the Egyptians but also the Israelites obviously executed idolatry in Heliopolis and Elephantine as evidenced Hebrew idolatry melting pots which lead to worshipping ASENATH & JOSEPH as deities especially in LeOntopolis and also in southern Elephantine. ASENATH & JOSEPH merged into the Egyptian deity pair of Anat & Khnum and into the Hebrew idolatry pair of Anat & Jahew.

While the Egyptian Priests worshipped Anat & Khnum in their temple on Elephantine the Hebrew Priests had their own temple for Jahew worshipped together with Anat which functioned alongside that of the Egyptian Deity of Khnum: This caused conflicts between Egyptian and Hebrew Priests which lead to the destruction of the Hebrew temple in the 5th century BC.

Looking at the archeological indications regarding the Heliopolis worshipping of ASENETH & JOSEPH as Setet & Khnum or Zeneneth (later Henut/Iunit) & Month later Isis & Osiris and looking at Heliopolis being the archeological starting point of the manuscript "The Story of Joseph and Aseneth"  the Hebrew citizens of Elephantine and Leontopolis are most plausibly remaining descendants of the Twelve Tribes of Israel in Egypt 1821-1606 BC. Additional strong indications for this are found in the Elephantine Papyri saying "Now our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the Kingdom of Egypt." The latest real Kingdom of Egypt was the New Kingdom from 1070 BC back to the biblical year 1606 BC the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Hyksos out of Egypt.

As Hebrews who decided not to follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt but having experienced themselves the Ten Plagues, especially the night of the Tenth Plague, the southern people of the tribe of Manasse well knew and celebrated the Passover with its rules telling the story of the last night in Egypt and they consequently worshipped the G'D of Israel since MOSES known as JHWH since 1606 BC in Egypt as the by the Ten Plagues evidenced only really powerful g'd of all their Egyptian and Canaanite former worshipped deities. But they certainly did not know the Mosaic Laws (eg. the Deuteronomic law) which were later given outside Egypt at Mount Horeb in the land of Midian in Arabia in the desert and they naturally also did not write down anything about the man, they decided not to follow - MOSES, who took all the scriptures from AMRAM, LEVI and JACOB and the older books of Genesis as old family knowledge treasure with him as the Book of Jubilees tells us in various details. Thus the complete Torah - the five Books of Moses - are a treasure only of the descendants of the Israelites who left Egypt 1606 BC but not of the descendants who stayed and were left behind in Egypt and melted their own oral tradition of the days of the Exodus with Egyptian and Canaanite traditions and deities. So the left behind Israelites did neither know the Books of Moses nor the later Books of the Judges, Kings or Prophets. This is all exactly evidenced in the Elephantine Papyri. In the 5th century's Elephantine Papyri the idolatrous left behind descendants of the tribe of MANASSE clearly took care not to reveal their polytheistic idolatry towards the only JHWH worshipping High Priest of Jerusalem - "no other god is mentioned than Yahew/YHWH" - when elaborating a petition to ask for his support in rebuilding their temple in Elephantine. And naturally, there is no evidence at all that would confirm Jerusalem answering with any support for their idolatry in foreign lands in any way.

Without having explored all the background findings of this chapter and building on their Bible falsifications based self disproved Ramesses Time Paradigm Leading Egyptology and “Biblical” Archeology celebrates this discovered evidence however as a further “proof” for the Bible being a allegedly a compendium of political lies written roughly around 500 BCE (Wajdenbaum 2016 in Hjelm's Biblical Interpretation):

"There is no hint of any suspicion that the temple could be considered heretical, and they would surely not have appealed to the High Priest at Jerusalem if any doubt about it. On the contrary, they give the impression of being proud of having a temple of their own, and as pious devotees of Ya'u/Yahweh (no other god is mentioned in the petition) seriously distressed at the loss of religious opportunities caused by its destruction... So far as we learn from these texts Moses might never have existed, there might have been no Bondage in Egypt, no Exodus, no monarchy, no prophets. There is no mention of other tribes and no claim to any Heritage in the land of Judah. Among the numerous names of colonists, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Samuel, David, so common in later times, never occur (nor in Nehemiah), nor any other name derived from their past history as recorded in the Pentateuch and early literature. It is almost incredible, but it is true." (Cowley, Arthur 2005, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC Eugene)


The Hebrew Hero worshipping of Joseph & Asenath 
as Month & Zeneneth, Khnum & Henut and Osiris & Isis 
in the Second Intermediate Period 
was mainly exercised by Israel's tribe of Manasse. 

After the Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel 
the leftover Israelites in Egypt 
- mainly of the tribe of Manasse - 
transformed their idolatry into worshipping 
(JHWHE) Jahew and Anat in the New Kingdom of Egypt 
while the Egyptians went on worshipping Khnum and Anat. 

Archeological evidence matching most ancient relating writings reveals Israel's apostasy in Egypt away from Abraham's monotheism as the root of the so-called Egyptian "monotheism" of Akhenaten. 

The claim the root of monotheism would not be the Bible but

the "earlier" Egyptian worshipping of the sun in the time of Akhenaten turns out to be an antibiblical hypothesis 

based on the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm.



There is no evidence PROVING 
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty 
being Canaanites.

There is no evidence DISPROVING 
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty 
being Israelites.

Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence in this work
are revealing the opposite is the case.

Leading Egyptology's and Leading Biblical Archeology's
postulated paradigms regarding Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves disproved
Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm.

That disproved dogma is their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without disproving evidence. Nearly all these writings confirm 
the time of the Foreign Rulers in Egypt 
as the time of Israel in Egypt and the time of 
the Exodus of Israel as also the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.

Now this is how the Scriptures of Qumran - the Books of Moses and the Book of Jubilees - are bringing the real times of the Second Intemediate Period of Egypt, the so-called "dark period of uncertain highly speculative time estimations" to light and are purifying history from around 75 non existing years, confirming Dr. Roger Liebi's words:

"The Bible is the Diamond,
that cuts the stones of archeology
and not the other wrong way around."

Picture: 12m! high Split Water Rock at Biblical Mount Horeb in Biblical Midian, Arabia east of the Biblical Yam Suph, the Gebel El Lawz east of the Gulf of Acaba.



Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.



*2111-1936+ BC


& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR



Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


*2011-1831+ BC




*1951-1804+ BC

& Wife LEAH

Brother ESAU

Pharaoh Senwosret III

Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Amenemhet-Ankh Khety KhnumHotep

*1860-1750+ BC
1830-1750 BC

  • God Sealer
  • Gate of Foreign Lands
  • Pharaoh's 
    "Real Friend"
  • Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
  • Arm of Month
  • Mayor
  • Mouth of Nekhen


  • Senewosret- Ankh
  • Amenemhet-Ankh
  • Kethi/Chety
  • Khnum-hotep
  • Za-Month
  • later Mon(th)-hotep

& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut

Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II

  • Priestess
  • Queenmother 
  • "Mother of Gods"

Mother of 10 Kingdaughters:
Seneb, Satamun, ..
2 Viziers:
Senebefni Ibiaw
2 Kingsons:
Sonb, Khakau
4 Pharaohs:

Intef, Meribre,
Wepwauthotep Sobekhotep III 

12 Brothers &

Leah's sons:
Rachel's sons:
Bilhah's sons:
Zilpah's sons:

Amenemhet III 

Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH

Amenemhet's III children: 

  • later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
  • BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha 
  • EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
  • Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV

Vizier Ankhu  Senwosret

*1828-1726+ BC

Co-Rulership with his father
1798-1750 BC

Vizier Ankhu

Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth

Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety

Vizierkingship over Egypt:
1750-1726 BC

& Wife Mereret

Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter

Mother of
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
BERIAH 1Chr7:23

Vizier Iymerew Aya


2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:

ESER Nebankh &

ELEAD 1Chr7,21

Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw

*1828-1726+ BC
also deciphered as (Dedu-Month) Senebtefi

Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun

Illegitimate son (1Chr7:14) of an Aramean concubine:
1. MACHIR Nehy

Legitimate sons (Jos17,1Chron7)
of Egyptian mother: 

2. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer
4. ASRIEL Pharaoh Ibiaw  
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER Vizier Senebhenef
Sobekhotep VIII

Vizierking ZaMonth

1830-1750 BC

  • First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
  • Archeologically evidenced 

   King Khnumhotep,
   King Zamonth and 
   King Monthotep

  • Father of the Land
  • Father of G'ds
  • Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris  
  • Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV

Vizier Resseneb 

c. *1800-1714+ BC


Assistance of his Grandfather
JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety

Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father
EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC

16th Dynasty 
over Southern Egypt:
1726-1714 BC


HUPPIM's sister,

(Gen46:21) granddaughter of BENJAMIN 

"King's Daughter" of

BENJAMIN's son IR (1Chron7:12) Pharaoh Hor

Lady of the House“ 

Former Widow of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death

Brother BERIAH
Vizier Iymeru Aya

c. *1800-1698+ BC


Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC

Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Wife: ZatJan
REFAC (1Chr7:25)  
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II

16th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
1714-1698 BC

EPHRAIM Vizierking
Ankhu  Senwosret

13th Dynasty Vizierking

over complete Egypt:
1750-1726 BC

  • Archeologically evidenced

   Senwosret King 
   of Pharaoh Wegaf


c. *1790-1700+ BC


Son of SHUTELAH's  Resseneb's wife and former widow MAACHAH Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death

PERESH Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne. 

He died early before his sons reaching their kinghship.

He was proclaimed by his sons as

  • "Royal Sealer"
  • "Father of Gods"
  • King as Father of "Kingsons" 

& Wife  Kemi

died early in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep

Vizier Neferkare Iymeru  Ayameru II 

c. *1760-1646+ BC

Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH (1Chr7:23)  Iymeru Aya

Co-Rulership with father Vizierking Iymeru Aya:
c. 1716-1698 BC

17th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt 
1698-1666 BC

Reduced to Vizier  
under Pharaohking
Sobekhotep IV
1666-1646 BC 

Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos'  Pharaoh

1729-1710 BC:
Self-appointed first 15th Dynasty King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt = "A foreign King who arose in enmity above Egypt who did not know Joseph" (Exodus1:8 in literal old hebrew)

Shepherd Kings:
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:20) Vizierking Resseneb
2. BERIAH 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:23) Vizierking Ayamerew
3. REFACH 17th Dynasty
(1Chr7:25) Vizierking Ayamerew II 

ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'

c. *1730-1626+ BC

Son of PERESH/ Haankhef (1Chr7:16)

Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan

Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
1666-1658 BC

Stepfather of
Mio Sobekhotep =


1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan

1. MERIS/ Meristheki or Mereryt:
Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan,
Mother of  Sobekhotep/ Djadja,
Haankhef/ Iyhkarnofrat
but beforehand

Adoptive Mother of Sobekhotep/ Mio  =


2. Hebrew wife Tjan: 
Son Amenhotep,
Daughter Nebtiunet, later named Queen Tetisheri,
wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose

Brother REKEM/ 

3 self-called "Kingsons":

1.REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
father of

2.Pharaoh Sihathor
(no reign time)
nephew of

3.ULAM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'

Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep'IV'

1666-1658 BC:
Co-Rulership as hebrew son in law together with canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC

Thebes: 1666 BC 
Switch back from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the
downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover of the Ahmosides 1627 BC

Notes and References

  1. Wolfram Grajetzki, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, 136-138, 160-161.