Who were Joseph’s Pharaohs?


Introducing summary of the lost History of Joseph’s 13th Dynasty of Egypt 

Chronological Overview of Kings and Pharaohs in the time of Joseph and his son Ephraim

The Famine and Grandvizier Joseph in the time of Pharaoh Senwosret III and his son Amenemhet III

Maps of Ancient Egypt

The oldest Alphabet was found in Egypt
It was Hebrew and first appeared in the time of Joseph

Joseph’s archeologically evidenced graves in Egypt and Israel

Five different Vizier names without remains in the Viziership time of Joseph

Could the tomb of Vizier Khnumhotep III be a third grave of Joseph?

Was Khumhotep II Joseph’s slavemaster biblical Potiphar?

The story of Joseph and Potiphar is the history of Khnumhotep III and II

Israel in Egypt archeologically evidenced in the tomb of Khnumhotep II

The burial time of Khnumhotep II in the time of the Settlement of Israel in Egypt

Family picture of Father Jacob’s Family in the tomb of Khnumhotep II

Zamonth and Khnumhotep are two different names of one and the same Vizier

Joseph’s Viziernames Zamonth and Khnumhotep and his Pharaohnic sons

Joseph’s wife Asenath is Vizier Khnumhotep’s wife Henut

1753 BC: Ancient Alphabetical Inscription in Egypt of Asenath’s biblical name

The children of Joseph and Asenath were Viziers and Pharaohs 

Joseph and his sons’ additional Viziername Senwosret unveils Ephraim as Vizierking after Joseph

Joseph’s son Ephraim is Zamonth’s son Ankhu 
The 13th Dynasty was ruled by Vizierkings

Joseph’s brother Benjamin was Pharaoh Amenemhet IV and his sons were his successors

Intermezzo: Amenemhet’s III daughter Sobekneferu becomes Pharaoh for four years 

Hebrew Shepherd Kings of the 13th Dynasty 
Joseph‘s and Ephraim’s Hekakhasut Family Clan

Joseph’s death and Manasse’s birthright claims 
Manasse’s sons become Pharaohs under Vizierking Ephraim

Manasse’s sons return to the South after they fail to take over the throne 
The first Pharaos of the 16th Dynasty 

Biblical Evidence of the Idolatry of Israel in Egypt

Vizier Zamonth and his son Senebefni are Joseph and his son Manasse

Joseph’s son Manasse unveiled as initiator of the „Egyptian Origin of Monotheism“

Joseph and Asenath against their will worshipped in Egyptian idolatry

Joseph worshipped as Shepherd King Osiris

Asenath worshipped as Isis wife of Osiris

Israelites who remained in Egypt after the Exodus 
Leontopolis and the ancient story of Joseph & Asenath

Descendants of Manasse who remained in Southern Egypt 
Elephantine and the temple of Jahew & Anat

Joseph & Asenath and the Golden Calf

The Royal Genealogy of Israel in Egypt

Who were Joseph’s Pharaohs? 


The biblically untold story of Joseph’s rulership over Egypt archeologically corroborated in this Chapter

In the year 1843 BC Joseph was sold by his brothers as a slave to beduins who brought him to Egypt and sold him to Pharaoh’s chamberlain Potiphar. After a ten years enduring unique slave career in Potiphar’s palace Joseph was innocently accused of sexual harassment by his wife and became prisoner in Potiphar’s Royal Prison of Pharaoh for three years. Pharaoh Senwosret’s III unrecognized nightmares about a great famine to come were deciphered by Joseph and he became announced as godlike Vizier with unique rulership power over complete Egypt in order to safe the land and the people. Joseph built a canal and huge grain stockyards saving Egypt and its neighbors from starvation. This made him against his will by Egyptians hero worshiped Osiris. He married Potiphar’s daughter Asenath. 1821 BC he brought his family to Egypt. They were royally welcomed by his archeologically evidenced “true friend” Pharaoh Amenemhet III son of deceased Senwosret III and they were welcomed on Potiphar’s decennial family festival immortalized on his tomb walls in Beni Hasan we will see in this chapter. Before Joseph’s father Jacob died in 1804 BC he adopted Joseph’s two firstborn twins as dedicated heirs of the promised land and by his blessings set back the older heir to the throne Manasse behind his younger brother Ephraim. Manasse then turned away from his family and faith and became Priest of Amun and Southern Egyptian Mayor of Thebes. He implemented the Egyptian monolatry around Amun the alleged origin of monotheism according to Egyptologists. Manasse’s being left behind resulted into generations ongoing inter familiar rivalries regarding Joseph’s throne of kingship he had received from Amenemhet III in the year of his death 1798 BC. As prophesied by his father Jacob Joseph becomes the most fruitful tree of Israel: His wife Asenath became Queenmother of 18 children including two Viziers and six Pharaohs. Trying to abolish Egyptian worshipping of Pharaoh Joseph implemented a yearly Pharaoh rotation system and let his most trusted brothers Benjamin and Levi and all their sons “play” Pharaoh for a year. When Joseph’s further sons were grown up they demanded and received the Pharaoh position for several years. 1750 BC before Joseph’s life came to an end his sixth son Pharaoh Sobekhotep III tried to take over Joseph’s throne through a victorious battle against the Canaanites of Assur but he became defeated and killed. At his and Joseph’s funeral Manasse and Ephraim came together again for the first time. New Vizierking Ephraim tried to reconcile with Manasse and Manasse’s second son and military commander became announced as Pharaoh. He successfully stopped the first Canaanite Invasion attempt. In this battle Manasse’s firstborn illegitimate son Machir died. His descendants will one century later play a crucial role for the downfall of Israel’s Southern Dynasty of Shepherd Kings in Chapter Moses. After having been fighted back the Canaanites did not return to Assur but stayed in the Nile Delta waiting for a second chance to conquer Egypt. The youngest of Manasse’s completely egyptianised sons became next Pharaoh for five years and built a Pyramid to be worshipped while further sons of Manasse founded the Abydos Dynasty expanding Manasse’s Southern domain. When Vizierking Ephraim fully realized all his brother’s attempts to take over his throne he reintroduced the yearly rotation of Pharaohs and Manasse with his sons and army returned to Thebes where he died 1733 BC. In 1729 BC the year of Manetho‘s attested Hyksos Invasion the Canaanites successfully conquered Avaris, Memphis, Lahun and Heliopolis and Ephraim had to flee with his royal court, family and army to his brother’s sons in Thebes. Manasse’s fourth son Mayor of Thebes was killed in the following siege war of the Canaanites but Ephraim’s Pharaohs can fight back the Canaanite army. The People of Israel in the northern cities Avaris (biblical Raamezes), Lahun (biblical Pithom) and On (Leontopolis) meanwhile were enslaved and had to rebuild their destroyed cities into militarily guarded enwalled slave ghettos. Ephraim died and his son Shutelah became Vizierking of the Southern 16th Dynasty not strong enough to defeat the Northern Canaanites and rescue his people out of slavery. This is a short introducing summary of the lost History of the 13th Dynasty of Egypt, the biblically untold story of Joseph’s rulership over Egypt archeologically corroborated in this Chapter.


This Chapter is about the time of Genesis 39-50 andwill unveal an overwhelming amount of archeological evidence corroborating the following Chronology of Israel in Egypt in JOSEPH‘s and EPHRAIM’s time as Kings of Egypt. Different highly speculative theories without any solid evidence about the time of Israel in Egypt are dominating Biblical Archeology and different highly speculative theories about the chronology of the so-called „Dark“ Second Intermediate Period are dominating Egyptology; The following Chronology is not based on any new theory but solely on the extraordinary amount of over 100 matchings of the Bible with the scientifically recognized contemporary archeological evidence: The REAL Chronology of the 13th Dynasty according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology (leading egyptologists' highly speculative time estimations in brackets)




according to Kim Ryholt 1997 Table 36, 46, 48, 52 

() = reign duration in years 
BN = Birthname

1843-1798 BC:




1821 BC ISRAEL ARRIVES IN EGYPT AND SETTLES (IN AVARIS) IN GOSHEN. Jacob's sons are made the King's Shepherds of Egypt by Pharaoh in Genesis 47:6.

1843-1798 BC

1842 BC Pharaoh Amenemhet III starts his 20 years Coregency with his father Senwosret III.

1822-1801 BC: Sole reign

1801-1798 BC: Co-reign with Amenemhet IV

(Collier, Quirke, UCE Lahun Papyri) 

1798-1785 BC:
1798 BC

(1815, 1795 or 1773 BC)
The ancient Story of Joseph & Asenath reveals that "Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) left his dominion and his crown of the kingdom to JOSEPH and died." JOSEPH RULED OVER COMPLETE EGYPT 1830-1750 BC for 80 years(Genesis 50:22, Jubilees 46:3, Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) as Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later named Monthuhotep. He ruled together with his son EPHRAIM named Vizier Ankhu Senwosret above their selected Pharaohs related of their royal family. Vizier Zamonth "… is perhaps the founder of the Vizier’s family in which the office was held for at least three generations." (Grajetzki 2009 p.36, pl.3). Ancient rabbinical writings assumed that Joseph ruled as second in command after the King for forty years and after the King’s death as overall King for further forty years. They are nearly proven right in this work: Joseph ruled 1830-1798 BC as Grandvizier under Pharaoh Amenemhet III and as overall Vizierking of his 13th Dynasty 1798-1750 BC.

The Early Hekakhasut are partly archeologically identified as Semites by Egyptologists; ancient historian Josephus based on Manetho identifies them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings; Leading Egyptologists Manfred Bietak calls them first "Proto Israelites" but later has to change his mind: "They may be called for convenience sake Canaanites."

1798-1785 BC

Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) archeologically evidenced Uncle (*BENJAMIN) is adopted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III as his son-in-law. After 3 years of co-reign he becomes the sole

* Pharaoh Amenemhet IV (9 years)

After 9 years Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter becomes

  • Pharaoh Sobekneferu (4 years)

1785-1765 BC
(1803, 1783 or 1761 BC)

JOSEPH RULES OVER COMPLETE EGYPT as Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthuhotep: He is archeologically evidenced not only as Vizier but also as
King Zamonth (Stela CGC 20102) as
King Khnumhotep (Stela CG 20690) and as
King Monthuhotep (Stela Sobekhotep III)
JOSEPH and EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senwosret establish a yearly Family Pharaoh rotation system in order to weaken the power of the Pharaoh position and to diminish the Egyptian worshipping of Pharaohs. The family stabilizes Israel's Rulership as „Shepherd Kings“ (evidenced in numerous ancient writings)

The first 15 Pharaohs archeologically evidenced belong to the family of (EPHRAIM) Vizier Ankhu Senwosret (Ryholt 1997 p. 209-211). There is no archeological evidence for any reign times of the 20 Pharaohs. A yearly rotation of Pharaohs in the 13th Dynasty is to the greatest extent corroborated by Ryholt’s research results: “This period further witnessed no less than 24 kings [SC better: Pharaos], whose reigns on the average lasted little more than one year” (Ryholt 1997 p. 298). In this regard his conclusion is proven right in this work for even 34 Pharaohs.

The rulers of the 13th Dynasty are identified as Hebrew Shepherd Kings by the ancient historians Africanus and Syncellus citing the Egyptian historian Manetho.

Senna & Kumna Nile water level marks provide the evidence for around 7 decades between Amenemhet's III and VII first reign years 1842-1769 BC (Collier + Ryholt p.197).

1785-1765 BC:

20 Yearly rotating Pharaohs - JOSEPH's brothers' lineages derived from Ryholt‘s genealogy
(* = BENYAMIN, ° = LEVI):
* Amenemhet's IV son Pharaoh Sobekhotep I. He is BENYAMIN's son (1 Chronicles 7,6) *BELA.
* His brother (1 Chronicles 7,6) *BEKHER becomes Pharaoh Sonbef
* his brother (1 Chronicles 7,6) *YEDIAL becomes Pharaoh Nerikare
JOSEPH's brother °LEVI is Ankhu’s (EPHRAIM’s) uncle Pharaoh Sekhemkare Amenemhet V
° His firstborn son (1 Chronicles 6,1) °GERSHON called Antef becomes Pharao Quemaw.
His brother becomes Pharaoh Siharnedjheritef
according to Bietak.He is (1 Chronicles 6,1) °KOHAT father of AMRAM father of MOSES.
° his brother (1 Chronicles 6,1) °MERARI becomes Pharaoh Jewefni.
Amenemhet's V grandson is named Pharao Amenemhet VI. He is LEVI's grandson (1 Chronicles 6,2) °LIBNI firstborn son of LEVI’s fistborn son °GERSHON.

* BINYAMIN's son (Genesis 46,21) *ASHBEL becomes Pharaoh Nebnun
* His brother (Genesis 46,21) *GERA becomes Pharaoh Sewesekhtawy.
* His brother (Genesis 46,21) *NAAMAN becomes Pharaoh Sewadjkare.
* His brother (Genesis 46,21) *ECHI becomes Pharaoh Nedjemibre.
BELA’s son *EZBON (1 Chronicles 7,7) is Sobekhotep’s I son Pharaoh Sobekhotep II.
* BINYAMIN's son *ROSH becomes Pharaoh Ranisonb 

* BINYAMIN's son *IR or *HOR (1 Chronicles 7,12) becomes Pharaoh Hor I
IR’s son (1 Chronicles 7,12) *SHUPPIM becomes Pharaoh Khabaw
* his brother (Genesis 46,21) *HUPPIM becomes Pharaoh Djedkheperew
BINYAMIN's son *ARD/ACHER (Josua 17:7/ Genesis 46:21/ 1 Chronicles 7,12) becomes Pharaoh Seb
His son *HUSHIM becomes Pharaoh Kay
* His son is BENJAMIN's great-grandson and becomes Pharaoh Amenemhet VII.


1765-1750 BC
(1757 or 1720 BC)

JOSEPH is evidenced hero-worshipped by the Egyptians
as Father of the Land,
as Father of Gods/Pharaohs and
as Khnum, Month, and Osiris.

His son EPHRAIM co-reigns as Vizier Ankhu Senwosret and keeps control over his Pharaoh brothers by marrying them with his daughters.

1765-1750 BC

4 Kingsons of Vizierking #JOSEPH (ZaMonth Knumhotep Monthuhotep) become Pharaohs for 15 years:

# Pharaoh Imyremeshaw 
# Pharaoh Antef V
His wife is Aya.
# Pharaoh Meribre Seth
# Pharaoh Sobekhotep III
BN Wepwauthotep (4 years)
His wifes are Heni and Senebhenas. He ruled 1753-1750 BC (around 1760 BC)

1750-1744 BC
(1754-1747 or 1766-1759 BC)

1750 BC
JOSEPH's sixth son Wephauthotep named Pharaoh Sobekhotep III is killed by King Makamaron in the first battle against the Canaanites. JOSEPH DIES IN THE SAME YEAR 110 YEARS OLD (Genesis 50:26, Jubilees 46:6-8).

EPHRAIM) Vizier Ankhu Senwosret becomes the new Vizierking. He is archeologically evidenced as  Senwosret, King of Pharaoh Wegaf the son of MANASSE and the previous military commander of Thebes. Pharaoh Wegaf defends Avaris against the Canaanites and stops King Makamaron's invasion attempts (Jubilees 46:7).
EPHRAIM‘s firstborn son SHUTELAH named Resseneb becomes Vizier.

1750-1744 BC:

This leads to 2 sons of +MANASSE (Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw) becoming next Pharaohs:

+ AVIEZER (Josua 17:2) becomes Pharaoh Wegaf (2,3 years)

+ his youngest brother HEPHER (Josua 17:2) becomes Pharaoh Khendjer (4,5 years)
Sobekhotep’s III widow Senebhenas becomes his wife.
Both Pharaoh names are SEMITIC NAMES according to Ryholt.

1744-1729 BC:
EPHRAIM) King Ankhu Senwosret is announced as Father of Gods by the Egyptians in spite of having no own pharaonic sons; MANASSE instead is Father of Pharaohs and thus claims this title for himself as his lineage will reveal later on in PERESH’s Haankhef‘s titles.
1743 BC
MANASSE's family does not accept EPHRAIM’s reestablishment of the yearly rotation of Pharaohs. They leave Avaris and return to Thebes. EPHRAIM appoints his fourth son BERIAH as lifetime Vizier Iymeru Aya and for one year as Pharaoh Aya.

1733:  Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw‘s (MANASSE‘s) death.

After the time of Pharaoh “Aya, a mere two royal seals are attested for the remaining … years of the dynasty. This period [SC: 13th Dynasty] further witnessed no less than 24 kings, whose reigns on the average lasted little more than one year” (Ryholt 1997 p. 298) and King Aya’s “successors … were ephermal and are poorly attested” (Ryholt 1997 ftn. 1049 p. 298-299). So the reign times of the 14 Pharaohs of this period are not safely evidenced. With exceptions, time figures of the Turin King-list "might have been corrupted in the course of its transmission." (Ryholt 1997 p.201): Especially the extraordinary long reign times of Pharao Ibiaw (11 years) and Pharaoh Aya (24 years) actually have to be explained as Vizier rulership times after their one year as Pharaoh.

1729 BC
(1649 or 1720 BC)
According to ancient historian Manetho together with the Book of Jubilees 46:11-15, the War of Pharaoh Tutimaios (Dedumose) against the Canaanites leads into the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion of Egypt and the Enslavement of Israel. The 13th Dynasty collapses 70 years (according to Ryholt around 80 years) after Amenemhat's IV reign. (EPHRAIM’s) Vizierking Ankhu Senwosret's Royal House flees together with his army to his brother (MANASSE) Senebefni Ibiaw’s son Senebhenef (HELEQ) who is Vizier & Mayor of Thebes and meanwhile had enthroned himself as Pharaoh of Thebes Sobekhotep VIII (see Chapter Moses). From Thebes Ankhu intends to stop the Canaanite invasion and defeat them.

1744-1729 BC:
15 yearly rotating Pharaohs

(Lineages: + = MANASSE, # = JOSEPH, * = BENJAMIN)

+ Pharaoh Ibiaw is Vizier Ibiaw (MANASSE) himself

# Pharaoh Aya is the later Vizier Iymeru Aya, EPHRAIM‘s fourth son BERIAH. HE IS THE LAST PHARAOH OF UPPER & LOWER EGYPT.

# Pharaoh Ini, birthname Amenhotep, is the son of Sobekhotep III & Ini/ Heni.

# Pharaoh Sewadjtew is (JOSEPH‘s) Monthuhotep‘s 7th Kingson Khakaw.
Pharaoh Ined is (JOSEPH‘s) Monthuhotep‘s 8th kingson Sonb.

* Pharaoh Hor II is the grandson of Hor I who is BENJAMIN's son *IR (1 Chronicles 7:12).
# Pharaoh Sobekhotep is the first son of Ined/ Sonb.

# Pharaoh Merkheperre is the second son of Ined/ Sonb.

• Pharaoh Merkare

# Pharaoh Monthotep V

• Pharaoh ..mosre 

• Pharaoh ..maatre Ibi

* Pharaoh ..webenre Hor.. is the grandson of Hor I who is BENJAMIN's son *IR (1 Chronicles 7:12) 

• Pharaoh Seheqenre

• Pharaoh Djedhotepre Dedumose/ Tutimaios
He is the last Pharaoh according to Williams & Morenz - the throne name changes after having fled to Thebes ...


Who were Joseph's Pharaohs?

"Downturned mouths, bags under their eyes, worry lines, hollow eyes - unique facial expressions in Egyptian sculptural history - two 'kings' are showing every sign of hard times in their kingdom" (British Museum). Statues of Amenemhet III and his father Senwosret III as well as contemporary poetic literature show heavy burdens on the Kingship and Egypt of the 12th Dynasty: Pharaoh's Pyramid destruction and an impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by the increasing floodings of the Nile and by hot eastern desert winds.

Father Pharaoh Senwosret III worried face with out turned ears - without the King's beard

Amenemhet III careworn face with open ears for his peoples' concerns - without the King's beard

Their Vizier Zamonth - Egyptian History's only  Vizier evidenced wearing the King's Beard …

Their same looking “highest  official” turns out to be a Semite - Hekakhasut Joseph

For learning more about Pharaoh Amenemhet’s III fabricated sculpture of his highest official being Semitic (last portrait above) scroll down to the end of Chapter Hyksos:

To better understand the background of this Chapter You can watch the biblical story of Joseph on in English or on in german (movie pictures are shown on this page) or listen to the biblical story of Joseph on in English or in German on Simply the best way is finally to read the First Book of Moses Chapter 37-50. For watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as subtitle.

Names can differ: In old Egyptian and Hebrew, no vocals are written. Consonants are sometimes mixed up in transcriptions. In two languages several different writings of one name can occur. Names are also garbled sometimes. Letters are simply vowel markers and do not represent the true sounds of the vowels or sometimes even not their correct positions in the words. Foreigners in Egypt additionally muddled the order of syllables sometimes which is called Metathesis (c. Rohl 2015 Exodus, p. 604-610). Pharaoh Sjn Wrt can be written Senusret, Senwosret, or Hellenised Sesostris. A person has more different additional names the more famous he is. Names can be prenames, surnames, throne names, etc. This leads to identifying one and the same person as several different persons as long as his names are not 100% proved to belong to the same person; This way one person very easily disperses into many different persons in Egyptology. In this work, such dispersed examples in the Bible is Joseph's Master Potiphar, Joseph's father-in-law Potiphera, and Joseph's Chief-of-Prison. Further examples are Potiphar's respectively Khnumhotep's II daughter biblical Asenath or Esenuth respectively her egyptian pronunciation Henutsen or Henut. The most important examples are the different archeologically evidenced Vizier names of Joseph and his sons, his grandsons, and his great-grandson. They are the only existing Viziers of the 13th, 16th, and 17th Dynasty but were famous enough Rulers to own several different names. Joseph is Vizier ZaMonth Khnumhotep later Montuhotep with his first earlier names Senowsret Ankh and Amenemhet Ankh and his most early original and biblical Egyptian name Zaphenat-Ph-Aneah; Joseph's sons Manasse Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw and Ephraim Vizier Ankhu Senwosret, Joseph's grandson Beriah Vizier Iyumeru Aya, and his great-grandson Refach Vizier Neferkare Iyumeru or Ayameru II are also evidenced examples in this work for such dispersion effects. This enlightenment transforms the chaos of over 80 Pharaoh names and over 15 Vizier names in two Centuries and four Dynasties into a clear plausible structure and order clarifying the complete riddles of the officially so-called "Dark Period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" as You will learn and see in this work time after time.


The newest discovered or uncovered evidence for this time of Israel in Egypt is lectured by Dr. Roger Liebi on, in David Rohl's book "Exodus Myth or History" and in the rentable documentary of Tim Mahoney 'The Exodus' on roughly summarized in this work.

According to the first and only strictly biblical chronology, the Bible says (see Chapter Chronology) JOSEPH ruled 80 years as Grand Vizier from 1830 BC until his death 1750 BC. Critical readers who think a kingship of 80 years is impossible and unbelievable should be aware that the British Queen is today looking back on over 70 years of Queenship over Britain and the world’s Commonwealth. The biblical contemporary Pharaohs of JOSEPH are the Pharaohs of the end of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom to the mid of the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. After 13 years in slavery - according to Genesis37:2.41:46 10 years in "free" slavery and 3 years in prison (Jubilees46:3) - in the year 1830 BC JOSEPH rises suddenly up to become the Vizierking of Pharao Senwosret III and his son Pharaoh Amenemhat III (Genesis41:46). He is given Rulership over all Egyptians by Pharaoh. The historical background is explained by David Rohl's lecture on Pharaoh's historically evidenced worries are about the Pyramid destruction and the impending loss of the complete Egyptian harvest by increasing floodings of the Nile. The complete harvest is additionally threatened by extremely hot eastern winds as Pharaoh's biblical dreams indicate; Biblical Joseph read the dreams the Pharaoh suffered of and recommended a solution against the deadly famine which was going to greatly burden Egypt and Pharaoh's rulership.

Pharaoh was so impressed by JOSEPH divine wisdom that he handed over his complete rulership over Egypt and all Egyptians to him so that Joseph as a totally new kind of Vizier became Grandvizier and King = Lifelong Ruler of Egypt - under Pharaoh only as long as Pharaoh lived as we will see later. The Bible describes the relationship of JOSEPH to Pharaoh Amenemhet III as being "a father to Pharaoh" (Genesis 41:43 & 45:8): In ancient times the word “brother” between rulers meant equality while “father”meant a trustful relationship to a superior. Archeological evidence describes the relationship as Joseph Vizier Zamonth being a "Real Friend" to Pharaoh:

"You will be in charge of my household; all my people will be ruled by what you say. Only when I rule from my throne will I be greater than you." Pharaoh said to Yosef,
"Here, I place you
in charge of the whole land of Egypt."
Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Yosef's hand, had him clothed in fine linen with a gold chain around his neck, and had him ride in his second-best chariot; and they cried before him,
"Long live the Father of Pharaoh! (Targumin translation)" Thus he placed him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.
Pharaoh said to Yosef, "I, Pharaoh, decree that
without your approval
no one is to raise his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt
Genesis 1:40-44 CJB

"And Yosef was the Shalit Al HaAretz the Ruler over the Land ..."
Genesis 42:6 CJB

Without the permission of Pharaoh Joseph can call his complete family to come to Egypt: „So it was not you who sent me here, but God;
and he has made me
a father to Pharaoh,
Lord of all his household and ruler over the whole land of Egypt.
Hurry, go up to my father, and tell him, ‘Here is what your son Yosef says:
“God has made me
Lord of all Egypt! Come down to me, don’t delay!“
B'resheet (Genesis)‬ ‭45:8-9‬ ‭CJB‬‬

„Then Y’hudah approached Yosef and said, “Please, my Lord! Let your servant say something to you privately; and don’t be angry with your servant, for
you are like Pharaoh himself.“ 
B'resheet (Genesis)‬ ‭44:18‬ ‭CJB‬

In order to fully understand the history of Israel in Egypt it is crucial for the reader to realize that already the Bible reveals that Pharaoh did trustfully hand over his complete rulership power to JOSEPH. Thus JOSEPH was practically already made KING OF EGYPT by Pharaoh in his lifetime. We will later realize that Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) at the end of his life handed over the complete kingship over Egypt not only to JOSEPH but also to his complete family. This way ancient historians Josephus’ and Africanus’ Manetho based confirmation that the Israelites were the HEBREW SHEPHERD KINGS over Egypt became archeologically evidenced true for the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty and for over 60 Pharaohs. The resulting complexity of the Hebrew rulerships in the following two centuries will permeate the entire work as a challenge just as much for the author as for the reader. It is all about hard work bringing finally rich fruit, so the reader is invited to stay thirsty for cognizance and keen on digging for truth …

Huge granaries and a reservoir sea (Lake Moeris of Fayyum) with a Canal to the Nile, up to today called "Bar Yusuf" = Joseph's Canal are able to control the floods and ensure 7 years of plenty from 1829 to 1823 BC. According to David Rohl, there is also archeological evidence for a "major reorganization of the administration" to ensure these activities; A department of state was set up to take in the grain during the 7 years of plenty before the famine. The Bible says, in order to save Egypt from the famine the Pharaoh hands over the complete rulership over Egypt to Joseph and sets every Egyptian but himself under Joseph; This is the biggest power of a Vizier in Egyptian history and it is archeologically evidenced by the King's beard of Vizier Zamonth and also by title King for Zamonth Khnumhotep. King is a middle ages word and means nothing less than Lifelong Highest Ruler, we will learn that JOSEPH Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep and his son EPHRAIM Vizier Ankhu Senowsret were the only archeological evidenced Lifelong Highest Rulers of the 13th Dynasty in contrast to over 40 rotating Pharaohs.

In 1822 BC the dams begin to be flooded by further "3 meters" Nile level increasing in 3 years, the "17th to 20th reign year" of Amenemhet III followed by biblical worldwide 7 years of famine from 1822 to 1816 BC. In 1815 BC the extensions of Joseph's Canal reached sufficient size and the hot eastern winds ceased; 7 years of famine came to its end. One of Joseph's different Vizier names is Kethy and is found engraved together with the 29th reign year of Amenemhet III near his office at Joseph's Canal in 1810 BC. According to David Rohl, the Nile flooding made plowing and planting impossible; the hot eastern wind burning the ears of wheat were the central causes of threat in the two dreams of Pharaoh according to Genesis 41:18.23. Through the geological evidence proven concrete biblical year 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption and the Ten Plagues Science could now synchronize the chronologies of Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia thanks to the Bible as the most reliable historical source of ancient times; The Bible clarifies in Genesis 41:57 that in 1822-1816 BC these environmental phenomenons caused the 7 years of famine. 

The Famine Stele

The Famine Stele is a mammoth boulder inscription. It was discovered on Sehel Island in the river Nile. The Ptolemaic Egyptian script is from the third to second century BC. It tells a past story of a great famine „in a period of SEVEN years“: „Grain was scant, kernels were dried up, scarce was every kind of food. … Children cried, youngsters fell, the hearts of the old were grieving; legs drawn up, they hugged the ground, their arms clasped about them …”. It additionally mentions a dream of Pharaoh for that an answer was provided, in which the “Father of Gods” would “make the Nile swell, without there being a year of lack and exhaustion in the whole land, so the plants will flourish, bending under their fruit. … ”. Father of Gods was a very rare title given to a non-pharaonic father of several Pharaohs in the Second Intermediate Period. Vizier JOSEPH was among others named Monthuhotep who was archeologically evidenced called “Father of Gods” as we will learn later in this Chapter. Due to the rareness of this title Joseph can be identified here. He received this title for being the father of four “godlike” Pharaohs. Actually, the account reads remarkably like the one in Genesis 41-47; Egypt is sufferingseven years of famine” and the problem and solution is revealed through a Pharaoh’s dream. Joseph provides the interpretation to Pharaoh’s dream and is raised in rank to Vizierking over complete Egypt. The story told on the Famine Stela is set in the 18th year of the reign of the famine Pharaoh when the famine starts; In the 17th to 20th reign year of Amenemhet III the Nile level is increasing in Semna/Kumma from 18m to 21m within 3 years; Dams are flooded and cause a complete loss of the harvest; This is the historical start of the biblical 7 years of famine.

Leading historical scholarship up until its change from a majority of believers to unbelievers in the 1960’s concluded that the story of the Seven Year Famine was connected to the biblical story of Joseph. Then opponents of any biblical connection tried to refute this; Because of the mentioning of the name Imhotep in the stele text Imhotep’s lifetime Pharaoh Djoser one millennium earlier was proposed as to be the Famine Stele Pharaoh. This “refutation” of any biblical connection has errounasly received common acceptance up until today.

Imhotep as name is oldest evidenced in the time of JOSEPH’s Pharaoh Amenemhet III. Imhotep was known as the "Son of Ptah" (Lichtheim 1980 p. 160) and deified after his death matching JOSEPH also having been deified (Khnum, Month, Osiris) after his death and his son EPHRAIM‘s (Senwosret Ankhu) second name Redi Ni Ptah revealed later in this chapter indicates that his father Joseph was additionally worshipped as Ptah in the Egyptian chaos of Syncretism. The top part of the stele depicts the Egyptian deities Khnum and his wife Satis. In front of them, Pharaoh faces them, carrying offerings in his outstretched hands; The flooding of the Nile was controlled by the deity Khnum. In the biblical seven years of famine the flooding of the Nile was controlled by JOSEPH, who was also called Khnumhotep and worshipped together with his wife as Khnum and Satis by the Egyptians as we will learn at the end of this Chapter. In the stele text the connection between the deity Khnum and the rise of the Nile is explained to the Pharaoh, who then had a dream in which Khnum spoke to him, offering to end the drought. Joseph did also offer to Pharaoh Amenemhet III who had dreams about the famine to regulate and bring to an end the drought.


First discovered Oldest Alphabetical Inscription
by Flinders Petrie in Serabit El-Khadim in the Sinai Desert

Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board

Enjoy Your Deciphering Discovery Journey


David Rohl is convinced Joseph has invented the first Alphabet. 2200 years old Scriptures of Qumran - the Bible and the Book of Jubilees - confirm this by revealing Joseph to be the only Israelite in Egypt in the year 1822 BC one year before his family arrives in Egypt. Only he could have invented the in 1822 BC oldest found Semitic Alphabet with Hebrew fonts and words and with uniquely biblical events and characters. They were discovered, examined, and proven by Douglas Petrovich. Paradigmatic followers of the self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm and thus passionate adversaries of several biblical time figures like David Sharp tried hard but were not able to disprove Petrovich's results. The oldest Alphabet inscriptions were found by the father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie in an ancient slave work copper and turquoise mine site in Sinai today called Serabit El-Khadim. More alphabetical inscriptions were found in 1999 by the Darnells close to Thebes in today's Wadi El-Hol and in the Semitic slave worker's town Lahun in Fayum in upper Egypt; They date into the reign years 26 and 29 of Amenemhet. One alphabetical inscription was found together with an Egyptian inscription on the same rock from the 20th year of Amenmhet's III reign - the year 1822 BC - which is Joseph's biblical 8th year as Grand Vizier and the first year of the great famine. 1822-1812 BC is the biblical timeframe in which JOSEPH (Genesis41:46) was traveling through complete Egypt preparing the country for the seven years of famine; It is also the timeframe of the best datable alphabetical engravements. You can rent Tim Mahoney's exiting documentary "The Moses Controversy" with evidence for the first Alphabet being Hebrew on This archeological evidence for JOSEPH's sojourn in Egypt 1822-1813 BC and his authorship of the first Alphabet is also corroborating evidence for MOSES obviously NOT being illiterate but against modern claims instead being able to write the Five Books of Moses in easily readable and for the people learnable alphabetical letters instead of complex cuneiform letters; Leading 'biblical' archeologists claim this would be impossible. The Bible claims ADONAI the LORD said to Moshe "Write this in a book to be remembered" (Exodus17:14) and to the people of Israel "write them (the mitzvot) on the door-frames of your house and on your gates" (Deutoronium6:9,11:20).

In Chapter Moses, You will find a Hebrew engravement with his name on it and in this Chapter You will later find a Hebrew engravement with ASENATH's name on it and You will be invited into the discovery journey to decipher them with the help of Douglas Petrovich's Deciphering Board. You can see Petrovich's time estimations in the top line of the board, erroneously based on a 430 years instead of the 215 years sojourn of Israel in Egypt leading into a period of time 1876-1446 BC instead of 1821-1606 BC (compare with Chapter Chronology and the beginning of Chapter Moses).

The Book of Jubilees explains, that before his death JACOB did let his son LEVI RENEW and TRANSFORM the forefather's books of Genesis. It was written in cuneiform letters by the forfathers and transformed into alphabetical letters by LEVI. One of the oldest Alphabet inscriptions was found in Lahun in Fayum as already mentioned. Tim Mahoney's documentary "The Moses Controversy" on reveals that the first Alphabet was created in Egypt and it was created distinctively for Hebrew words; The Hebrew alphabetical words came up in Egypt in the true biblical time when Israel came up in Egypt in 1821 BC. The Hebrew alphabetical inscriptions disappeared in Egypt in the true biblical time of the Exodus when Israel disappeared from Egypt and the Hebrew alphabetical words came up again in Canaan in the strictly biblical time when Israel had conquered Canaan.

It is also revealed by archeology that the world's first found scripture at all was the Cuneiform script in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Tanakh (Old Testament) says HENOCH lived in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC. The Book of Jubilees4:17 says HENOCH was the first man being who learned to write and this would have happened in Mesopotamia in the 34th century BC.
The Book of Jubilees confirms that the scriptures of the Book of Genesis would have from then on been taught and handed over from Henoch on through generations over NOAH to ABRAHAM. According to the Bible Adam was as eyewitness from the beginning on still alive for nearly the whole earthly lifespan of Henoch and that Enoch’s father was alive for more than half of the lifetime of Noah until the very year of the flood and that Noah was still alive as eyewitness of the stories of Genesis when Abraham was born. The Book of Genesis is this way confirmed by the Book of Jubilees as being a compendium of eyewitness reports of Adam, Henoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph and Levi, summarized by Moses. The Book of Henoch and the Book of Jubilees were part of all these scriptures and they even remained holy scriptures for Jews and Christians in the land of Kush (Ethiopia) up until today.

Jubilees46:16 says that LEVI received all scriptures from his father JACOB and his forefathers before JACOB's death in the biblical year 1804 BC in Egypt in order to preserve and "RENEW" them in Egypt for the next generations.

JOSEPH was the only Hebrew person in Egypt when the Alphabet firstly came up in Amenemhet's archeologically evidenced reign year 20 which was 1822 BC, one biblical year before the arrival of Israel in Egypt. And as Grand Vizier over Egypt, only JOSEPH was able to combine his knowledge about the Hieroglyphs' superiority over the paternally learned Cuneiform with his Hebrew language: Easy recognizable phonetic spelling symbols reduced to a minimum of letters. The first Alphabet.

According to Jubilees8:2,11:16,19:14,47:9 NOAH, ABRAHAM, and JACOB learned to read and write Cuneiform from their forefathers; So LEVI's grandson AMRAM also learned to read and write JOSEPH's Hebrew Alphabet and he also taught scribing and scripture according to Jubilees47:9 to his son MOSES before MOSES lived as a Prince in Pharaoh's palace and learned the hieroglyphic scripture and everything about Egyptian culture. 

As already explained the modernistic leading "biblical" archeologists and egyptologists are biased by their dogmatic faith in the antibiblical paradigm that all biblical facts confirming writings of ancient historians are per se corrupted and nowadays discarded as sources of evidence in science:

"Moses was the first wise man and the first
that imparted grammar to the Jews,
the Phoenicians received it from the Jews,
and the Greeks from the Phoenicians."

Eupolemus 150 BC

"Here we have the result at a date
some five centuries before the oldest Phonecian writing that is known ...
it finally DISPROVES the hypothesis that the early Israelites,
who came through this region into Egypt and passed back again
could NOT have used writing."

Flinders Petrie
Founder of Egyptology

According to Jubilees4:17.19,2:1 the first Book of the Bible was written from 3400 to 1800 BC in Cuneiform by HENOCH, NOAH, ABRAHAM, ISAAC, JACOB, and LEVI before it was RENEWED into alphabetical scripture by LEVI; the second and third book of the Bible and the Book of Jubilees was written 1606 BC at Mount Horeb; the fourth and fifth book was written from 1606 to 1566 BC in the desert. They were written by MOSES with the very first Alphabet introduced by JOSEPH. Joshua, Moses’ biblical assistant from the beginning on, finished the last book of MOSES before he wrote the Book of Joshua; this is confirmed by the Mishna/ rabbinical scriptures and common knowledge of the people of Israel as long as it can remember.

Altogether these facts lead to TWO challenging QUESTIONS
towards modern "Biblical" Archeology and Egyptology:

HOW are the Torah and the 200 BC in Israel evidenced spread and read Book of Jubilees with their oldest copies from the 2nd Century BC (Qumran) able to identify the correct archeologically confirmed centuries AND countries WHEN and WHERE scripture first came up (Cuneiform) 3200 years earlier and then was RENEWED (Alphabet) 1600 years earlier if they are allegedly just a compendium of invented political lies of the 7th/6th century BC ( as Leading "Biblical" Archeology claims?

And how is it possible that the very first alphabet with Hebrew and exclusively biblical words suddenly turns up in Egypt in the strictly biblical time of Joseph and Moses in Egypt and then suddenly disappears again in the strictly biblical time of the Exodus out of Egypt and then turns up again in Canaan after the strictly biblical time of Israel‘s Conquest of Canaan if the Books of Mose must have been written one millennium later because „there is no Hebrew writing possible one millennium earlier“?

Graves of the 12 sons of Jacob in Avaris at Joseph's palace including Joseph’s Pyramid tomb (12) - Picture of the Austrian Archeological Institute

Joseph's grave in Shechem 


Genesis 50:26 JOSEPH's first biblical grave with his removed body was excavated by Manfred Bietak but recognized and thus discovered by David Rohl in the Garden of JOSEPH's Palace in Avaris at the Nile Delta. It is a little pyramid with a grand statue of a clearly identified foreign Semitic extremely high official, honored uniquely in Egyptian history. He owns a uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew property - a multi-colored coat like JOSEPH did receive from his father Jacob in the Bible. Tim Mahoney's reconstruction picture of this statue of Grandvizier JOSEPH is shown as a portrait in the beginning of this Chapter and as a full body statue investigated at the end of Chapter Hyksos. The digital reconstruction of the palace with 12 pillars and 12 garden graves mirroring the 12 tribefathers of Israel is shown in the rentable recommended documentary "Patterns of Evidence - The Exodus" on And in the lecture of Roger Liebi, who precisely proofs accordance with the strict biblical chronology and reveals even more striking evidence on According to Briand Windle, the Semitic Estate below Joseph’s palace has the same layout as those big houses typical of Israelite settlements in the later Iron Age. In the year of the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion 1729 BC Joseph’s Palace was abandoned. According to David Rohl „the entrance to his [SC: Joseph’s]  grand residence, with its twelve-columned portico, had been bricked up, so that no one could live there … [SC: years later] the entire palatial quarte was demolished, and smaller properties were built over the ruins in a much more compacted [SC: slave] settlement.“ (Rohl 2015, p. 1017-1018)

(See tombs picture numbers) Next to JOSEPH's Pyramid grave (12) 11 other graves of his brothers the patriarchs were situated in different sizes and constellations. Their sizes and positions result from actual family roles and future roles in forefather JACOB's prophecies; LEA's sons RUBEN (2), LEVI (5), and ZEBULON (3) are buried together with JUDA (1), who as most important brother owns the biggest grave, BANJAMIN's grave (4) stands between his brothers' pyramid (12) and LEA's sons' graves. The other graves (6-11) are standing further apart in one row. The 11 tribefathers had been burried in large brick-vaulted chambers. In Chapter Chronology You have already learned that 1729 BC within the second battle against the invading Canaanites some of the Levites took the bodies of the 11 tribefathers to bring them home to Abrahams grave tomb in Hebron. The tombs of the 11 tribefathers were then found empty by the invading Canaanites and they used them for their own warlords: In front of the tombs pits were found most containing two donkeys and two sheep, sacrificed at the moment of the burial. This was the new burial practice of the Canaanites not found in Avaris before 1729 BC. Bronze daggers and ax blades, ivory handles, gold rivets and ribbed blades were also unearthed together with the bodies of the Canaanite warriors. According to Genesis 50:5-11 father JACOB had already been buried by his sons near Hebron in Abraham’s tomb in the time of the first battle between Egypt and the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur shortly before Joseph’s death.


(Genesis50:25) JOSEPH's final grave with his buried skeleton is up until today visited and honored in Shechem in Israel. According to the Bible Joseph (1750 BC) did let his family promise to take his body with them into the Promised Land when they would leave Egypt. According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107 ff.) the Egyptians would have tried after the Canaanite Invasion to rob Joseph’s and Asenath’s mummified bodies (around 1720 BC) and a midwife called Sarah, daughter of the tribe of Asher, and Pharaoh‘s Hebrew daughter Segola would have helped Moses (1606 BC) to find the mummified parts of Joseph’s and Asenath’s bodies to take them with the Children of Israel to the Promised Land and burry them in Shechem. This story is also confirmed by the Rabbinical traditions (Ex.R.xviii.8 and Sotah13a; Ex.R.xx.17; "D.Y."l.c.; "S.Y."p.126); Here she is called Serah, daughter of Asher. After the second funeral of JOSEPH 1560 BC in Shechem in Canaan (Joshua 24:32) a battle with the Canaanites follows in Judges 1:1. Interesting and remarkable enough this is already the third battle with Canaanites in connection with a funeral of Israel‘s forefathers: Recently before JOSEPH's funeral in Egypt in 1750 BC, his son and Pharaoh had been killed in a battle with Canaanite King Makamaron according to Jubilees 46:6. 21 years later during the funeral of the eleven forefathers in the hill country of Hebron, Canaanite King Samuquenu/ Salitis defeats Pharaoh Tiatimos/ Dedumose, conquers Avaris 1729 BC, and executes his plan to enslave Israel according to Jubilees 46:47 (see Chapter Hyksos).

The graves of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the twelve patriarchs have been visited and honored by the people of Israel since then for over 3500 years now and they are also visited and honored by Christians and Muslims of the whole world for over two millennia now and until the end of time. They are the oldest up until today visited and honored human remains containing graves of the world and human history …

Picture of the 12th Dynasty limestone stele Nizzoli collection Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale number 2579 room 2: (JOSEPH) Vizier Senwosret-Ankh - holding a lotus flower in his hand - and his wife (ASENATH) Enutsen. According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich JOSEPH held a lotus flower in his hand to his engagement with ASENETH …


It can occur in millennia of history that a great person becomes dispelled into presumed different persons and this way his historical grandness erodes. Egyptologists confirm that in the Middle Kingdom and the Intermediate Period always only one single Vizier at the same time ruled over the country under Pharaoh more or less like today a Prime Minister under a King. Further occurring two Vizier names at the same time are identifiable co-ruling sons as successors of the Vizier. Two ancient Qumran Scriptures from about 200 BC - the Torah and the Book of Jubilees - claim to be written in the biblical year 1606 BC by Moses and there has been no evidence so far disproving this or any other original biblical time data (see Chapter Chronology). So the Bible says JOSEPH ruled as uniquely empowered Grandvizier over complete Egypt from 1830 BC to 1750 BC and that he traveled through complete Egypt after being announced as Vizier which is mirrored in the evidence of five different Vizier names at different locations in the time when only one Vizier ruled over Egypt. The time of his Pharaoh Amenemhet III (partly co-ruling with his father Senusret III) documents five different contemporary Vizier names: 


Senusret, Senuseret, Senowsret and Sesostris are same as Amenemhet, Amanemhat and Ameny different versions for one and the same Pharaoh name. Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT/ ESENUT in biblical Egyptian. The contemporary Vizier of Pharaoh Senwosret named Senwosret-Ankh was archeologically evidenced married (see photo above) that time to a woman named Enutsen or Henut having the same Egyptian writing as their biblical Egyptian name form ASENAT or ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing as well in hieroglyphs as in Old Hebrew writing. Senwosret Ankh or Amenemhet Ankh means Enlivenment of Pharaoh Senwosret III or Pharaoh Amenemhet III or bringing new life to this particular Pharaoh. That's exactly what JOSEPH did when he released Senwosret III from his main worries in the seven years of plenty ending with Senwosret’s death and in the following seven years of famine regarding Amenemhet III and also regarding their people and country 1830-1816 BC. According to Kenneth Kitchen the biblical Egyptian name of Joseph in Genesis 41:45 - Zafenat Pa'Aneah - is a metathesis of Zatenaf Pa'Ankh which is a garbled form of Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh meaning "He who is called the enlivenment" of Senwosret and afterwards Amenemhet (compare David Rohl 2015 Exodus Myth or History, pp.604-612). Hence biblically and archeologically evidenced JOSEPH's earliest throne name as Grandvizier was Zafenat pa'Aneah or Djeduenef pa'Ankh plus his Pharaoh‘s name. Probably after 1804 BC when JOSEPH's two sons were grown up and Father Jacob‘s life ended - JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM became his Co-Vizier and inherited JOSEPH's first Vizier names as so called „Senwosret Ankhu“ and „Ameny Ankhu“ as we will see later, also revealing he was preferred by Pharaoh Amenemhet over his brother MANASSE Senebefni following grandfather JACOB's special blessing and prophecy. Before Pharaoh Senwosret’s death and JACOB’s prophecy MANASSE was named Senwosret Senebefni by Pharaoh Senwosret probably indicating his original firstborn role as first heir of rulership which will play a crucial role throughout the complete history of Israel in Egypt as we will see much later. In Genesis 41:42 the Bible says Pharaoh "put the gold chain around his neck" in front of his courtiers when he made JOSEPH "ruler over all the land of Egypt". Vizier Senwosret Ankh's statue found at Ugarit shows inscriptions confirming "the gold of praise was given to him in front of all courtiers". This golden chain, Pharaoh's signet ring and the white garments of Byssus (finest linen) - all described in Genesis 41:38,42 and The Book of Jubilees 50:7 - became from exactly that time on the three core signs of every Vizier in Egyptian History. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of any Sesostris Ankh or Amenemhet Ankh that would prove him to be a real unique separate person and not simply two of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. 

The name Amenemhet Ankh“ also appears in the tomb inscriptions of Vizier Khnumhotep in Tomb 2 at Dahshur revealing two different names for one and the same Vizier.


Another contemporary Vizier's name is "famous" Kheti. His name was found near to the up until today called Bar Yusuf = "Joseph's Canal" which leads water from the Nile into a storage lake to reduce the threatening Nile floodings. Khety held an office there in reign year 29 of Amenemhat III in the biblical and archeological year 1810 BC. He was regulating the Nile water level and this way secured the harvest, a task which matches exactly JOSEPH's biblical tasks as new Vizier. His name Khety also reminds us of the biography of his obvious name giver Khety I the 13th nomos or nomarch of the 10th Dynasty who was famous for realizing many new irrigation canals, the maintenance of the old ones, and the bestowing of grain to also save his people from a famine. Grandvizier JOSEPH impoverished in the 7 years of famine his elite associates, the top elite of royal officials and nobles of Egypt: They biblically gave away their complete property as payment for grain to survive and Joseph gave it all to Pharaoh. In a later Papyrus about the history of Viziers, it says about the famous Kethi or Khety: "He impoverished his associates for the benefits of the others". In ancient historian Artapanus' Fragment 2 in Eusebius pr ev IX 23,1-4 JOSEPH ensured a socially "fair distribution so that the weaker were not disadvantaged anymore". There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Kethi or Kheti that would prove him to be a real separate person and not simply one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. 


Biblically Grandvizier JOSEPH was married to POTIPHERA's daughter. She was called ASENAT or ESENUT in biblical Egyptian. Contemporary Vizier Zamonth was married to a woman named Enutsen or Henut, which have the same Egyptian writing as ASENAT or ESENUT; Letter orders often became confused with time in copy and translation processes and vocals are missing as well in hieroglyphs as in Hebrew writing. And ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the goddess Neit or Iunit or Henut" in Genesis 41:45 footnote 17 Allioli Bible of 1875 AD

Zamonth is already evidenced before his Viziership for Pharaoh Amenemhet‘s III 6th or 9th reign year according to Lower Nubia campaign rock inscriptions. This was 1836-1833 BC when JOSEPH was in his last three years of his service for his master POTIPHAR and had already arisen into his role as Amenemhet’s chamberlain POTIPHAR‘s right hand who will have had him always at his right side especially in campaigns ordered by Pharaoh Amenemhet. The inscription praises Zamonth for a successful campaign without deaths and he is already betitled as “True Friend of the King”.
According to Grajetzki "He is perhaps the founder of the Vizier's family in which the office was held for at least three generations." (Grajetzki 2009 p.36, pl.3) According to Málek Zamonth’s stela CGC20102 and his sculpture CGC42.034 (ASENATH‘s) the name Henut unveil (JOSEPH) Zamonth as Vizier and father of Vizier Ankhu (EPHRAIM): „ … the wife’s name of the vizier Simonthu is mentioned as ‚Henut‘ … taken as … an abbreviated firm of it … and we can safely take Simonthu as husband of Henutpu and father of Onkhu.“
There is no evidence like any grave or skeleton proving Zamonth is a real separate person and not only one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt. More striking indications and evidence will follow in this chapter. Looking at his sculpture (portrait photo at the beginning of this chapter, full-body picture in the middle of this chapter) leads to the question 

Why is Zamonth the only Vizier in Egyptian history wearing a King's Beard?
The Bible's answer is because Joseph was made King over Egypt by Pharaoh.


Vizier Montuhotep of the 13th Dynasty is archeologically evidenced by a seal (Mnw-htp, Martin, Seals, Nr. 555). His name's close connectivity with the Viziernames Khnumhotep and Zamonth has to be explained later in this chapter after the reader has the necessary background knowledge. There is no evidence for any grave or skeleton of Vizier Monthuhotep that would prove him to be a real separate person and not just one of the several different names of the contemporary Vizier of Egypt - JOSEPH.


One of Vizier Khnumhotep's (III) further titles in his "father" Khnumhotep’s II biography is "Gate of Foreign Lands". This title is mirrored by the 7 years of famine when all foreigners came to JOSEPH to buy grain and also by his biblically mentioned expeditions through the complete country. Detlef Franke confirms him being Vizier under Pharaoh Senwosret III and possibly under Amenemhet III which is exactly the biblical time of JOSEPH. But he is confusing the eastern desert expeditions on the stele of Wadi Gasus in Senwosret's II first reign year with being Vizier Khnumhotep's expedition in spite of his "father" Khnumhotep II being the evidenced responsible overseer of the eastern desert in that time which will be explained later further on. Khnumhotep is the only contemporary Vizier name archeologically connectable with a grave found together with a skeleton, so we will now take a deeper look into it. But beforehand some


1817-1827 BC: JOSEPH received from his slavemaster POTIPHAR (Khumhotep II) his first Egyptian name ZAMONTH due to his extraordinary achievements.

1830 BC: JOSEPH received from Pharao Senwosret his Viziername SENWOSRET ANKH and became adopted by (POTIPHAR) Khnumhotep II as son in law named KHNUMHOTEP as we will later learn to understand.

1830-1816 BC: Building the up until today called “Joseph’s Canal” JOSEPH received his name KHETY from the Egyptians.

1822 BC: JOSEPH received as “true friend of the King” since c. 1835 BC from Pharaoh Amenemhet III his Viziername AMENEMHET ANKH.

1798 BC: After Pharaoh Amenemhet’s death JOSEPH received his fifth Viziername as enthroned King of Egypt MONTUHOTEP.


Vizier Knumhotep's tomb stands attached to the one of Pharaoh Senwosret III. It plausibly was not built directly attached to his son Pharaoh Amenemhet's Pyramide because his Pyramide already showed troubles: It was built too near to the flooding Nile water and thus was damaged and unstable. JOSEPH's biblical diffidence is reflected by the noticeable small sizes of his tombs. The size of JOSEPH's grave pyramid built in his palace's garden in Avaris is also small. On the other hand, the size of his statue in his small pyramid is impressively tall: And indeed, this statue was manufactured in Pharaoh Amenemhet's stonemason's workshop as a likely present from his grateful friend (David Rohl 2015, Exodus - Myth or History, 07 Joseph the Vizier)

The scientific identification of the skeleton in Vizier Khnumhotep's III grave as to be Khnumhotep's own skeleton is strikingly questionable: all three graves (Senwosret III, Amenemhet III, Khnumhotep III) were Kenotaphs, not selected for the real burial. And the rest of the later found grave inscribed biography reveals that not the original owner - who had already been identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep - but a later legal buyer of the grave was afterward buried here. In spite of these two strong indications for the skeleton not being Vizier Khnumhotep's body, the most plausible body of the second grave owner is - as well as beforehand - again identified by egyptologists as Vizier Knumhotep’s body not making any sense. Hence the biography of the second grave owner (link to biography) has been misleadingly mixed up with the biographical evidence of the original owner Vizier Khnumhotep. Conclusion:


Egyptology’s biography of Khnumhotep III is polluted 
- not only with Khnumhotep's II biography content but also with biographical content of the later buyer & user of his grave.

Finally, there is no serious evidence for Vizier Khnumhotep's buried body, no evidence for any buried body or grave of Vizier Kethi, no evidence for any body or grave of Vizier Zamonth, and no evidence for JOSEPH's body in his small pyramid tomb with his statue in his palace in Avaris in Goshen.

There is only evidence of one grave together with the body of the former Grandvizier and King of Egypt JOSEPH: It is in Shechem in Israel, where JOSEPH told his people to bring his body when they would leave to the Promised Land. And except the name Montuhotep all names are standing for a Viziership in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhat III in a time when only one single Vizier at a time was the case according to leading Egyptologists.

In the case of Vizier Khnumhotep (III) we can learn much better, who he was when we take a deeper look into the history of his "father" Khnumhotep II:




Potiphar & his wife

Khnumhotep II

Khnumhotep II was born into one of the most powerful noble nomarch families of Egypt. His career biography is inscribed in his tomb. His predecessor and relative died early so that he had to build the tomb for him. Thus already in his young years, he became the highest member of the elite (Irypat) as Count and  Mayor (Hatya) of his town Menat Khufu. Menat Khufu is today called Al Minya. It is located between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan. He also became Overlord of the town Nekheb. Nekheb is located between Thebes and Edfu across from Nekhen/ Hierakonpolis. And he became Governor/ Overseer of the Eastern Desert in the biblical year 1881 BC (Egyptologists’ estimation: 1895 or 1859 BC) which was the 19th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhat II inscribed in his grave tomb. Time after time he became also appointed the "Sole Friend" of Pharaoh - most plausibly by Pharaoh Senwosret II as explained later. Khnumhotep II was the Royal Sealer and the Treasurer of Pharaoh, so he was responsible for all products entering the Royal Palace. Thus Khnumhotep II owned the most important position at the royal court below the Vizier in case there was one at all in his best time. Most details of his tomb descriptions in Beni Hasan in this work result from the most commonly known article of Egyptologist Janice Kamrin which can be examined and checked linked here. Janice Kamrin‘s and the other there mentioned Egyptologists’ interpretations, hypothesises and conclusions in her article are based on the fundament of the by Jericho disproved Bible falsification based Ramesses Time Exodus Paradigm (see Chapter Chronology) and therefore discard any possibility of the Semites on the picture being Israelites.

In his tomb inscriptions, Khnumhotep II is also called "Stolist Priest of Pakhet and Horus"; The High Priest of Horus/ Ra (Syncretism) was also the Priest of the town Heliopolis/ On. He is also called sar tabbah meaning Chief Executioner/ Highest of Court and Law Enforcement. The Highest of Law Enforcement was also the Chief of the Royal Prison (compare Genesis 39:20 & The Book of Jubilees 39:14) at that time as we will see later. According to Khnumhotep's II most famous tomb picture, Janice Karmin explains "He is the Priest of Pakhet, a lioness deity with links to the eye of Horus who is closely associated with the desert ... Directly in front of the scribes of Khnumhotep II - one of whom is a royal document scribe and thus associated with the royal central administration - are three officials, one of whom restrains a prisoner of some sort by holding him around the neck with a staff.": You can discover this Royal Prison official restraining a prisoner in the full tomb picture later shown in this chapter: The prison official and the prisoner are the third last and second last men standing in the lowest line in the lower right corner. You are invited to scroll down to the full tomb picture and check them: the officials of Khnumhotep's royal prison and of his ministerial offices are shown and listed in this lowest tomb picture line and in the second line above. Janice Karmin describes this scene of the prisoner but she cannot explain it … The Bible and the Book of Jubilees give the explaining answer as You will see later ...

Janice Karmin also explains that Khnumhotep's II position as "Administrator of the Eastern Desert provided a direct connection with prospecting and mining activities ... Sydney Aufrere ... concludes that Khnumhotep II controlled the northern part of the Eastern Desert from the Wadi Hammamat to the southern Sinai and thus also the route to Canaan from his seat at Menat Khufu/ Al Minya (between Herakleopolis and Beni Hasan)."

You may ask Yourself why are all these facts about Khnumhotep II so strikingly relevant that You have to read them? The answer is: Because they are all already telling the story (Genesis 37:36.39) of biblical POTIPHAR ...

Gustavo Camps Picture: Beni Hasan Tomb North Wall BH3
Find the Semitic Family visiting Khnumhotep III in the third line from above.
Find the Royal Prison Official restraining a prisoner of some sort by holding him around the neck with a staff in the lowest line in the right corner. He is archeological evidence for Khnumhotep II/ POTIPHAR being Chief of the Royal Prison matching The Book of Jubilees. The history and role of the Book of Jubilees in ancient Judaism and Early Christianity is explained in the first half of Chapter Hyksos.





In the biblical year 1843 BC, 17-year-old JOSEPH is sold by his jealous brothers as a slave to the Medanites/ Ishmaelites from Gilead/ Shutu. The Bible says these were merchants and they sold Joseph to Pharaoh’s highest official Potiphar (Genesis 37:36, Jubilees 34:11). They sold JOSEPH most plausibly near the Egyptian border in one of Khnumhotep’s copper or turquoise mining slave work places. POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II visits as usual his mining places in his eastern governance territory and inspects the new slaves, regularly selecting some of them for his home palace. He chooses JOSEPH to test him as a home palace slave and takes him to his country residence in Men'at Khufu (today Minya). Genesis 39:4 says JOSEPH was so tremendously blessed with successful work that he became highest under his master. JOSEPH managed everything - even everything POTIPHAR managed beforehand himself - thus POTIPHAR retired on his estate regarding all his former tasks and decisions. 

POTIPHAR's/ Khumhotep's II role at Pharaoh's palace is biblically called the Royal Court Official. His special task is being the Chief Executioner/ Highest of Court/ Minister of Law Enforcement (= „sar tabbah“ - compare Genesis 37:36, 41:10.12). So he was also the Chief of the Royal Prison and its prison officials (see Genesis 39:20, Jubilees 39:14). These titles were biblically sometimes anachronistically translated as Eunuch instead of Chamberlain, as chief cook instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing, as chief of bodyguards or captain of the guard instead of Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel and as chief prison keeper instead of Chief of the Royal Prison. These are all archeologically evidenced roles of Khnumhotep II as we learned already and they match exactly the Bible together with the Book of Jubilees.

Khnumhotep II/ POTIPHAR was also archeologically and biblically evidenced as the High Priest of On/ Heliopolis which matches Jubilees 34:11, 40:10. In Genesis 41:45 his name seemingly has transformed from POTIPHAR into POTIPHERA but in reality, it has stayed exactly the same: You have to take into account that Hebrew writing just as Hieroglyphic writing did not have any vocals: In the 1875 Allioli Bible he is still called PUTIPHARE as JOSEPH's father in law in Genesis 41:45 and in its footnote (18) it says a shorter version of this name is PUTIPHAR clearly indicating that we are talking about one and the same person here. POTIPHAR was also JOSEPH's Master and his Chief of Prison at the same time. This is revealed in Genesis 39:22 and 40:3. Jubilees 39:14 reveals additionally the House of Prison being the House of the Chief Cook/ Chief of Foodstuffs Purchasing, which is exactly one of POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's II archeologically evidenced titles. Genesis 40:3 reveals the House of Prison being the House of the Chief of Bodyguards or Captain of the Guard or Chief of the Royal Palace Personnel, which has been beforehand already revealed as being one biblical title of POTIPHAR. Noble POTIPHAR was not only JOSEPH's Master but he was also the Priest of Heliopolis like noble Khnumhotep II archeologically evidenced was. He later also was JOSEPH's Father in Law POTIPHERA at the same time: This is revealed by Jubilees 34:11 (Klaus Berger Book of Jubilees 40,10a footnote) and also in Origines' ancient writings. At last Jubilees 40:10 reveals that JOSEPH marries the daughter of the Priest of Heliopolis named POTIPHAR instead! of POTIPHERA: POTIPHERA is the Chief Cook/ Overseer of ingoing Foodstuffs which is also one of POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's II official titles. And Jubilees 34:11 reveals JOSEPH was sold to POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, the Eunuch or better Chamberlain, the chief cook or better Overseer of the Royal Palace ingoing foodstuffs and finally the Priest of Elew/ Heliopolis.

This is altogether strong evidence corroborating POTIPHAR is POTIPHERA is Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH's slavemaster and later chief of prison.

Pictures: 1843 BC JOSEPH becomes POTIPHAR's Khnumhotep's II slave for 10 years. After being accused of sexual harassment by his noble wife, JOSEPH becomes for 3 years his prisoner in the royal prison POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II is Chief of. In both cases, JOSEPH's work is so tremendously blessed that he is appointed highest under him, takes over all his tasks, and gains his very most trust.

1843 BC JOSEPH arrives as slave at POTIPHAR's Palace

POTIPHAR's wife accuses JOSEPH of sexual harassment

1833 BC POTIPHAR put's JOSEPH into his royal prison

The biblical failed try of POTIPHAR's wife to seduce JOSEPH into adultery lead into the next step of JOSEPH's miraculous fate: After the high noble nomarch Lady accused the slave JOSEPH of sexual harassment, her husband was legally forced to punish his most competent and trusted man in the house: The Genisis 39:20 footnote 14 comment in the Allioli Bible says the honor of wives was legally protected, therefore the slave Joseph had to be taken into prison as slave without interrogation or defense. Therefore JOSEPH was taken away by POTIPHAR into the Royal Prison. The Royal Prison was led by POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II himself as the Chief of Prison as we have already shown. This way, POTIPHAR makes JOSEPH for the second time the highest under him but now in his Royal Prison. And JOSEPH again manages absolutely everything for him.

JOSEPH/ Khnumhotep III becomes POTIPHAR's/ Khnumhotep's II only full trusted "Sole Friend" as confirmed by Beni Hasan grave inscriptions; This title was originally an honorarium given to POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II himself by his most beloved Pharaoh Senowsret II. Senowsret II was the last Pharaoh who strongly supported the noble nomarchs and Khnumhotep II was his highest and most beloved one: For Pharaoh, it was hard to find a trustful man in the royal palace with enough integrity to always give an honest answer. Later on JOSEPH, becoming Grand Vizier Zamonth, was archeologically evidenced finally even announced as Pharaoh Amenemhat's III "Real Friend": After JOSEPH had read Pharaoh's dreams and consulted him on how to save Egypt out of 7 deadly years of famine, Pharoh made JOSEPH the highest under him to let him manage and decide everything in his place. JOSEPH received the complete Rulership over Egypt. This kind of complete handover of tasks happens to JOSEPH now for the third time in Egypt. And POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II adopts JOSEPH as his son to make him become an Egyptian: He gives to him his own nomarch honorary name Khnumhotep and he also gives to him his daughter ESENUTH/ Henutsen/ Henut as a wife. This marriage is biblically blessed and ordered by Pharaoh Amenemhat III and archeological evidence will confirm this later on in this chapter. We will see these combined practices of transforming a foreigner into an Egyptian by adopting him and making him son in law a second time when Pharaoh Amenemhet III will adopt later Amenemhet IV and make him his son in law which will solve a part of the mysteries regarding the question “Who were the the Early Hyksos before the 15th Dynasty?” …



JOSEPH's Story and further evidence for JOSEPH being Khnumhotep (III) is shown in Khnumhotep's II biography lines 1-17 of the inscriptions in his tomb translated by Kanawati and Evans (2014:31-36). They exactly match POTIPHAR's biblical relationship story with JOSEPH: 

„He (SC: POTIPHAR) strengthed the name of his council
(SC: through JOSEPH) being advanced according to his offices
and the most trusty one among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants.“

This story is told in the Beni Hassan tomb inscription not recognized as JOSEPH’s story and sowith translated and interpreted by Evans and Kanawati as:

"He (SC: Khnumhotep II) strengthened the name of his council
… being advanced according to their offices
and the trusty ones among his household
whom he has distinguished ahead of his servants"

This is an essential part of the biblical relationship story between JOSEPH and POTIPHAR told in Khnumhotep’s II tomb inscriptions as a part of the historical relationship story between Khnumhotep III and Khnumhotep II. 

1830 BC: JOSEPH becomes Senwosret's III and his son Amenemhet's III Grandvizier. He is firstly named Senwosret-Ankh/ Amenemhet-Ankh and later named Zamonth. He additionally becomes adoptive son in law of POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II and is sowith also named Khnumhotep III. In his tomb pictures, Khnumhotep II entitles JOSEPH as his "Sole Friend". 1826 BC Potiphar's daughter ASENAT/ ESENUT in Egyptian Henutsen bears him two sons: The dizygotic twins EPHRAIM named Ankhu and MANASSE named Senebefni/ Senebtefi Ibiaw.

You are invited to watch how the slave JOSEPH became Grandvizier over complete Egypt on

JOSEPH becomes Vizierking of Egypt & Sole Friend of POTIPHAR

POTIPHAR becomes JOSEPH's Adoptive Father in Law 

POTIPHAR's daughter ASENATH becomes JOSEPH's wive  


Khnumhotep II and POTIPHAR are 
archeologically and biblically evidenced 
one and the same person:

POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II 
was ARCHEOLOGICALLY AND BIBLICALY evidenced Royal Court official responsible for the royal personnel, Chief Executioner, Highest of Court and Law Enforcement and sowith Chief of the Royal Prison, Chief of the Royal Palace Foodstuffs Purchasing and High Priest of Heliopolis.

The same as in the case of JOSEPH's five different Vizier names  
POTIPHAR became dispelled into three different individuals 
in the biblical translation and copying processes of millennia:

1) JOSEPH’s Slave Master
2) JOSEPH’s Chief of Prison
3) JOSEPH‘s Father in Law 



Khnumhotep’s II Beni Hassan Tomb Pictures are seen above this text, below this text, on the Homepage, and finally in the logo at the left corner above. The fourth grave connected with JOSEPH is the tomb of Noble Nomarch Khnumhotep II who has been identified already as biblical POTIPHAR. The tomb was completed no later than at the end of the 19th century BC most plausibly by Khnumhotep‘s II "son" Knumhotep III. He has been identified meanwhile as JOSEPH, Vizierking under Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III (see also Chapter Chronology). 

The key evidence corroborating Khnumhotep's II tomb dating into 1819 BC and the deciding refutation of the traditional highly speculative dating attempt into 1859 BC are revealed and evidenced in the next following passage.

The funeral procession pictures inside Khnumhotep‘s II tomb show a family of important Semites in the focus of the royal house as described by egyptologist Janice Karmin. They have light skin, are wearing an up until today unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut, throw sticks, and compound bows. They wear uniquely and exclusively biblical Hebrew properties: White or lengthways striped filigree patterned multicolored clothing. They are bringing offerings to the deceased Khnumhotep II. The biography of the deceased confirms about Vizier Khnumhotep/ JOSEPH that he became Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend". This would by no means be a plausible honorarium title for a blood son of his own; A blood son would have followed his father's footsteps as nomarch of the 16th nome - like his real blood son Khnumhotep IV as a matter of fact did. Egyptologists have not yet been able to explain these circumstances. But they recognized already that Khnumhotep III must have received his name from Khnumhotep II. So they interprete him being his blood son. A more plausible option is that Vizier Khnumhotep had not only become Khnumhotep's II "Sole Friend" but also his adoptive son:

Because of being a foreigner, JOSEPH was additionally married to Khnumhotep‘s II/ POTIPHAR’s daughter ASENATH/ Henut. On this way he adopted JOSEPH as his Father in Law. This way JOSEPH became an Egyptian citizen. Only in Khnumhotep's II tomb inscription Vizier Khnumhotep's/ JOSEPH‘s name shows up the number III as part of his name. In all other inscriptions he only needed to be called Vizier Khnumhotep without any number in order to be recognized. This fits JOSEPH's biblically confirmed fame, which was bigger than POTIPHAR's former fame as second highest in Egypt in these times. 

The funeral picture is showing two Egyptian officials coming together with an obviously highly relevant Semitic Family as funeral guests who are bringing offerings to the deceased. The two Egyptian officials are identified: The first one is called Neferhotep. He is the Vizier's royal scribe. He is bowing down in front of Khumhotep II. And he is presenting a poster with an announcement which will clarify later the tomb dating … The second royal official is bringing the Semite family. He is called Khety in his inscriptions above. Khety is one of the five different Viziernames of the timeframe 1830-1750 BC in the biblical Vizierkingship time of JOSEPH as already explained at the beginning of this Chapter.

On Kanawati & Evans describe Khety: "The second man is labeled jmj-r nww Htjj ‘the Overseer of Hunters, Khety’." As his very best man of his slaves and later as his sole friend JOSEPH/ Khety/ Khnumhotep logically accompanied POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II on his hunts in the desert. Such a hunt scene is also depicted in the tomb. It is described later. Due to his role as the Vizier of Pharaoh, one of JOSEPH's/ Khety's common tasks was accompanying the Pharaoh's huntings in an official role called the "Overseer of the Hunters". This is showing for the second time that Khnumhotep II is often honored in his tomb like a Pharaoh which is also observed by the experts in the already mentioned, examined and linked article.

Khnumhotep is mentioned on the following shown Poster of Neferhotep in the text "the Aamu (the Eastern Semites) that the son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep brought". In his analysis of the tomb picture, Franke concludes that the “son of the Mayor, Khnumhotep" in the poster text refers to Khnumhotep III who would visually allegedly "accompany the standing figure of his father on this wall" (Franke 1991, p. 57–60). Click here to check on page 25 (Janice Kamrin, The Aamu if Shu in the tomb of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hassan, in: Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 1:3, 2009, 22-36) and check the full tomb picture above here, where You can see him in the upper right corner. But this would mean that the picture shows JOSEPH two times - once as Vizier Khety and once as Vizier Khnumhotep III. And this would also mean that Khnumhotep IV is missing on this tomb wall. This makes no sense at all.

On the other hand Franke correctly identifies Khnumhotep III with Vizier Khnumhotep who brought the Semites called "the Aamu" to Khnumhotep II as clearly described on the poster. And the tomb picture unambiguously additionally shows how he brings the Semitic family to his adoptive father. So the open question remains, why he is called (Vizier) Khety in the picture but on the other hand (Vizier) Khnumhotep in the poster text. The obvious answer is, that two different Viziernames of JOSEPH in that time are archeologically evidenced Khnumhotep and Khety. And both his names are mentioned in the tomb inscriptions. Thus as described on the poster and visualized in the tomb picture JOSEPH named Khnumhotep AND Khety is bringing his Semitic family to his adoptive father-in-law POTIPHAR/ Khumhotep II. This is only one of many following exemplars of archeological evidence corroborating the five different Vizier names of JOSEPH in his biblical reign time between 1830 BC and 1750 BC.

The close relationship and loyalty of POTIPHAR/ Knumhotep II to the Royal House of Pharaoh is emphasized in inscriptions and pictures several times: This is happening in the biblically stated time of JOSEPH as Semitic Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut) over the Royal House together with his Semitic family members as the King's Shepherds appointed by Pharaoh over all his sheep and cattle herds of Egypt according to Genesis 47:6 as we will examine in following later passages ...

From the left: BENYAMIN, Father JACOB, JOSEPH named Khety & Khumhotep and his royal scribe Neferhotep who's poster and further hieroglyphs are analyzed in the following passage
(Neferhotep's beard here is missing in the original painting)


Khnumhotep and Khety 
are archeologically evidenced two different Vizier names 
of the same Vizier over Egypt 
1830-1750 BC in the biblical time of JOSEPH 
ruling as Vizierking over complete Egypt.

The poster which the royal scribe Neferhotep presents towards Khnumhotep II


The first hieroglyphs we have to take a closer look at are the ones on the poster the royal scribe Neferhotep is presenting towards Khnumhotep II in the tomb picture (see picture above): Neferhotep is the first in the tomb picture line of the Semitic family when You start observing on the right-hand side. 

The mentioned date on the poster is the used fundament of Egyptologists trying to date the age of the tomb. The date is connected by Khnumhotep II experts with the arrival of the Semitic “Aamu” in Egypt. This happened according to Bietak’s excavations in Avaris around 1820 BC. According to the Strict Bible Chronology it occured exactly in 1821 BC and not around 1870 BC as estimated by Khnumhotep II experts. Nevertheless this means that Kamrin and other time relating experts are convinced that the year of the arrival of Semites in Egypt is the sixth year of Senwosret’s II enthronement. Bietak states that Semites from Canaan around 1820 originally may have come down to Egypt as „subjects of the Egyptian crown or with the blessing of the Egyptian crown … and became even Egyptian officials“ and later were able to „create a kingdom of their own“ (2002 Interview Mahoney-Bietak in the documentary “The Exodus” on This matches fully the biblical account regarding JOSEPH and his family and further following archeological evidence as we will see later in this Chapter.

Nevertheless there are alternative Egyptologists' examination results bringing more light to the announced 6th official reign year of Senwosret II in the tomb poster inscription:  

The Egyptologists Kessler and Rabehl assume the tomb wall picture is related to an anniversary festival celebration and "can be seen as an allusion to the celebration of the New Year’s Festival". This observation leads already into the right direction but the conclusion does not yet take all relevant data into account:

According to Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on the IV Peret Day 14 as the most plausible Day of the Death of Pharaoh Senwosret II. Senwosret II stands for the last flourishing time of the power of the Egyptian Nomarchs and (POTIPHAR) Khnumhotep II was his announced "Sole Friend". Therefore he was the most by Pharaoh beloved and powerful Nomarch of this time. The power of Egyptian nomarchs was firstly archeologically evidenced broken by Pharaoh Senwosret III. At last after (POTIPHAR's) Khnumhotep's II death their power was totally diminished in the time of the biblically and archeologically evidenced Great Famine. The Nomarchs had to sell all their property to their Vizierking JOSEPH who gave it all into Pharaoh Amenemhet's III hand. This leads to the following most plausible conclusion: 

The tomb poster inscribed 6th year of Senwosret II is representing a decennial Going Forth to Heaven Festival, which turns out to be in 1821 BC the 4th decennial Anniversary Festival of Senwosret's II death (in his 6th official sole reign year) 1861 BC. Most plausible conclusion: 1821 BC in the year of of the 4th decennial Going Forth to Heaven Festival of Senwosret II Israel arrived archeologically and biblically evidenced in Egypt. Two years later 1819 BC Khnumhotep II (POTIPHAR) died and became burried in his tomb showing a picture of this Festival.

Senwosret II was the last glorious nomarch-friendly Pharaoh. He appointed Nomarch Potiphar Khnumhotep II as his "Sole Friend". Thus Senwosret II was extraordinarily honored and celebrated by POTIPHAR's Oryx Nomarch Clan. The poster in the tomb picture is shown to Khnumhotep II by a royal official together with Vizier Knumhotep Khety "receiving" the important Semitic family bringing offerings to the deceased.

In the biblical year 1821 BC Israel's clan of 70/75 men arrived in Egypt in the land of Goshen and settled in Avaris. In the same year they participated as offering guests on this festival. In the tomb picture the royal official is announcing this arrival of (POTIPHAR's) Khnumhotep's II sole friend's and adoptive son's family together with Senwosret's II 4th decennial Death Anniversary Festival. This festival is celebrated by the complete Nomarch Clan of Khnumhotep II. 

"May these offerings and all other festival offerings benefit You forever in eternity" would be one of the most plausible key messages of this impressive tomb picture. 

This confirms the Egyptologists' consideration that the grave pictures try to honor Khnumhotep II as much as normally only a Pharaoh would be honored. Senwosret III was the greatest Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom. He was worshipped as divine still long time after. Three years after complete Egypt has honored the death of Amenemhet's III famous father Senwosret III, JOSEPH now honors his own adoptive father in law and dearest Egyptian friend with one of the most extraordinary tombs in Egyptian history controversially discussed up until today...


The announced "6th Reign Year of Senusret II" 
1861 BC on the poster in Khnumhotep's II tomb

is considered by experts as to be the year of the arrival of the Semitic family in Egypt and of the building start of the tomb.

Additionally as a matter of fact it is the Festival Title of the 4th Decennial Anniversary Feast of Pharaoh Senusret's II death in his 6th Reign Year celebrated by Khnumhotep's II Oryx Nomarch Clan in 1821 BC which indeed turns out to be the year of Israel’s arrival in Egypt two years before Khnumhotep's death 1819 BC. 


Now we take a closer look at the hieroglyphs above the first two Semites in the famous tomb picture. If You want to precisely study all hieroglyphs of the picture of the Semitic family You can do this on The whole tomb biography is starting from the right because the reading direction is revealed by the view direction of depicted participants and on this picture and in the hieroglyphs it goes from the right to the left facing the eyes of the coming people. In case You look not only isolated on the phonetic meaning of the hieroglyphs but also observe the precise meaning of a single hieroglyph You are discovering indications for JOSEPH's biblical story (see picture below): 

The first Hyroglyph at the left shows twenty-two and fifteen as numbers. Fifteen Semites are shown in the picture, further twenty-two of them were plausibly present at the announced festival on the poster at the right end of the line. Science is discussing if the number only stands for the shown procession visiting group or more generally for a group of Semitic families from Canaan arriving in Egypt to start a new living. The Scriptures of Qumran gave the answer already 3600 years ago: 70 descendants of Israel(Genesis46:27) arrived in 1821 BC in Egypt. This number excludes 5 descendants (Acts7:14) who died early without children in Egypt: GAD's son ERI (Genesis46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA and SALOMON (Jubilees44:20 footnote d Klaus Berger and Jubilees 44:29); The reason for their childless death is explained by Jewish blessed Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes page 104) and in the famous ancient narrative of Joseph & Asenath later introduced. The two sons of JUDAH, ER and ONAN had died already beforehand in Canaan (Genesis 38:7.10) and are also not included in the number 70. This is also the explanation for the different numbers 70 in the Masoretic Bible and 75 in the Greek Septuagint around 200 BC and the Qumran evidenced Torah around 200 BC. It is revealed by the Book of Jubilees like also all seeming differences between the famous Stephanus speech and the Torah in Acts 7 debated cluelessly up until today.

Estimated names according to 

A) family ranking 

   B) relationship to Joseph

from the right:

Royal Scribe and JOSEPH, Father JACOB and RACHEL’s son BENYAMIN, LEAH’s sons LEVI, SIMEON, JUDAH, and RUBEN 

Then You see a hieroglyph group of three or four hieroglyphs, 'Aamu' spoken, and translated by Egyptologists as "Asiatics" of "the Southern Levante" which means Semites of Canaan. According to Karmin the leading Egyptologist for this tomb picture 'Aamu' is generally agreed to be a Semitic (thus possibly Hebrew) loanword. The bulk of scholarly opinion would place the homeland of the Aamu of Shu in the "Southern Levant". This fits Hebron where Israel or Father Jacob and his family came from. Redford concludes that it is derived from a west Semitic word and can be linked to the root Alamu meaning mankind or People.

According to Kahn, it is in the tomb of Khnumhotep II that the earliest instance of encoded writing in history is found. It is posited that this was intended to be highly stylized funerary language rather than secret communications which are re-examined now for the hieroglyphs of the word 'Aamu': Translations of several inscriptions reveal that some uncommon hieroglyphic symbols were used in place of the more ordinary ones. There are also inconsistencies in the grammatical syntax. Some Egyptologists believe that particular passages in Khnumhotep II's funerary inscription were deliberately transformed in order to obscure the original meaning. Thus we will take a second more closer, differentiating, and precise look on the single hieroglyphs of the so-called hieroglyph group 'Asiatics':

The first hieroglyph is showing a Semitic slave or prisoner: Indeed You see clearly a Semitic man with a beard and light skin kneeling tied at the back (see picture above and logo in the left corner above). The tomb of Knumhotep II was finished about a century before the enslavement of Israel thus this can not be the historical background of this famous hieroglyph in case not only read as a phonetic letter. Biblically the only well known Semite of Canaan in exactly that time, was a man called JOSEPH, later better known as the great famous Vizierking and Savior of Egypt out of famine: He once arrived as a slave in Egypt. Ten years later he was thrown into prison - tied behind his back on his knees like in the hieroglyphic picture.

The next shown hieroglyph is a throwing stick. It is by no means representing Canaanites; There is no evidence at all for this option in the time of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaohs, the time of the 15th Dynasty (see Chapter Chronology). These are unique Semitic foreigners with their own by Bietak excavated unique „Mesopotamian, northern Syrian, and Canaanite attributes“. These attributes are mirroring the life locations of ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB. They derive from a century before. So these Semites are clearly different to the later Canaanite 'Hyksos' who are from Assur according to the Book of Jubilees and confirmed by Bietaks archeological conclusions. Here they are called the Aamu and they use in contrast to the later Canaanite Hyksos throw sticks like JOSEPH's statue from the same time (see End of Chapter Hyksos) did already reveal. The hunt as a sport has been up until today a royal and noble privilege since the upcoming agriculture civilization over 4 millennia ago. Grand Vizier JOSEPH alias Vizier Khnumhotep III alias Vizier Kheti taught his friend and noble adoptive father in law POTIPHAR alias Khnumhotep II how to use his family's throw stick; The evidence is shown in the tomb pictures. JOSEPH/ Khnumhotep III is shown in one of his common Vizier roles as Pharaoh's Overseer of the Hunters. This is a second time confirming the theory of Kamrin that Khnumhotep II is treated and honored like a Pharaoh in his tomb pictures; Here he is treated by Vizier Khnumhotep III like a Pharaoh. Khnumhotep III is identified by experts as the one who leads this burial project. JOSEPH/ Vizierking Khnumhotep is according to the Bible the only man in Egypt besides Pharaoh who is powerful enough to decide such an extraordinary honorship. Karmin additionally confirms: "a second man wears a white garment; he carries a throwing stick that is very similar in form both to the hieroglyph used in the word for Aamu and to the weapon wielded by Khnumhotep II himself in the marsh hunting scene on the east wall. The fact that this type of weapon is used as a determinative for Aamu supports the theory that it was a typical hunting and perhaps also a military tool in their culture. The Tell el-Daba dignitary mentioned above (she is talking about Joseph's statue in his Pyramide grave shown at the end of Chapter Hyksos) also holds a throwing stick against one shoulder." 

Estimated names according to 

A) family ranking

B) relationship to JOSEPH

C) the Book of Jubilees

from the right: 

On the donkey LEVI’s last two sons AMRAM and MERARI, then LEVI's son KOHAT, RUBEN’s wife ADA, LEVI’s wive MELKHA, SIMEON’s second wife, and JUDAH's second wive SUA, then a donkey carrying throwing sticks, spears and woomeras, then LEAH’s last sons ZEBULON with a harp and ISSACHAR with a composite recurve bow, arrows and a battleaxe. The reason why BILHA’s sons DAN and NAPHTALI and ZILPA’s sons GAD and ASHER are missing on this family picture is that JOSEPH had good reasons not to invite them to this festival. These reasons will be explained later in the passages about ASENATH in this chapter. The reason why BENYAMIN’s wife and children are missing is that he still was unmarried then and only later married an Egyptian woman according to the Book of Jubilees and archeologically evidenced as we will learn later on in this chapter. The reason why father Jacob’s wifes and daughter are missing is they had already died according to the Book of Jubilees.

"Ye shall not cut the edge of your scalp,
neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard"

Vayikra/Leviticus 19:27 OJB

The "Early Hyksos"
- the Foreign Semites in Egypt of the 19th century BC -
are wearing an up until today
unique Hebrew explicitly biblical hair and beard cut
in clear distinguishing contrast to any depicted Canaanites.
(See more distinguishing evidence at the end of Chapter Hyksos)

Photographed Original: Family Picture of unique Semites in the focus of the Royal House together with Vizier Khnumhotep/ Kheti bringing offerings to the deceased Khnumhotep II

In contrast to any depicted Canaanites, these Semites wear unbandaged not edges cut neck free hair instead of a bandaged edges cut shoulder length mushroom head haircut and a not corner's cut full beard without mustache instead of a corner's cut goatee beard or a corner's cut full beard with mustache.

Sidenote: If You look at JOSEPH's Semitic (Chapter Hyksos) and Egyptian (this Chapter) sculpture You will discover that the hair is not his hair but a wig and that his Egyptian King’s beard is not his beard but artificial so that he doesn’t break any later written down law.

Israel in Egypt Khnumhotep II Grave


Conclusion: The famous picture of Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hassan shows JOSEPH's Father JACOB bowed due to his age. He is offering an Oryx Antilope honoring the Oryx nomarch POTIPHAR. He is standing barefooted together with his son JOSEPH, who is POTIPHERA's adoptive son and son-in-law and who is named Khnumhotep Kheti. The antelope is a special one of the few kosher animals which are belonging to the typical Hebrew sacrifice animals. For the Israelites, she is famous for her special beauty. She is found in the ancient Hebrew Song: 

„Come away, my beloved,
and be like a gazelle
or like a young stag
on the spice-laden mountains.“

Songs 8:14

Behind father JACOB his second favored son of his already departed beloved wife RAHEL called BENYAMIN comes with a second now female Oryx Antilope offering. He is also certainly barefooted for he is part of the holy sacrifice offering process. JACOB himself was buried by his sons also barefooted and weaponed carrying his coffin according to the apocryphal Jewish Book of Jasher/ Book of the Righteous Chapter 56. Carrying one's weapons at a rifle brother's funeral is up until today a custom in many societies. Nevertheless, experts are cluelessly surprised about the weapons on the picture. They are still convinced these offering guests are total strangers to Khnumhotep II. This does make no sense for a funeral scene. 

According to Jewish beatified blessed Anna Katarina Emmerich POTIPHAR would have become a good friend of Father JACOB. He would have received the circumcision and would have served the g’d of Israel at the end of his life (AKE Geheimnisse des Alten und Neuen Bundes, page 107).

Behind BENJAMIN the sons of already deceased LEA called LEVI, SIMEON, JUDAH and RUBEN follow. Followed by LEVI's last two last sons AMRAM and MERARI on the donkey and then LEVI’s son KOHAT. Then comes RUBEN’s wife ADA, LEVI’s wife MELKHA, SIMEON’s second wife and finally JUDAH’s second wife SUA. JACOB's wife SILPA, LEA's maid was the last alive wife of JACOB but was already too old to come. RAHEL's maid BILHA and LEA's daughter DINA had died after JOSEPH’s presumed death according to Jubilees 34:16. And RAHEL had with BENJAMIN’s birth. In the end, the two sons of SILPA are following: GAD and DAN. The names derive from Jub34:20ff.44,12ff. The reason for BENJAMIN’s wife missing is he had not yet married. The reason for LEVI’s family being depicted can be discovered in the ancient tradition "Joseph and Asenath" on (and in AK Emmerich's Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes S. 104.): After BENJAMIN, LEVI is the most trusted and liked brother for JOSEPH and ASENATH. And JOSEPH (Khety Khnumhotep III) will be the one who had chosen the family members who shall be depicted. GAD and DAN had not yet plotted with Pharaoh’s son as told in the Story of Joseph and Asenath and thus will have been chosen by JOSEPH in respect for the last living wife of his father JACOB.

The hieroglyphs for the title Hekakhasut "Shepherd King" or "Ruler of Foreign Lands" from which the name "Hyksos" is derived, can be associated with the old bowed leader. He can be seen as the Shepherd King to the left-hand side of the hieroglyph, with his sons behind him. Or it can possibly also be connected with JOSEPH himself on the right-hand side as Ruler of Foreign Lands, identified by experts as the royal official (Vizier) Khety. 

Father JACOB's inscribed name is identified as the Hebrew (Genesis 24:2) biblical name Abi-shar "my father is king" or Abisharie "my father is strong". If this is how JACOB called himself in front of the Egyptians, it would fit his comment in front of Pharaoh regarding his forefathers in Genesis 47:9. If this is how his sons called him, it is a kind of 'My Sir Father' addressing but much more personal: Aba means rather dad than father, thus „big dad“ could also be a translation that would fit a dad leading a family of 70 descendants and all their wives. 

Experts conclude that further inscriptions claim that the Hekakhasut - the "Rulers of Foreign Lands" - came from the land of Shutu. According to Aharoni (1979, p. 146) the land of Shutu where the Shepherd Kings/ Rulers of Foreign Lands come from is probably an ancient term for Gilead. The Bible says the Midianites/ Ishmaelites who took JOSEPH as a slave with them down to Egypt came from Gilead (Genesis 37:25). This could have led to the Egyptian conclusion that JOSEPH and his family would have come from Gilead. All in all these are additional strong archeological indications confirming Biblical Israel in Egypt.

1821 BC    JACOB's Clan Israel is entering Egypt for the Ensettlement in the land of Goshen 
           Father JACOB may see his dead believed son JOSEPH at last again being alive 



We have already learned that biblical POTIPHAR gave as much responsibility to his slave JOSEPH as possible because of his tremendous talents. When JOSEPH became Vizierking over Egypt POTIPHAR gave to him his daughter ASENAT or ESENUT and his name Khnumhotep - which is a sign of adoption - and made him an Egyptian on this way. We have already shown that biblical POTIPHAR was archeologically evidenced called Khnumhotep II and Vizier Khnumhotep is confirmed by Egyptologists as his (adoptive) son. So it would not surprise if POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II who was Mayor of different towns would also share his responsibilities as Mayor with JOSEPH/Khnumhotep III. If two of JOSEPH's Egyptian names were Khnumhotep and Zamonth we probably would find archeological evidence for interconnections between noble nomarch Khnumhotep II and the name Zamonth: 

According to JOSEPH's wive's biblical name ESENUT archeologically evidenced as Henut/Enut-sen, one of JOSEPH's Vizier names was ZaMonth, meaning Son of Month. Because of having saved Egypt out of death by famine and because of his great wisdom he was adored so much by the Egyptians that he could not avoid being more and more worshipped - not only as the son of the Egyptian deity Month but also even as the Egyptian deity Month himself as later shown by further evidence. In this way Month remained in Egyptians memories as a famous popular deity even up until the 13th century BC: For example, to praise Pharaoh Ramesses II in the Papyrus Anastasia II he was extraordinarily called the "deity Month in both lands .. and Vizier who is friendly minded to Egypt". Why does a great Pharaoh like Ramesses II compare himself with a "smaller" Vizier in order to look greater? Biblical History gives the answer: JOSEPH was the Vizier and King who was as friendly-minded to Egypt and he was worshipped and glorified not only as the son of Month but later even as the deity Month himself as we will prove later. 

As we will later see JOSEPH/ZaMonth was already before his Vizierkingship in Amenemhet’s III 6th/9th reign year evidenced appointed as "Mouth of Nekhen" the spokesman or speaker of the town of Nehkhen (between Thebes and Edfu) and sowith most plausibly was also the mayor of Nekhen in greek called Heirankopolis = Hawk City. A hawk or a falcon was representing the syncretized deities Month, Nekheny, and Horus. Nekhen is one of the oldest religious places in the world and was the Egyptian religious center from 3500 BC up to the turn of times and it was the center of the cult of the hawk deity, Horus, Nekheny or Month, the divine Patron of the Kings: Joseph strictly biblically chronologically served as Patron of the Kings Senwosret III and Amenemhat III. 

Nekhen's companion town Nekheb (today El-Kab) on the opposite bank of the Nile was up until JOSEPH's time the more influential noble nomarch town of Egypt. And POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II was the "Overlord of Nekheb". In JOSEPH's time, Nekhen overtook Nekheb's influence and became an important tomb town of the Intermediate Period. Later in the New Kingdom Nekheb "eclipsed in the city of Nekhen". JOSEPH's/ Zamonth's son EPHRAIM/ Ankhu is also on a later stela inscribed as Judge and Keeper of Nekhen (Cairo, Egyptian Museum, CG 20403)

Thus POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II, JOSEPH/ Zamonth, and EPHRAIM/ Ankhu were all Mayors of the twin town Nekheb-Nekhen. These are already first strong indications for the names Khnumhotep and Zamonth being two names for one and the same person as further proved later.

All indications together lead more and more to the question: Are Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep three different names of one and the same famous Vizierking of Senwosret III and Amenemhet III from 1830 BC until 1750 BC, the strictly biblical time of JOSEPH as Vizierking? Egyptologists state the Middle Kingdom had only one Vizier per Pharaoh as a kind of nowadays prime minister/ chancellor and a ruler over Egypt usually owned four to six different honorary names. Thus it is most plausible that a unique Grandvizier like JOSEPH - as extraordinarily announced Ruler over complete Egypt and as the Saviour of Egypt out of Famine standing above every Egyptian except Pharaoh - also owned several different names.

We finally leave now Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hasan and its overwhelming amount of archeological evidence confirming Israel in Egypt. But we will return to Khnumhotep's II tomb as soon as we will learn to know closer JOSEPH's wife ASENATH ...



We have already seen there is clear evidence for Kheti, Khnumhotep, and Zamonth as Viziernames in the time of the Pharaohs Senwosret III and Amenemhet III. First indications for all three being JOSEPH are found in Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures and hieroglyphs and in many further contemporary inscriptions. Finally, the Vizier years of Zamonth, Kheti, and Khnumhotep are biblically correspondent with JOSEPH's Vizier years and are strikingly matching archeological and biblical evidence - in a time when according to science only one Vizier ruled over Egypt.

The most striking evidence for JOSEPH's two different Vizier names Khnumhotep and Zamonth is rooted in JOSEPH's wife's name and her linguistically associated modifications. She is biblically called ASENATH or ESENUT; This matches Vizier Zamonth's/JOSEPH's wife's and Vizier Ankuh's/EPHRAIM's mother's name Henut or Henutsen or also Henut-pu. Vocals are missing in Egyptian as in Hebrew writing and letter orders often became confused in writing or copying processes. Biblical ESENUT is also the daughter of POTIPHERA (already identified as POTIPHAR already identified as Khnumhotep II). She again turns up on a dead mourning scenes stela of the Vizier Dynasty Family Clan of her beloved husband JOSEPH both just having lost one of their later sons - in Egyptian called Wpwauthotep:

(Source: 803-028-251 Stele CG 20690 Cairo, Egyptian Museum, see Lange/Schäfer, Grab- und Denksteine ii, 316-18; Wikipediasearch: Resseneb attestations)

The so-called Wpwauthotep Stele is showing three different dead mourning scenes with three different groups of Wpwauthotep's relatives on three different pictures one beneath the other. Being the deceased himself Wpwauthotep is not shown in person on the stela but in the inscriptions; He is always the first related person. The first two pictures are focussing on Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep and his wife Itineferu taHenut. Henut is also Vizier Ankhu's mother's and Vizier Zamonth's wife's name as already explained. Her husband the Vizier Dynasty Clan Father is here named Khnumhotep, hatia/ Mayor (remember Zamonth's role as Mayor of Nekhen) and Godsealer. According to egyptologists, Godsealer was one title of Vizier Khnumhotep III. It can mean expedition leader of the godlike Pharaoh or Priest of Osiris or both. On the Wpwauthotep Stele, he acts as Priest of Osiris. Hatia/ Mayor is one of the highest-ranking titles of royal officials and a commonly used title of Viziers. You could also be a Mayor (Highest) of a certain town. Scientific evidence confirms Mayor being also a title of Khnumhotep II which he bequeathed to one unidentified son thus it is even more likely that JOSEPH Vizier Khnumhotep inherited the title from his adoptive father. 

is the linguistically corresponding
biblical name
Asenat/ Esenut
revealing JOSEPH's wife's name 
is Zamonth's wife's name 
is Khnumhotep's wife's name. 

The Wedding Stele consists of three pictures among themselves. As long as there is no photo available a detailed scene description is necessary to evaluate its pictural and hieroglyphic information:


1) In the first picture You see deceased Wpwauthotep's daughter Neschi Hotepi and his son called Khnumhotep standing and his son Chonsu kneeling in front of a sacrifice table. Wpwauthotep's father Khnumhotep on the other side sits in front of the death sacrifice. Khnumhotep's hieroglyphically identified wife Itineferu tAHenut stands behind him with her hand on his shoulder. His granddaughter and daughter-in-law hieroglyphically identified as Wpwauhotep's wife and thus widow and mother of their three children is called Senebhenas. She is standing behind her grandmother tAhenut/ Henutsen. The Wpwauthotep Stele inscribed used prename of tAhenut as Great Royal Wife of the Ruler Khnumhotep and Queen-mother of his four generations Vizier Dynasty is the name ItiNeferu: ItiNeferu is the most used name for a Great Royal Wife or Queen Mother from the 11th until the 18th Dynasty. Prominent examples are for the 11th Dynasty Neferu II as the wife of Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (see Chronology of Israel in Egypt) and for the 18th Dynasty NeferuAtenNefertIti as the wife of semimonotheistic Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefer literally means good, pleasant, well, beautiful, and refers to the heart so it's more an adjective than a name.

2) The second picture shows two further children of Wpwauthotep standing together in front of their grandfather and lifelong ruler of Egypt and his wife, Khnumhotep and Itineferu taHenut; The further son of the deceased is called Amenhotep, he is titled mayor and big of the council of the ten of upper Egypt. Behind him stands the further daughter Nebherchuites. The dead mourning scene takes place in the house of a lady called Ineh. This is the only picture with Wpwauthotep's wife Senebhenas missing thus the most plausible conclusion is Wpwauthotep's further children on the second picture are not Senebhenas children but the children of the Lady of the House Ineh as Wpwauthotep's second wife. She is standing with her daughter Neferuwen behind the father and mother of the deceased, Khnumhotep and taHenut. Ineh and Neferuwen are not visible as persons on the stela but the hyroglyphs behind Khnumhotep and tAhenut/Henutsen introduce them. 

3) The third picture shows JOSEPH's son, successor, and already for long co-ruling Vizier EPHRAIM in his official Vizier's wardrobe together with his wife Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereryt and their daughter Senebhenas the widow of Wphauthotep. EPHRAIM is hieroglyphically identified as Vizier Ankhu, who is identified by leading Egyptologists as the son of Vizier Zamonth. Senebhenas' brothers Vizier Resseneb and Vizier Iymeru with biblically named SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1Chr7:20) are kneeling in front of them expressing compassion to their father and to their sister as brother and widow of their deceased uncle. They are holding flowers. 

Picture 1) and 2) show father Khnumhotep in front of a sacrifice table with further crucial explaining text.
Picture 1) Inscriptions:
"A sacrifice, the King gives to Osiris (or King Osiris gives), Lord of the Holy Land … he shall give sacrifice and foods for the sole of lower Egyptian sealer … Wpwauthotep sired by the Mayor and Godsealer Khnumhotep …"
Picture 2) Inscriptions:
"A sacrifice, the King gives to (deity) Wpwaut … that he shall give all good things to the sole of … Khnumhotep …"

Wpwaut, Upuaut, or Wepwawet is Wpwauthotep's name-giving patron deity. Wepwawet is a wolf and the deity of war. He was said to accompany the Pharaoh on his hunts led by the Vizier. Wpwauthotep means the deity of war is satisfied which is an obvious indication of Wpwauthotep being a successful military leader of the ruler and probably having gained honor in a war: He most likely died in the first battle against the Canaanite Hyksos before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jubilees 46:6 because this makes the sacrifice to his name connected diety most plausible.

For decoding the sacrifices texts correctly it is important to understand the historical background: The strictest all valid definition of the word King instead of Pharaoh is lifelong ruler. In Egyptian history normally Pharaohs were the commonly lifelong rulers and therefore the Kings of Egypt. But there is an exception phase in Egyptian history: The Second Intermediate Period. In this time Pharaoh's ruling time even went down from a few years to only one year each. At least 12 Pharaohs with only one year of reign time existed in this time. Thus a Pharaoh in this time can not really be meant mentioning a lifelong ruler = King in this text. According to the Bible, the only real lifelong ruler of Egypt at that time was JOSEPH and all Egyptians adored him as Savior and Ruler of Egypt. Thus Father Khnumhotep is most likely meant with the lifelong ruler = the King in this text. Wpwauthotep is hieroglyphically called the "Sealer of the King/ Crown" in the first picture.


Biblical Grandvizier JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH/ESENUT 
are named Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen.

 Vizier Zamonth and his wife Henut/Henutsen 
are also named Vizier Khnumhotep and his wife taHenut.

They are the adoptive son in law and the daughter of 
Nobleman POTIPHAR/-ERA also named Nomarch Khnumhotep II. 


We jump back now to the beginning of the 13th Dynasty 1798 BC: After Pharaoh Amenemhet's III death the reign of his adoptive son Amenemhet IV and his daughter Nofrusobek followed. Then the so called Dark Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began. It contained 48 years of JOSEPH's reign as part of his complete biblical 80 years he was ruling over the entire land of Egypt (see also Jubilees46:4). His brothers were appointed by Amenemhet III as the King's Shepherds (śar miqnäh: also translatable as cattle or sheep kings) overall his cattle and sheep in Egypt Genesis 47:6. Some of them indeed later even became Shepherd Kings as Pharaohs. JOSEPH ruled over all Egyptians and the complete House of the Pharaoh - as originally commanded by Amenemhet III in Genesis 41:40 - for 80 years. JOSEPH's royal Vizier names, in the beginning, are Senwosret Ankh and Amenemhat Ankh (meaning "bringing new life" to Pharaoh father and son). According to Jewish Beatified Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerich AKE (Secrets of the old & new covenant, p. 99) JOSEPH managed before becoming Vizier everything so tremendously successful for POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II that he was through him already well known, admired and beloved by Pharaoh and his wife and therefore became as prisoner overseer of the Royal Prison: Thus Zamonth (picture) became already before his Viziership the King‘s "Real Friend" which exactly describes the biblical relationship between him and Pharaoh Amenemhet III. Father Senwosret III already had given him his own signet ring, his own chariot, and his priest Knumhotep’s II daughter. And Amenemhet III after his father’s death is biblically so pleased and happy (in hebrew jatab) with JOSEPH that when he hears about JOSEPH's reunion with his brothers that he lets them know: "take your father and your families and come to me! I want to give you the best of my land of Egypt and you shall eat the fat of the land" (Genesis 45:16). This is by no means any plausible Pharaoh's reaction towards any contemporary Vizier: These are true most trustful feelings and not the last grateful deed to his exclusively in Egyptian history announced "Real Friend" of Pharaoh.

For our elder G-d fearing Jewish brothers
let us take a look into the the Midrash Sefer HaYashar: “And it came to pass … that Pharaoh, king of Egypt, died … his son, reigned instead of him. And Pharaoh commanded Joseph before his death to be a father unto … his son, and that … (he) should be under Joseph's hand and advice. And all the people of Egypt listened unto these words, and they agreed that Joseph should rule over them, for all Egypt loved Joseph even as they loved him in former days.“ The Bible describes the relationship of JOSEPH to Pharaoh Amenemhet III as being "a father to Pharaoh" (Genesis 41:43 & 45:8): In ancient times the word “brother” between rulers meant equality while “father” meant a trustful relationship to a superior. This extraordinary friendship between JOSEPH and the King’s son Amenemhat is also a biblical foreshadow of the extraordinary friendship between DAVID and (Saul’s) the King’s son Jonothan in 1 Samual 18:1 and JOSEPH AND DAVID are foreshadows of the Messiah Son of Joseph and Messiah Son of David, Mashiach Ben Yoseph & Mashiach Ben David. For the Christians: These foreshadows of extraordinary friendship and love become  full filled in the relationship of Yeshua & Yochanan, Jesus and his youngest beloved disciple John.

Picture of Stela CGC42.034:


Vizier Ankhu's Father Vizier ZaMonth: The only Vizier in Egyptian History wearing the King's Beard as the token for lifelong highest rulership/ kingship is archeologically proven biblical JOSEPH, Vizierking over complete Egypt 1830-1750 BC 

Inscription: „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor … she may give … oil for the Ka of the Vizier‘s (Zamonth’s) wife, the Vizier’s (Ankhu’s) mother, Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of (Khnumhotep II) the Sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … Priest of Amun (both titles of Khnumhotep II).“

This only statue of Joseph which survived was spared from destruction because it stood in Southern Thebes where the Canaanite Hyksos King Samuqenu could not destroy it.

1819 BC: Oldest Egyptian upright weight loom in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's Tomb in Beni Hasan
Khnumhotep's II wife Khety in the center - Mother of sevenlings?


According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick AKE (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 99 ff.) JOSEPH's wife ESENUT, here called ASENET, would have been an adoptive daughter of his slavemaster and Priest of Heliopolis PUTIPHAR who would have later employed her as astrologer and priestess of Heliopolis due to her visionary talents. She would have been wise, beautiful, and later would have become a "leading mother of many". She also would have „introduced the first loom“ as known in AKE’s 19th century (the upright weight loom) in Egypt: This would have to be archeologically confirmed by the first Egyptian depicted upright weight loom in her lifetime between 1850 BC and 1750 BC, and indeed You find the firstly depicted upright weight loom scene in POTIPHAR's/Khnumhotep's II tomb pictures of shortly after 1819 BC in Beni Hasan as You can see in the picture above. As Queenmother ASENETH would also have imported the first cows (zebu/bos indicus) into Egypt. And indeed around her strictly biblical lifetime (1848-1752 BC) the zebu cows firstly came up in Egypt (Wikipedia). 

Her husband JOSEPH would have introduced at the same time the ancient Mesopotamian seed plow invented by his great grandfather Abraham in the 21st century BC in Mesopotamia according to the Book of Jubilees (Jubilees11:23). And indeed Mesopotamia and Egypt are seen as the countries of origin of the plow: The oldest plow found in Europe was initially dated into the

a) 4th millennium BC and later then dated into the late Neolithic period around 2000 B.C. and then later secondly corrected and dated into the
b) the Early Bronze Age (1940 to 1510 BC).

Therefore we can assume that the oldest plows in Egypt yet speculatively estimated  into the
a) 4th millennium, will also be sooner or later corrected dated into the 

b) end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (Joseph's rulership time began 1830 BC)
Irrespective of this, JOSEPH‘s ruling time is the time of further development of the plow in Egypt and the
seed plow is such a further development.

According to AKE ASENATH would have been as a matter of fact additionally the daughter of Father JACOB's daughter DINA following DINA's biblical premarital intercourse with SHECHEM. To save her daughter from being killed as a bastard by her brothers the child would have been brought to Egypt and sold to PUTIPHAR. Father JACOB recognizing her birthmark after having arrived in Egypt would have revealed to JOSEPH that she is not only his wife but also the daughter of his beloved and missed sister. Later JUDA and BENYAMIN would have prevented JOSEPH from being killed by his brothers DAN and GAD who would have been stirred up by Pharaoh's son desiring ASENATH for becoming his wife.

The consequences of this mortal sin of DAN and GAD was already mentioned in Chapter Hyksos: GAD's son ERI (Genesis 46:16) and DAN's sons SAMON, AUDI, JAKA, and SALOMON, (listed in the  Book of Jubilees 44:20 footnote d and in Klaus Berger's translation of Jubilees44:29) had to die early in Egypt without children. Another plausible consequence is the deadly punishment GAD and DAN must have feared after their father JACOB's death in 1804 BC: It does not make much sense that all of JOSEPH's brothers did fear and try to avoid being punished by JOSEPH after their father's death by referring on JACOB having said before his death JOSEPH shall forgive all his brothers in Genesis 50:15-21; JOSEPH forgave them already 17 years earlier in 1821 BC when he revealed his identity to his brothers and invited them all to come to Egypt (Genesis 45:5). But it does make very sense, that DAN and GAD were in fear to be punished deadly for their second attempt to murder JOSEPH stirred by Pharaoh's son sowith most likely they will have been the ones in Genesis 50:15-21 who referred on their father to achieve forgiveness from JOSEPH. And most likely therefore DAN and GAD and their two passive brothers NAPHTALI and ASHER who did not help against the evil plot are missing in POTIPHAR’s (Khnumhotep’s II) tomb picture of father JACOB’s family because JOSEPH who initiated this tomb picture did not want to see them on this festival.

According to Angela Standhartinger (Wikipedia: Asenath) the traditions in the Midrash and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, that trace ASENATH to the family of JACOB also reveal that she was the daughter born to DINAH following her rape by SHECHEM. JACOB's sons wanted to kill the infant. DINAH left ASENATH on the wall of Egypt. POTIPHERA found her, brought her to his home, and gave her a wet nurse. POTIPHERA's wife was barren (with sevenlings?), and she raised ASENATH as her own daughter. Consequently, she was called “ASENATH daughter of POTIPHERA”, for she was raised in the home of POTIPHERA and his wife as if she were their own daughter (Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer [ed. Higger], chaps. 35, 37; Midrash Aggadah [ed. Buber], Genesis 41:45).

The story of "Joseph & Aseneth"  is a narrative that referred to itself as contemporary from the time of Joseph. It is readable on Scientists date it between 200 BC and 200 AD (H.F.D. Sparks, The Apocrypha Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 1984, pp.473-503). It is oldest evidenced in the same time as the Qumran evidenced Torah and Book of Jubilees. It was never disproved but rather confirmed regarding its origin in Egypt so it may also be of the time near its occurrences which would be the 19th century BC.

In this narrative of Joseph & Asenath "Pentephres (Potiphar) had a virgin daughter of about eighteen years of age, tall and beautiful and graceful, more beautiful than any other virgin in the land. And she was quite unlike the daughters of the Egyptians but in every respect like the daughters of the Hebrews. And she was as tall as Sarah, and as beautiful as Rebecca, and as fair as Rachel, and this virgin's name was Aseneth ... And seven virgins had the remaining seven rooms, one each. And they used to wait on Aseneth, and were of the same age as she was, for they were all born on the same night as Aseneth; and they were very beautiful, like the stars of heaven, and no man or boy had ever had anything to do with them ... And there were four gates to the court, overlaid with iron; and eighteen strong young men-at-arms used to guard each one of them."

It's a wonderful spiritual Hebrew love story and a dramatic action story: ASENATH is married to JOSEPH, whose brothers DAN and GAD plot to kill him for the sake of Pharaoh's son, who wants ASENATH to be his wife and who wants his father and JOSEPH to be killed. This is avoided firstly by JOSEPH's younger brother BENYAMIN (also confirmed by Test Jos, Josephus, Antiquitates 2.39–59) and additionally by the sons of LEAH:

"And on the third day, Pharaoh's son died from the wound of Benjamin's stone. And Pharaoh mourned for his eldest son, and he was worn out with grief. And Pharaoh died at the age of one hundred and nine, and he left his crown to Joseph. And Joseph was King of Egypt for forty-eight years. And after this Joseph gave the crown to Pharaoh's grandson; and Joseph was like a father to him in Egypt." ‘Joseph was like a father to him’ is an attempt to more plausibly translate the original meaning which seemingly made not much sense: “Joseph was (also) his grandfather”. In Hebrew father and grandfather are the same word.

Pharaoh Amenemhet III died in 1798 BC and JOSEPH died in 1750 BC. Pharaoh Amenemhet's daughter Mereret married EPHRAIM (Ankhu). So their son, Amenemhet's grandson Resseneb, is also JOSEPH’s grandson in Hebrew called SHUTELAH as You will learn later in this Chapter. And he indeed became a later King as told in the Story of Joseph and Asenath as we will see.

ASENATH is hieroglyphically written in old Egyptian Henu-t which is also the most famous female name in her (adoptive) father Khnumhotep's II nomarch genealogy: Henu was the grandmother of the first Oryx nome nomarch Khnumhotep. Thus Henu was the name of the Nomarch Dynasty Clan Mother of Khnumhotep II. According to Egyptologists the southern fourth wall in Beni Hasan (next big picture) shows Khnumhotep's II wife Khety sitting in front of a full offering table and her daughters are standing behind her in the same row and in the next row and there are also many further sons so they had a lot of children. Thus three of the eight daughters are standing beneath in the next line of the tomb picture and are accompanied by 18 strong young men many of them explicitly identified as sons of Khumhotep's II wife Khety. 

Therefore we have INDEED one plus seven beautiful young virgins as probable daughters of Khnumhotep and Khety accompanied by 18 possible brothers in the tomb picture: This matches EXACTLY the Story of Joseph & Asenath regarding all its numbers.

One of Khnumhotep's II daughters is called Tjat and has special economical talents: As a sealer, she is responsible for all valuable goods of Khnumhoteph II and is depicted with two slaves (half size) who support her work. She‘ll become later the wife of Khnumhotep IV evidenced as Lady of the House in his tomb. Khnumhotep IV is after Khnumhotep III (JOSEPH) the second adoptive son of Khnumhotep II for what reason Khnumhotep III is next to Lady Kethy‘s oldest son „nht“ also called „the eldest“ in the tomb inscriptions.

ASENUT/Henut being POTIPHAR’s/Khnumhotep’s II daughter is already evidenced in the inscription of JOSEPH‘s/Zamonth‘s sculpture (CG42.034): „The King gives a sacrifice to Hathor (keep in mind for later) … for the Ka of the Vizier‘s wife Lady of the House Henut-pu, daughter of the Sealer of Lower Egypt of the King … Priest of Amun (both titles of Khnumhotep II).“

But is there any Henut ASENATH in the tomb picture of Khnumhotep's II family?

For further confirming evidence Henut being Khnumhotep's II (adoptive) daughter, You are invited to search for the hieroglyph of her name-giving goddess Henu(-t) in form of a Pelicaniform called Ibis in his tomb in Beni Hassan. The following pictures show this Pelicaniform as Hyroglyphs and Khnumhotep’s II wife Khety with her daughters and sons: In the tomb hieroglyphs above her daughters You can identify different birds (a duck represents the word ‚son‘ or ‚daughter‘). Enjoy Your discovery adventure journey:

Beni Hassan Khnumhotep II Tomb South wall, west, the family of Khnumhotep II in the offering 
(After Kanawati, N., Benu Hassan, pl. 139)


In his book "The World's Oldest Alphabet" Douglas Petrovich deciphered 15 found as Hebrew identified oldest alphabetical inscriptions. This one was discovered in the Sinai and it says:

"The House of the Vineyard of ASENATH
and its Innermost Room were engraved.
They have come to live."

Wadi Nasb was one of Pharaoh Amenemhet’s III copper and turquoise mines (POTIPHAR) Khnumhotep II was highest supervisor of. As Vizierking (JOSEPH) Khnumhotep III most likely took over this adoptive father’s responsibility like several others as archeologically evidenced. After Israel had multiplied many of them most plausibly searched for work and JOSEPH will have helped them to find work. The inscription was engraved by an Israelite in the Wadi Nasb in the Sinai Desert in the strictly biblical year (see Chapter Chronology) 1752 BC ('1772' BC). This is the year of ASENATH's death in the third year before JOSEPH’s death according to AK Emmerich (Geheimnisse des Alten und des Neuen Bundes, p.107). You can study in ASENATH's (adoptive) father POTIPHAR's tomb pictures in this Chapter how eg. Khnumhotep's II Innermost Room was engraved in order to come to live as an Egyptian burial cult act.

Sinai 376 Serabit El-Kadim (Gerster p.65):
Reading from the top right downwards

Deciphering Board:
Enjoy Your Discovery Journey!



(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

According to UN estimations in 2013 about 343.000 over 100 years old persons lived on our planet and at least 3,2 million are estimated for 2050. In Germany in 1900 AD born people had the chance of 1% to get older than 100 years and in 2017 16.500 people got older than 100 years. Queen Elisabeth II died 96 years old after a rulership of 70 years. According to Genesis 50,22 JOSEPH died 110 years old after a rulership of 80 years. Bible opponents among archeologists and historians consider these time figures to be implausible dubious if viewed from a „neutral objective“ perspective.

In 2017 AD in Britain, one mother had 20 children and in Uganda, one mother had 38 children, in most African countries the average number of children in a family is five. The average number of children of the twelve sons of Israel was five when they arrived in Egypt but from then on the people of Israel multiplied enormously in their time in Egypt (Genesis 15:16, Exodus 1:2 6:16). After biblical 4 generations in Egypt, calculated with an average of over seven children, Israel would have numbered over 3 million people which is biblically confirmed by the number of 600.000 Hebrew men in 1606 BC who left Egypt in the Exodus. Up until today, strict Orthodox families still have an average of over seven children (Hentschke, Um Gottes willen, in: Zeit Online 19/11/20). Bible opponents among historians and archaeologists consider these numbers to be implausible dubious if viewed from a „neutral objective“ perspective. However the contemporary Ipuwer Papyrus states distraught about the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History "Foreigners had become OUR PEOPLE everywhere!" (c. Booth, Foreigners in Ancient Egypt, in: Oxford Archaeopress 2005).

According to the Bible JOSEPH did not have only two sons but instead received the most fruitful family of descendants of all his twelve brothers: In Genesis 48:5-6 his father JACOB tells him that all (male) descendants, JOSEPH has begotten after JACOB had arrived in Egypt - thus after his two first sons Ephraim and Manasse were born - shall remain to belong to JOSEPH whereas his two firstborn sons shall belong to JACOB as adoptive sons: „And thy sons, that thou begettest after them, shall be thine; they shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance.“ In Genesis 49:22 JACOB prophesized that JOSEPH (as a father of sons) would become the "fruitful tree at the fountain" with "daughters/ twigs tendring over the wall". The female "tendring twigs of a tree" are in old Hebrew also a picture and translational option for female descendants. Thus the Bible states that JOSEPH would become a father of many more children than his solely namely mentioned sons EPHRAIM and MANASSE:

According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german page 107), ASENATH and JOSEPH would have become parents of 18 children including several twins. EPHRAIM (Ankhu) and MANASSE (Senebefni/ Dedu-Month Senebtefi) are the only ones with biblically revealed names following Father JACOB's decision that all the other children of JOSEPH shall be counted under and called after the names of EPHRAIM and MANASSE in their inheritance share of the Promised Land according to Genesis 48:6-7.

Sowith JOSEPH and ASENATH had 18 children; 8 to 10 boys and 8 to 10 girls. This explains the two big equally sized residence rooms in JOSEPH’s palace; one for the boys and one for the girls to play and sleep. Furthermore it explains the biggest evidenced bed of Egyptian history in the bed chamber of Joseph and Asenath; Asenath always had some babies sleeping with mom and dad and having a daily protection zone from their older siblings on their huge family bed. 

Statue CGC42035:
Ankhu’s mother
Mother of 18 children including many twins 

Now let's try to identify JOSEPH's further sons, who were enthroned by JOSEPH as Pharaohs for three to four years each after peaceful calm 20 years of the yearly rotating Pharaohs from his loyal brothers' BENYAMIN and LEVI's families:

We already found out that Wpwauthotep was a military leader of the ruler and his father Grandvizier Khnumhotep was also called ZaMonth, son of Month. Wpwauthotep most plausibly died in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC in the Valley of Assur according to Jubilees46:6. Wpwauthotep's wifes were called Senebhenas and Ineh. Now we take a look at the most plausible Pharaoh for the first battle against the Canaanites already mentioned in the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology: Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. Same as Wpwauthotep he was also a military leader and "troup commander of the ruler". And he died most plausibly in the first battle against the Canaanites before JOSEPH's death in 1750 BC. Finally deciding is the fact that his wives are also called Senebhenaes and nIneh like Wpwauthotep's wives so Wpwauthotep clearly has to be identified as the later Pharaoh Sobekhotep III: He was called a "Kingson" which means a son of a lifelong ruler and his father is called "Father of God's Monthhotep". Monthhotep means "the diety Month is satisfied with him" like Khnumhotep means "the deity Khnum is satisfied with him". JOSEPH's royal name and adoptive noble name Zamonth Khnumhotep as double name melted together into one name result - the name Monthhotep. Khnumhotep's wife Henut, Wpwauthotep's/Sobekhotep's III mother is also called Juhetibu. The only lifelong ruler = King of this time was according to the strict biblical chronology Grandvizier JOSEPH together with his co-ruling son Ephraim. As Viziers they are as later shown assumed by several Egyptologists to be the real ruling power behind weak Pharaohs. Pharaohs were changing down to yearly that time, so Pharaohs could not have been meant when mentioning a "King" = lifelong ruler in the 13th Dynasty. Thus only Grandvizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Ruler of Egypt could be meant as Sobekhotep's III Father and King Monthhotep. His additional title "Father of God's" reveals that he was most highly adored and hero-worshipped by the Egyptians and that he was a father of several ("godlike") Pharaohs, seen by the Egyptians as living deities. JOSEPH‘s title „Father of God’s“ is also confirming Anna Katharina Emmerich’s observation that JOSEPH’s wife ASENETH was called „Mother of God’s“ against her will by the Egyptians. We see that JOSEPH's rejection to become Pharaoh in order to avoid being worshipped as a deity didn't really work out.

Pharaoh Sobekhotep III (who has a daughter called Juhetibu like his mother) has two brothers: Seneb/Sonb (who has two daughters called Henut and Juhetibu like his mother and a son called Monthhotep like his father) and Khakau (who has a son called Khnumhotep like his father). The names of their children reveal how most plausible it is that JOSEPH's different names were Khnumhotep and Monthhotep and that his wife's ASENATH's different names were Henut and Juhetibu. Seneb/Sonb and Khakau were also both called "Kingsons" meaning their father had to be a King/ lifelong Ruler of Egypt.

ZaMonth KhnumHotep MontHotep JOSEPH died shortly after his son's Wpwauthotep's death in 1750 BC. Wpwauthotep/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep III had three "King brothers" who reigned as Pharaohs before him: The first brother is Pharaoh Imyremeshaw, who was also called a "military leader of the ruler". His sculpture is wearing a King's beard which shows his rivalry against his brother Ephraim as future heir of Kingship. The second brother is Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef, who shows the archeological evidence of all three of them being called "King brothers" and having "ten Kingsisters". And then the third and last Pharaoh before Sobekhotep III was his brother Pharaoh Seth Meribre

So we are counting 10 daughters and 8 sons.

Therefore JOSEPH/ Monthhotep and ASENATH/ Henut (also named Juhetibu) indeed had 18 archeologically confirmed children; This is exactly matching the already mentioned number of 18 children of JOSEPH and ASENATH according to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich. She additionally states „ASENETH“ was prophezised to become a „leading mother of many“.

Becoming Pharaoh Sobekhotep III, Wpwauthotep was married to Vizier Ankhu's EPHRAIM‘s daughter Senebhenas. One of Sobekhotep's brothers when becoming Pharaoh was also married to one of Ankhu's (EPHRAIM‘s) daughters; she was named Aya and her husband was additionally named Sobekhotep (according to Egyptologist Kim Ryholt it has to be Pharaoh Imyremeshaw or Pharaoh Sehetepkare Antef). To marry his daughters with his brothers was a strategic action of EPHRAIM to keep his brothers' Pharaoh power under control and to avoid them taking over the rulership. Marrying his third brother Pharaoh Antef with his daughter Aya to better control him is most plausibly a reaction of (EPHRAIM) Ankhu on the rivalry ambitions of his second brother Pharaoh Imyremeshaw which are evidenced by his sculpture's King's beard. EPHRAIM was clearly the dedicated throne heir of Kingship as Vizier and had to protect this claim. That EPHRAIM's fifth brother Sobekhotep III initiated a war against the Canaanites can also be seen as an attempt to become as a successful leader in war the next King of Egypt. His ambitions were controlled by having to take EPHRAIM's daughter Senebhenas as his second wife. Thus all in all EPHRAIM can't have been very happy with his father's decision to let his brothers co-rule as Pharaohs for several years. He must have missed the good old peaceful times of the most likely by himself invented yearly Pharaoh rotation system with his uncles and cousins as Pharaohs: This is seen in him reestablishing this yearly family rotation system after two troubled decades in his last twenty years of life.

That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis 49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became archeologically evidenced fulfilled. But his prophecy even lasted longer into the following generations as we will see in the next passage ...


Now let us take a look what rabbinical writings say regarding Joseph’s only indirectly hinted at further sons:

Rambam says “nevertheless only these sons were designated as tribes." This is the language of Rashi … In that case Ephraim and Menasheh are considered part of the tribe of Joseph as is stated in Tractate Horayoth 19Horayoth 6b. Rashbam says “your children or grandchildren who will be born or have been born after my arrival in Egypt (during the last 17 years)they will have the same status as their brothers … What applied in those situations would also apply to children of Joseph born after Yaakov's arrival in Egypt. Radak says “perhaps Joseph had sired other sons during the years that Yaakov had resided in Egypt even though the Torah did not see fit to mention this explicitly. The reason that Joseph did not bring them with him to his father's bedside may have been that they were too young to travel …” Tur HaArokh says "whom you have sired after them," according to the past tense used here, it is quite possible that Joseph had begotten more children after Menashe and Ephrayim. The reason why the Torah had not spelled this out is because they would inherit with their brothers, not separately. The fact that this is the likely explanation is supported by the fact that Yaakov continued at length with: "and now, your two sons who have been born before I came down to Egypt …" This appears to support the theory that Joseph indeed had other children, and that these were born to him after the famine had ceased … The fact that we do not hear about other children does not prove that there were none.“ Regarding father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis 49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree” HaChaim says "Joseph is a fruiful son, fruitful to the eye …" The reason Jacob repeated the word …, fruitful, may have to do with … that Joseph had originally been intended to father twelve tribes”.

Pictures: JOSEPH's 3rd son and 6th son became Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings of the 13th Dynasty in the time before JOSEPH's death and the first war against the Canaanite 'Hyksos' from Assur 1750 BC

1765-1760 BC
Pharaoh Imyremeshaw
the 3rd son of JOSEPH Genesis 48:6
with the King's beard as a sign of rivalry between him and his brother Crown Prince EPHRAIM

1754-1750 BC
Pharaoh Sobekhotep III
the 6th son of JOSEPH Genesis48:6
DualRelief Brooklyn Museum
Handover of the Kephresh the Blue War Crown before his war against the Canaanites 



All four mentioned brothers of EPHRAIM were selected Pharaohs for one, two, or three years - selected by JOSEPH to stabilize the Dynasty and keep the Pharaoh's power weak below him as Vizierking; An additional stabilization action was the mentioned marriage of Ankhu's brothers with his own princess daughters to better stay in control regarding their ambitions. The Pharaoh's reign times of JOSEPH's and ASENATH's four sons all took place in the time before Joseph's death 1750 BC according to the Bible (Genesis 30:23,50:26) and the Strict Bible Chronology. This is dating Sobekhotep's III death into the year of the first war against the Canaanite Hyksos according to the Book of Jubilees (evidenced by the Table at the start and the Passage at the end of this Chapter).

Three totally different Hebrew Pharaohs have been erroneously identified as Sobekhotep's III younger brothers and successors by leading Egyptologists. The reason was, they were also called "Kingsons" without an identifiable Pharaoh father. The same way also Sobekhotep III and his older brothers had a non-Pharao and thus allegedly "nonroyal" identified father. He was also called "father of gods" and not identifiable as any Pharaoh. These with Sobekhoteph III timely thrown together Pharaohs are Neferhotep I, Sihathor and Sobekhotep IV. Sobekhotep's IV as a matter of fact archeologically proved one century later rulership in the time of Canaanite Hyksos Khayan is explained later and has already begun to be discussed in Egyptology because of the new excavated challenging evidence (see Chapter Moses).

The mentioned stabilizing marriages lead to the question of how (Ankhu) EPHRAIM further stabilized his rulership after his father JOSEPH's death: We find further answering indications in the names of the succeeding Pharaohs: Pharaoh Khendjer was married with Anhu's daughter and Wephauthotep's/ Sobekhotep's III widow Senebhenas; And Pharaoh Merhotepre Ini is most plausibly the son of Sobekhotep III and his first wife Ini/ Ineh/ Neni - in this Chapter, he has already been identified on the Wephauthotep stela as Amenhotep the son of Wephauthotep which is Merhotepre Ini's pre intronization original name and Sobekhotep's III pre intronization original name. 

The Hebrew word for daughter and granddaughter is the same and means female descendant and JOSEPH's granddaughters were married to JOSEPH's Pharaoh sons AND Pharaoh grandsons. That way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis 49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family became a second time archeologically evidenced fulfilled.


Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III pre intronization name is Wephauthotep.
He is Military Commander of his King and Father Knumhotep

Sobekhotep III is evidenced Kingson of JOSEPH King Khnumhotep.
JOSEPH's names
ZaMonth and Khnumhotep melted into Montuhotep.

JOSEPH is the father of several "godlike" Pharaohs and thus
was worshipped by Egyptians as "Father of Gods" Montuhotep.

ZaMonth, KhnumHotep, and MontuHotep are archeologically evidenced different Viziernames of one and the same Vizier 
in the biblical Rulership time of JOSEPH.

Stela CGC 20102:

Vizier Zamonth 
and his son Senebefni

and his son Manasse 

Stela Inscriptions:
"Stela of the Ruler and Governor, Chief of the Town and Vizier ZaMonthu (Son of Monthu) ZatIp (Son of Ipy mother of Osiris) born of the Lady …
Seneb, daughter of
Zamonth and Henut-Nu …
A sacrifice that
the King gives on the part of his son whom he loves, Sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, Priest of Amun Senebefni (in Wikipedia mistakenly called Senebtifi) … Speaker of the Vizier Senwosret (or the Vizier’s Speaker Senwosret)
the Writer and Head of the House
Rensenebu, true in voice, whom Henut has born, Za-Hathor (son of Hathor), who is true in voice …
a sacrifice that
King Osiris is giving, the First of the Western, the great God, Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, Lord of the Holy Land of the dead, so that they give a death sacrifice … Horus sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town Vizier ZaMonth (son of Month) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy mother of Osiris) born by her, the Lady of the House."



One of the names of the above inscripted Speaker of Vizier Zamonth seems to be Senwosret. Egyptian rulers had several speakers and the sons of a ruler were as most trusted ones privileged for such a role. Two times a Speaker of Vizier Zamonth is archaeologically evidenced. Both speakers together date Zamonth's Vizier Rulership into the second half of the 12th and the first half of the 13th Dynasty 1830-1770 BC (c. Franke Dossier Nr.526/173/492/537 & AVB S.218 f.). This is exactly matching the strictly biblical time of Joseph's rulership in Egypt. The start of this chapter already revealed  Senwosret-Ankh was one of JOSEPH's five Vizier names. This leads to the most plausible assumption that the name Senwosret was also given as a second name to JOSEPH’s sons inherited from their father or received directly through Senwosret‘s III blessings in their childhood: Vizier Senwosret Senebefni (MANASSE) and Vizier Senwosret Ankhu (EPHRAIM). Another Viziername of JOSEPH - Khety/ Kethi - has been discovered at Joseph's Canal up until today called Bar Yusuph in Fayum near Lahun. It confirms this conclusion for JOSEPH’s son EPHRAIM named Ankhu who‘s firstborn son SHUTELAH was named Resseneb: One Mayor of Lahun serving Vizier Khety/ Kethi was named Senwosret evidenced for year 9-24 of Amenemhet II. A later Mayor of Lahun serving Vizier Khety/ Kethi was named Khakheper Resseneb, son of Senwosret evidenced for year 37 of Amenemhet II. These are exactly the times best matching with JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM and grandson SHUTELAH supporting their King and (grand)father JOSEPH: Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep Khety originally enthroned as Vizier Senwosret Ankh by Pharaoh Senwosret III. His son EPHRAIM was obviously also named Vizier Senwosret Ankh(u). He was like his own son Vizier Resseneb archeologically evidenced as Mayor of Lahun under his father. For the time after JOSEPH's death when EPHRAIM had become his successor as Vizierking over Egypt Pharaoh Wegaf is mentioned on a plaquette from Elephantine (c. Legrain 1907, p.248-275) together with his "King Senwosret": This confirms Vizier Senwosret Ankhu archeologically evidenced as King of Egypt announced for the very time when his rival brother MANASSE's most ambitious son became Pharaoh Wegaf. This was a best occasion to clarify scripturally who is the real King above Pharaoh and Egypt. The just investigated inscription on Stela CGC 20102 bears a first indication for JOSEPH‘s second son MANASSE additionally having been named (Senebefni) Senwosret. This will be secondly confirmed by archaeological evidence later when we will learn to know MANASSE better.


Vizier Zamonth is archeologically evidenced 
as King of Egypt.

JOSEPH King Zamonth is by Stela CGC 20102 
archeologically evidenced hero-worshipped as OSIRIS. 

(JOSEPH) Zamonth, also named Khnumhotep, is under BOTH names evidenced as Nobleman, Mayor of Town, Vizier, and KING. 

(EPHRAIM) Vizier Ankhu also named Vizier Senowsret 
is archeologically evidenced 
as KING Senwosret over Pharaoh Wegaf AVIEZER

The biblical time of JOSEPH's 80 years of rulership over Egypt is
the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty.
(Genesis 50:22, Jubilees 46:3, Codex Athod Koutloumenos 178, 10, 11r-13r)

The Speaker of Zamonth named Vizier Senwosret
dates Zamonth's Viziership ALSO into

the second half of the 12th and first half of the 13th Dynasty. 



Vizier Head
13th Dynasty
1800-1700 BC

“Head of a Prince or King”

Serpentine statuette of Vizier Ankhu wearing the standard Vizier‘s outfit & wig excavated in Joseph’s palace in Avaris in the New Center c. 1780-1750 BC F/I-1/19-no. 1, stratum d/1 (reg. no. 5093) by Manfred Bietak’s team. If You compare Joseph’s (Zamonth’s) Vizier wig cut with this wig cut You can see this Vizier changed the fashion: Now the wig has a more dynamic diagonal cut.





EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's second-born son is appointed as second Vizier Ankhu already by Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III honored him preferentially by naming him the way he already named his father JOSEPH archeologically and biblically evidenced at first: His Enlivenment = Ankh(u). He additionally honored him preferentially by marrying him with his daughter Mereret. Ankhu and Mereret both had grown up together at the royal palace. Mereret is often named King's Daughter in inscriptions. Her tomb may not have been placed directly next to her father's Pyramide for the same reason as for JOSEPH's tomb: Amenemhets Pyramide lacked stability, it was built too near to the flooding Nile. This is the most plausible reason for Mereret having been buried near to the next near pyramid, which was her grandfather's one. Therefore Egyptologists concluded she would be the daughter of King Senwosret III. But among her personal adornments, there were pieces bearing the name of King Amenemhet III found as probable evidence for him being her real father. Nevertheless Senwosret III had several wives and lived until 1819 BC sowith Mereret could less probably be his very late daughter and Amenemhet's very young sister. According to the Strictly Biblical Chronology EPHRAIM (Ankhu) was born in 1832 BC. After his Co-Rulership 1798-1750 BC with his father JOSEPH, he became the next ruling Vizierking of Egypt 1750-1726 BC (compare Beckerath 1964, p. 98-100). JOSEPH will have trusted his son no less than Pharaoh Amenemhet III did trust JOSEPH so it is accordingly probable that Ankhu (EPHRAIM) already as Vizier took over most of his father’s business. This is archeologically corroborated and lead to following egyptologists’ conclusions:

VIZIER Ankhu is "often seen as actual REAL POWER AT THE ROYAL COURT
and is considered to be one of the most significant officials of his period and pattern example for a stable management in the 13th … Dynasty …"
(Rice, Michael: Who's Who in Ancient Egypt 1999 24-25 and Beckerath 1964 98-100)

Vizier Ankhu‘s "… situation illustrates, that during his period
The Kings were only in power for a short period, while the Viziers remained in power for longer periods."

(W.C. Hayes 1955 p. 146-47 and Helek, Geschichte, 118-119 and Junker, die Völker des Antiken Orients, 104-105).

and a single family held the office for much of a century.
and "In little more than a century about 70 kings [SC: Pharaohs] occupied the throne."
Encyclopedia Britannica 

Leading Egyptologists have up until today not realized that the quickly rotating Pharaohs of the 13th dynasty could not have been seen as  Kings in the sense of Lifelong Rulers of Egypt anymore and that the title King walked over to the real lifelong rulers of Egypt: Vizier Zamonth Khnumhotep (JOSEPH) and his son Vizier Ankhu (EPHRAIM). Ankhu implemented with his father a yearly Pharaoh Rotation System in order to further weaken Pharaoh's former power and to stabilize peace in this Vizierking Dynasty. In 1765-1743 BC JOSEPH and EPHRAIM tried to strengthen the Vizierkingship by appointing JOSEPH's sons as Pharaohs and by marrying them with their brother EPHRAIM's daughters. These mariages were indeed necessary revealed by the King's beard of JOSEPH's third son Pharaoh Imyremeshaw: It's signalizing the claim to the throne towards his brother EPHRAIM, JOSEPH's real heir of Kingship. JOSEPH dies shortly after the death of his sixth son Wepwauthotep named Pharaoh Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites. EPHRAIM evidenced continued as new Vizierking the Pharaoh succession traditions by electing royal family clan members as Pharaohs until his own death 1726 BC in the second war against the Canaanites, the by historian Manetho described Hyksos Invasion (see Chapter Moses).


When EPHRAIM (Ankhu) had married Pharaoh Amenemhet's III daughter Mereret in his younger years, he became the father of his two biblical sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH (1 Chronicles 7:20). SHUTELAH was EPHRAIM‘s first born son. He became announced as Vizier after JOSEPH‘s death. BERIAH was EPHRAIM’s fourth born son. He became announced as Vizier and also Pharaoh for one year when MANASSE’s clan returned from Avaris to Thebes as we will learn to understand later. Their Egyptian Vizier names are Resseneb and Iymeru Aya or Ayameru. This 13th Dynasty went over into the Southern 16th Dynasty after the Hyksos Invasion and conquest of Avaris and the flight of the 13th Dynasty Royal Clan to Thebes. 

EPHRAIM's (Ankhu's) two sons and his grandson later ruled as Vizierkings over the 16th and 17th Dynasty. This great future of EPHRAIM and his seed was prophecied by his forefather JACOB before he died in Genesis 48:19. Furthermore it finds its echo in the time of Israel’s Enslavement in Northern Egypt in form of the archeologically evidenced "Ankhu's office" in Southern Thebes (see chapter Moses). Sowith JOSEPH (Zamonth Khnumhotep) and EPHRAIM (Ankhu) had archeologically evidenced striking influence on the selection of Pharaohs and EPHRAIM's sons SHUTELAH and BERIAH were trying to continue this tradition in Thebes as later shown in Chapter Moses. The by egyptologists often so-called "nonroyal ancestry of Pharaohs” and their “Semitic names” also reveal that they were selected as leading egyptologists more and more realize; A yearly rotation of Pharaohs in the 13th Dynasty is to the greatest extent corroborated by Ryholt’s research results‘ conclusion: “This period further witnessed no less than 24 kings [SC: Pharaohs], whose reigns on the average lasted little more than one year” (Ryholt 1997 p. 298). In this regard his conclusion is proven right in this work for even 34 Pharaohs. A yearly Pharaoh selection and rotation system also explains the seemingly intransparent reign times and the minimum of spectacular reign attributes, monuments, and building projects in the yearly rotation phases:

"Ludwig Morenz believes that Dedumose's stele text 'acclaimed to the kingship'
may confirm the controversial idea of Eduard Meyer that certain PHARAOHS were ELECTED to office”
"It is generally held that the VIZIERS DOMINATED the KINGS during the Thirteen Dynasty and held the actual power. It has even been suggested that there was a kind of selective kingship where the administration INSTALLED and REMOVED the KINGS at will.“
(Kim Ryholt 1997, The Second Intermediate Period, page 283)

„There are strong grounds for regarding the hereditary principle of royal succession as having thoroughly broken down during the Thirteenth Dynasty, with continuity of GOVERNMENT vested, for at least part OF the time, in a FAMILY OF VIZIERS.“
(Barry Kemp, in Trigger et al., A Social History, 154)

„However, since the administration remains unaffected and its head,
the VIZIER, forms a stable pole in the change of kings,
one could think that the administration now APPOINTS and DEPOSES the KINGS.“
(Wolfgang Helck, Geschichte, pages 118-119)

„Families of CIVIL servants slowly form through HEREDITARY offices,
which gain more and more influence through marriage politics until they SURPASS the ROYAL FAMILY IN POWER …
Finally, the families of civil servants appoint members of their class as Kings.”
(Wolfgang Helck, Politische Gegensätze, page 41)

Vizier Zamonth "… is perhaps the founder of the VIZIER’s family
in which the OFFICE was HELD for at least THREE GENERATIONS."

(Wolfram Grajetzki: Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, London 2009 p.36, pl.3)

Egyptologists meanwhile see in that Vizier Ankhu was one of the most influential leaders of the 13th Dynasty and that his family (SC: father, sons, grandsons) was the main stable ruling power that time. 

 (C. Adela Oppenheim et al., Ancient Egypt Transformed. The Middle Kingdom, 2015, p. 260-261)

According to David Rohl, Ankhu was archeologically evidenced contemporary called pa-Aam which means "Eastern Semite" or according to Egyptologists‘ encoding "Asiatic" (c. W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58). In Rohl’s book "The Exodus" he secondly finds out that an "Aamu" meaning Eastern Semite called "Kui" was archeologically evidenced contemporary named "Resseneb" (W.C. Hayes: A Papyrus of the late middle Kingdom Brooklyn 1955, plates 11,51,58). That are two striking indications that Vizier Ankhu and his son Vizier Resseneb - and sowith also Ankhu‘s father Vizier Zamonth - are Semites; Today the mother’s lineage is the relevant lineage but in JOSEPH‘s time the father’s line was biblically evidenced the deciding lineage.

Pictures: JOSEPH's brothers/ EPHRAIM's uncles BENYAMIN and LEVI
become Pharaohs/ Shepherd Kings and Fathers of Shepherd Kings
(The author had found and lost again scriptive evidence for Benyamin having lisped matching the drop falling from his beard in the picture; further relating reader’s investigations are welcomed)

Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's brother BENYAMIN with Hebrew beard 20 years before he became Pharaoh

BENYAMIN/ Pharaoh Amenemhet IV, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard as token for lifelong highest rulership

Beni Hasan tomb of Knumhotep II/ POTIPHAR: JOSEPH's half brother LEVI with Hebrew beard 38 years before he became Pharaoh

LEVI/ Pharaoh Amenemhet V, Uncle of EPHRAIM/ Vizier Ankhu without a King's beard, the token for lifelong highest rulership



(The reader is invited to use the Chronology of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

As we have already seen JOSEPH's further sons can be evidenced identified as Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. This finally leads to the question, if the way of stabilizing JOSEPH's Vizierking Dynasty by announcing family members as Pharaohs may already have been originally initiated directly after Pharaoh Amenemhat‘s III death.  Genesis50:22 (together with Jubilees46:3 and Codex Athod Koutloumenosas 178,10,11r-13r) reveals that JOSEPH ruled over complete Egypt for 80 years. He is archeologically matching Vizierking ZaMonth KhnumHotep later called Month(u)hotep:

The Story of Joseph & Asenath states that "Pharaoh left his DOMINION and his CROWN of the KINGDOM to JOSEPH and died.": In the ancient Hebrew Story of Joseph & Asenath originated in Egypt ( JOSEPH's only full blood brother of the same mother RACHEL BENYAMIN and his half brother LEVI - both sons of Father JACOB - are described as JOSEPH's most beloved and trusted brothers. His brothers DAN and GAD and Pharaoh Amenemhat's III predeceased son are described as having the deadly worst relationship to JOSEPH: Amenemhat's III only blood son would not only have tried to kill JOSEPH as his foreign throne and marriage rival but he even would also have tried to kill his own father who had chosen JOSEPH to continue his rulership over Egypt after his death. So his memory would most plausibly have been fully deleted by Pharaoh Amenemhet III after his son's failed murder attempt and his own violent death. Thus JOSEPH's biblically evidenced beloved only full-blood brother BENYAMIN would be the most trustful and best candidate for JOSEPH to be appointed as the first Pharaoh succeeding Amenemhet III. Pharaoh Amenemhet III obviously agreed fully with this idea because he archeologically evidenced adopted (BENYAMIN) Amenemhet IV and taught him in a co-reign phase the role of a Pharaoh. Leading Egyptologist for this time period Kim Ryholt confirms Amenemhat IV does not seem to have been a blood son of Amenemhat III because of his non-queen mother and because Amenemhet‘s III Kingdaughter and later Queen Nofrusobek's inscriptions were ignoring his existence. This is also clear archeological evidence for the rivalry Joseph had to handle somehow between Nofrusobek as blood daughter of Pharaoh and Benyamin Amenemhet IV as the by Pharaoh chosen heir. Amenemhat's III daughter Nubhetepti-khered is most plausibly the wife of Amenemhat IV because Hor I the son of both had been buried next to her. BENJAMIN would have become by this way also the adopted son-in-law of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. According to the Book of Jubilees 34:20, BENYAMIN indeed married in Egypt an Egyptian woman. In The Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) BENYAMIN is described as an 18-year-old "sturdy lad indescribably handsome and as strong as a young lion". This description is precisely confirmed by the picture of BENYAMIN in Khnumhotep's II grave in Beni Hassan already analyzed in this Chapter. 

And indeed Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced
to Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) family
according to Egyptologist Vallogia.
(C. Vallogia, RdE21, 109-113)

And indeed Amenemhat IV
is identified as Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) UNCLE
by the leading Egyptologist regarding this period Kim Ryholt.
(C. Kim Ryholt 1997 p. 209-211)

According to The Story of Joseph & Asenath Levi told him (Pharaoh Amenemhet III) everything that had happened” regarding the failed rebellion of his son “And Pharaoh got up from his throne and made obeisance to Levi (for his deeds) upon the ground.” This makes LEVI after BENJAMIN the best candidate to become the next announced Pharaoh Amenemhet (V) after Amenemhet IV (Benjamin).

Vizier Ankhu and his son Resseneb and therefore also his father Zamonth are archeologically evidenced Semites! 

Amenemhat IV belonged archeologically evidenced 
to Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) family; he is identified by leading Egyptologist Kim Ryholt 
as Vizier Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) UNCLE!

This means BENYAMIN was the first Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. He was named Amenemhet IV by his adoptive father-in-law Amenemhet III. 
As Ankhu’s (EPHRAIM’s) UNCLE he was an archeologically evidenced SEMITE. BENYAMIN was JOSEPH's only full-blood brother.

14 following Pharaohs are all archeologically evidenced Semites because they are all members of Amenemhat's IV (BENYAMIN‘s) & Ankhu's (EPHRAIM‘s) family clan.
(they are all marked with * in the table at the start of this Chapter)

Based on the Story of Joseph and Asenath LEVI is the most plausible candidate to be Amenemhet V after BENJAMIN as Amenemhet IV because LEVI was the second most trusted and beloved brother of JOSEPH. Based on Ryholt’s revealed family relationships all Pharaos of the first half of the 13th Dynasty were descendants of BENJAMIN and LEVI.
(LEVI’s descendants are all marked with o in the table at the start of this Chapter)



To keep the peace, JOSEPH lets Pharaoh Amenemhet’s III daughter reign under him for four years:

Only head of a Queen Pharaoh in these periods -
from the time around Amenemhet IV:
Pharaoh Sobekneferu




After the by Egyptologists so-called last 12th Dynasty Pharaohs Amenemhat IV (BENYAMIN) and Amenemhat's III daughter Sobekneferu, the following Pharaoh Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I is the first so-called Pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty. He and following Pharaoh Sonbef are regarded by Ryholt, Baker, and other leading Egyptologists as sons of Amenemhat IV (Baker, Pharaohs 2008).

This leads to further Hebrew Pharaoh candidates and their Biblical descendants shown in brackets in the table "JOSEPH's Pharaohs - the 13th Dynasty Pharaohs" at the start of this Chapter and in the table "MOSES' Pharaohs" at the start of Chapter Moses. At the end of every Chapter, You find a table of the Genealogy of Israel in Egypt with an overview table of the most relevant key players of the ruling lineage of Israel in Egypt.

The Book of Jubilees 46:2-3 says “And there was no Satan and no evil at all the days of Joseph's life, which he lived after his father Jacob [SC: 1804-1750 BC]. For all the Egyptians honored the children of Israel all the days of Joseph's life. And Joseph died 110 years old.” This time of the 13th Dynasty is identified as part of the “Golden Ages” by ancient Egyptian historians. One reason for this rulership time of extraordinary harmony might be indicated by the archeological evidenced fact that JOSEPH (his latest Viziername was Monthuhotep) had archeologically evidenced 10 daughters and his most beloved brother BENJAMIN had biblically evidenced 10 sons. The author proposes that both brothers most plausibly might have decided to marry their 10 sons and 10 daughters with each other promising them as wedding gift one year on the Pharaoh throne each. This would explain at least two decades of a full shepherd kings’ rulership harmony over complete Egypt in these times.
And that way Father JACOB's prophecy in Genesis 49:22 of JOSEPH becoming a "fruitful tree at the fountain" and his female descendants becoming "twigs tendring over the wall" of his family would have become a third time fulfilled.

In the Story of Joseph & Asenath (XXVII,2) JOSEPH's brother LEVI is the one he most trusted besides Benjamin and Kim Ryholt's Chronology of Pharaohs (at the start of Chapter Joseph) reveals that all other here yet unclarified Pharaos are family members of the lineage of Amenemhat V who thus most plausibly must be LEVI. All in all, the reader will find sufficient evidence in this work to most plausibly realize that all Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty were Israelites and that JOSEPH and EPHRAIM were the only real Kings in the meaning of Lifelong Rulers of Egypt in the 13th Dynasty. 

This work is revealing on and on that the 13th Dynasty of Egypt is as a matter of fact Israel's Dynasty over Egypt. For Egyptology, it may stay a riddle but for the Egyptians, in that time this rulership was even not a behind-the-scenes but a well-known Amenemhet III ordered rulership of their Savior out of Famine over all Egyptians until his death and beyond. Also, Egyptologists' convincement that over 30 rotating Pharaohs in less than 50 years were respected as and called Kings/ Lifelong Rulers is by no means plausible. 

This all sheds a totally new light on the title HekaShasut/Hyksos - translated as "Shepherd Kings" of Egypt in nearly all relevant ancient writings and identified by the historian Manetho as Hebrews. Let us now look a second time on this title like we did already do at the end of Chapter Hyksos:

The first known instance of the Hebrew Shepherd Kings called HekaShasut is an inscription in the Beni Hasan tomb and the only statue of a Semitic Foreign Ruler at all in Avaris - both of the end of the 19th century. The second known instance of the HekaShasut as Hebrew Shepherd Kings are the three Hebrew Pharaoh names Siharnedjheritef, Wegaf, and Khendjer in the 13th Dynasty. The third known instance of the HekaShasut - this time not by the Egyptians but only by themselves appointed as 'Hyksos' - is attested on Scarabs of the Canaanite Nile Delta 14th Dynasty. The fourth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is Manetho's description of the Hyksos and scarabs and inscriptions confirming Hyksos as Canaanite self appointed Northern Pharaoh title of the 15th Dynasty. The Canaanites were soldiers instead of shepherds so the meaning of HekaShasut became reduced to the general translation Foreign Kings time after time. Another reason is the growing generalized Egyptian hate against all eastern foreigners having overrun complete Egypt in the time of the 15th Dynasty and parallel 16th/17th Dynasty. Canaanite and Hebrew Semites are less and less differentiated by Egyptians, they have all become hated foreigners. The fifth known instance of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in Sextus Julius Africanus's epitome of Manetho for the rulers of the Southern 16th Dynasty of Thebes: They are identified by Manetho (in Josephus) as Hebrew Shepherd Kings. The sixth known indication of the HekaShasut or Hyksos is found in the Southern 17th Dynasty of Thebes: In several versions of Manetho, the 17th Dynasty is also given the title Hyksos, a fact which a second time confirms that Manetho like the Egyptians after the Exodus of Israel and the Expulsion of the Canaanites did less and less differentiate between Canaanites and Hebrews as Semites; Life was much easier when trying to forget the Ten Plagues and their responsibility for the Enslavement of their Savior's people and when only remembering an Expulsion of all hated Foreigners by the victorious Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Chapter Moses). Finally the only unambiguously evidenced EGYPTIAN Pharaohs of the complete Second Intermediate Period are the Ahmosides of the last thirty years of the 17th Dynasty.

Pictures: Pharaohs of the first and last Phase of the 13th Dynasty - Hebrew Shepherd Kings 

1785 BC:
13th Dynasty Pharaoh Sobekhotep I is
Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son/
BENJAMIN's 1st son BELA 
without the King's beard as a token for lifelong highest rulership but with the crown of Southern Egypt proclaiming against MANASSE Senebefni Mayor of Thebes Pharao‘s rulership over Thebes and Southern Egypt 

1769 BC: 
13th Dynasty Pharaoh Hor I is Pharaoh Amenemhet's IV son (BENJAMIN's 9th son IR)

His later added King's beard is most probably from his grandson Hor II who like his predecessor Ined stood in rivalry against the new Vizierkingship of Ankhu EPHRAIM 

1738 BC:
13th Dynasty Pharaoh Ined is
JOSEPH's or BENJAMIN's grandson; The King's beard reveals the growing rivalry of Pharaohs against the new Vizierkingship of Ankhu EPHRAIM


1821-1804: Joseph lived with his family in Pharao's Summer Palace in Avaris while Pharaoh Amenemhet III lived in his main Palace in Memphis. Father Jacob had been invited by Potiphar to live in his Highpriest residence in Heliopolis/ On.  According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich they both became close friends and Potiphar converted to Israel’s faith and became circumcised. Israel‘s sons lived together in the House of the Twelve Sons of Israel in the center of Avaris until their families had grown too big 1804 BC.

1804-1729 BC: With father JACOB‘s death, JOSEPH‘s and his 11 brothers‘ families had grown so big that Joseph resettled his 10 brothers in Heliopolis in and around Potiphar’s Highpriest residence. This district of Heliopolis/ On became named LeONtopolis and is up until today called Tell-Yahudi the „Jewish Mount“. Joseph replaced the House of the Twelve Sons of Israel with his own new Family Palace for his and Asenath's 18 children. Joseph's Palace owned two large rooms for their sons and daughters and the largest bed of Egypt for them and their youngest infants. 

1798-1765 BC: Benjamin, Levi and their sons received Pharaoh’s Palace in Avaris after Amenemhet’s III death for their families. Benjamin became Pharaoh for 9 years, then his sons, Levi, and Levi’s sons became yearly rotating Pharaohs until Joseph’s third to sixth son became old enough for Pharaoh‘s throne.

Avaris Pharaoh‘s Palace 

Avaris House of the Twelve Sons of Israel 

Replaced by Joseph’s Palace


Picture: Impression from cylinder seal of the 13th Dynasty found in the northern part of Joseph’s Palace above the House of the 12 Sons of Israel in the New Center c. 1780-1750 BC, stratum d/1 (reg. no. 2995).

These 12 symbols on the bulla match the themes found in the blessings of Jacob to his sons in Genesis 49. There are exactly 12 symbols on the seal. Seven of them are the exact same symbols used up until today to depict the 12 tribes. The stamp or bulla was found in 1979 at Tell ed-Daba in northern Egypt by Prof. Manfred Bietak of the Austrian Institute for Egyptology. Manfred Bietak was the director of the digs from 1966 – 2009. In 1979 his team discovered this intriguing little cylinder seal on the floor level of the Middle Kingdom palace. Rabbi Michael Shlomo Bar-Ron recently noted the correspondence between the symbols depicted on the Egyptian bulla and the symbols of the 12 tribes of Israel (Yehezkel Laing, June 21, 2023 in:

In order to understand the picture better let us take a look at Steve Law’s background explanations of September 14, 2018 in the Thinker’s Update on titled „12 tribes of Israel on a seal from Egypt“:

„ … Levi: The next symbol down in the right column is a bird of prey in a hunting pose with its head on the right facing downward. The simplicity of the design on the seal makes this identification difficult, but Edith Porada compares the figure with other similar depictions on seals from Syria that are drawn in much more detail. She confirms that it is a type of bird. Rabbi Bar-Ron states that in the ancient Jewish Ḥabbani-Yemenite oral tradition, ‚Levi was symbolized by a high-flying vulture.‘ …

God or god: The image on the top of the middle column is identified as deity figure by everyone in the debate. Porada represents the standard view in thinking that this is probably the weather god Ba’al, who is depicted similarly on other Syrian seals as standing on two mountain peaks … However, she says that despite some similarities with the depictions of other weather gods, ‚there are ‘considerable differences” between the weather god depicted on the Dab’a seal and such depictions in other Syrian examples. ‘There is no good parallel in Syrian art for a weather god in as lively a pose as the little figure from Dab’a,’ she writes. … The Bible also uses language describing YHWH as a man of war:

The LORD is a man of war; the LORD is his name. – Exodus 15:3 (ESV) … Rabbi Bar-Ron also has an alternate interpretation that this could symbolize the tribe of Benjamin who was Joseph’s favorite brother and is said to dwell between the shoulders of God based on the Septuagint’s rendering of Moses’ blessing to Benjamin in Deuteronomy 33:12. [… Stefan Clasemann author’s note: this could be a first indication of tendencies of idolatry of Israel in Egypt in form of a syncretism of JHWH and Baal] … Asher: The symbols at the top of the left-hand column of the seal are partial due to damage. There might also be a missing symbol in this area (such as a partial view of Gad to the far left). … Bar-Ron sees ‘the lower side of an olive branch with 8 leaves. Asher was the eighth child of Jacob.’ He also inherited a region with plentiful olive groves. And of Asher he said, ‘Most blessed of sons be Asher; let him be the favorite of his brothers, and let him dip his foot in oil.’ – Deuteronomy 33:24 (ESV) … Naphtali: The section of the next image that can still be seen shows a creature that Bar-Ron thinks could be the head and neck of deer or antelope with its long ears. … ‘Naphtali is a doe let loose, he gives beautiful words.’ – Genesis 49:21 (ESV) … Zebulun & Issachar: The image at the bottom of the column is a sailing ship. … While Jacob blessed these two tribes separately, Moses blessed them together with the bounty of the seas.

‘Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out, and Issachar, in your tents… for they draw from the abundance of the seas.’ – Deuteronomy 33:18-19. ‘Zebulun shall dwell at the shore of the sea; he shall become a haven for ships, and his border shall be at Sidon.’ – Genesis 49:13 (ESV) …”

JOSEPH being identified as BULL by the Israelites will play a crucial role later on in this chapter when we will investigate the idolatry of Israel in Egypt …




(The reader is invited to use the Chronologies of Pharaohs at the beginning of this Chapter as supporting help to easier follow the textual pieces of information.)

We have learned already that JOSEPH's brothers BENYAMIN and LEVI and their sons and grandsons were elected as yearly rotating Pharaohs to stabilize JOSEPH's Vizier Kingship Dynasty. After 20 years JOSEPH's younger sons had reached the age to claim their rights as Kingsons to become Pharaohs. Therefore until JOSEPH's death, EPHRAIM's brothers co-ruled as Pharaohs over Egypt. EPHRAIM had to take care of his throne rights as next Vizierking against his rival brother Pharaoh Imyremeshaw indicated by the King’s beard his sculpture shows. The Bible mentions only two additional sons of EPHRAIM in 1 Chr 7:21. They were called ESER and ELEAD and had been killed by JOSEPH's brother GAD's sons in Egypt, thus EPHRAIM (Ankhu) had no further sons to enthrone unlike his father JOSEPH.

According to Aaron Dembsky (1997, These are the Names, Manasse's Genealogies), MANASSE's sons are derivable by Numbers 26, Joshua 17, and 1 Chronicles 7. Numbers 26 mixes persons' names with land names like Gilead so the author proposes Joshua 17 corrected a bit by 1 Chronicles 7: SHECHEM is not assumed as to be SHEMIDA's brother but to be his son. Therefore MANASSE would have had five sons with an Egyptian wife not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. Before this official marriage MANASSE lived unofficially together with an Aramean concubine, therefore his firstborn son was a biblically illegitimate son; Therefore in spite of being the firstborn son he didn’t receive from his father MANASSE the firstborn rights which reminds us on MANASSE‘s own story regarding his own firstborn rights. His name is MACHIR (1 Chr 7:14). He became a commander of troups named Nehy and most likely died in the first war against the Canaanite Hyksos. His widow was called Senebtisy. She was remarried with (JOSEPH‘s son SHUTELAH) Vizier Resseneb after (MACHIR‘s) Nehy’s death. MACHIR‘s lineage will play a deciding part in the later history of ancient historian Africanus’ so called Hebrew Southern Shepherd Kings and in the rivalry between EPHRAIM‘s and MANASSE‘s lineage …

After JOSEPH's death EPHRAIM did not appoint his further brothers and Kingsons of JOSEPH as Pharaohs anymore. The Canaanites didn't stay in Assur after having killed EPHRAIM's brother Wpwauhotep/ Sobekhotep III and after having defeated his Egyptian army: They instead chased after them and tried to conquer Avaris and invade Egypt. Thus EPHRAIM needed the help of his because of his idolatry "exiled" brother MANASSE from Southern Thebes. He must have visited Avaris with his family clan to take part in the funeral ceremonies for MANASSE's deceased son MACHIR, his deceased brother Wpwauhotep/ Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and his deceased father JOSEPH Vizierking Zamonth. That time MANASSE's second son AVIEZER was the "Big Chief of Troups" of MANASSE's southern army which is evidenced by a scarab (Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches Teil II: Die sogenannte “Zweite Zwischenzeit” Altägyptens. In: Orientalia. Nove Series. Band 57, Nr. 3, 1988, S. 249, Nr. 5.). Therefore  AVIEZER was enthroned by (EPHRAIM) Vizierking Ankhu as Pharao Wegaf to defend Avaris against the invading Canaanites. This explains the Book of Jubilees telling in 46:6 "And he (Makamaron) killed him (Sobekhotep III) there and chased after the Egyptians until he reached the Gate of Ermon (Heropolis). And he was not able to enter because a second new King (Wegaf) was King for Egypt and he was stronger than him ...".

MANASSE's second and last son AVIEZER/ Wegaf and HELEQ/ Khendjer are seen as the most significant Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty by egyptologists because of their striking building activities and their “long” reign times (still only 2,3 and 4,5 years): Both these facts show their attempts to break the traditions of the yearly Pharaoh rotation system under new Vizierking Ankhu/EPHRAIM in order to occupy the throne of Kingship as Pharaohs. Their Hebrew origin is shown by their Semitic Pharaoh names. Thebes or at least Southern Egypt was their original home which is archeologically confirmed by the Southern locations of most of their archeological footprints: Karnak, Elephantine, and Abydos. EPHRAIM as Vizierking seemed to have enough power to change the Pharaoh two years after AVIEZER/ Wegaf had besieged the Canaanites. But he also seemed to have been still dependant on the military power of MANASSE's Southern clan so that he had to enthrone as Pharaoh a second son of MANASSE: To ensure better control over MANASSE's son HELEQ, (Ankhu) EPHRAIM did give his daughter Senebhenas - widow of his brother Wephauthotep/ Sobekhotep III to his nephew HELEQ, named by King Senwosret Ankhu Pharaoh Khendjer. Senebhenas was already experienced in her role as a wife with political controlling tasks. MANASSE and EPHRAIM were archeologically evidenced looking after MANASSE's son's ambitious Pyramide building project namely as "Chamberlains of the Palace Senebtefi and Ameny". MANASSE's and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Culture & Idolatry is evidenced in AVIEZER's/ Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine, in his donated statue of the Egyptian deity Dedwen and in HELEQ's/ Khendjer's building projects at the Osiris temple: Osiris is the incarnation of the King in his afterlife so this indicates the probably already begun Egyptian AND Hebrew hero-worshipping of JOSEPH after his death as the idol Osiris. With his Pyramide, HELEQ/ Khendjer was preparing himself as a Half-Egyptian for his afterlife as "godlike Pharaoh" in the eyes of the Egyptians. This shows how MANASSE and his lineage in contrast to EPHRAIM and his lineage very soon became rather Egyptian than Hebrew. Many donations in the form of idol statues for the Temple of Amun in Thebes in the 13th Dynasty fit into this pattern of evidence for idolatry going through the complete lineage of MANASSE as later shown in this Chapter and also in Chapter Moses. Like AVIEZER, MANASSE's last son HELEQ also received as Pharaoh from his g'dfearing uncle EPHRAIM (Ankhu) a Hebrew Pharaoh name: Not only in order to be reminded of being a Hebrew instead of an Egyptian: "hnzr" - meaning boar according to Kim Ryholt (1997) - is the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater. This is a further strong indicator for the tension field between MANASSE's family trying to assimilate as Egyptians and worshipping Egyptian idols and EPHRAIM and his family at least trying to stay Hebrews more or less loyal to the G'd of ABRAHAM, ISAAC, and JACOB. It also explains the striking absence of typical Egyptian pharaonic insignias and temples in the 13th Dynasty with the exception of the time of MANASSE's sons as Pharaohs. 

The Canaanites meanwhile hadn't gone back to Assur after having failed to invade Egypt. Instead, they stayed in the Nile Delta and established the so-called 14th Dynasty of Egypt 1750-1729 BC.

The successor of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw‘s sons AVIEZER/ Wegaf, HELEQ/ Khendjer is called Wahibre Ibiaw. Pharaoh Ibiaw must be Vizier Ibiaw/ MANASSE himself because his exceptionally long Turin List ruling time is fitting perfectly to MANASSE‘s rest Vizier ruling time until his death 1743 BC. He must have been appointed by his brother EPHRAIM in order to end the rulership time of MANASSE‘s second youngest son HEPHER/ Pharaoh Khendjer after his Pyramid building project was finished. After 7 years EPHRAIM‘s/ Vizierking Ankhu’s army had become reenforced enough to reintroduce the former yearly Pharaoh rotation system thus establishing MANASSE as Pharaoh must have been a mixture between a recognition for his help against the Canaanites 1750 BC and farewell gift because MANASSE‘s family clan returned afterwards to Thebes. The already established 16th Dynasty of Thebes since 1750 BC and probably also the Abydos Dynasty - as a second attempt of MANASSE to take over the throne over Egypt 1750-1729 BC - is recognizable through the fact that the following Pharaoh Merneferre Aya is identified by Egyptologists as the last Pharaoh of Upper & Lower Egypt together.

Pharaoh Merneferre Aya must be EPHRAIM’s son BERIAH Vizier Imeru Aya/ Ayamerew because his exceptionally long Turin List ruling time of 24 years is best fitting to BERIAH‘s rest Viziership time until his Kingship over the 16th Dynasty. He must have been appointed by EPHRAIM to strengthen his royal house against MANASSE‘s proclaimed Southern Pharaoh‘s and Viziers of Thebes and to reintroduce the Pharaoh rotation system with a candidate that is most loyal to him - his own son.

The next following Pharaoh shows strong indications for being a further nephew of EPHRAIM/ Ankhu - as son of his former Pharaoh brother: Pharaoh Merhotepre Heni is most plausible a candidate for being the son of EPHRAIM's brothers' Pharaoh Sobekhotep's III wife Heni. Pharaoh Merneferre-Aya is the last archeologically evidenced Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt which means following Pharaoh Merhotepre-Heni has already an official counter Pharaoh in Thebes claiming the rulership over Southern Egypt as a reaction to MANASSE's clan having returned to Thebes because of their failed attempts to achieve the Kingship over Egypt and because of EPHRAIM's/Ankhu's re-establishment of the traditional yearly Pharaoh rotating system.

This does mean that simultaneously to the 13th Dynasty the 16th Dynasty of Thebes already started after JOSEPH‘s death in 1750 BC as an attempt of establishing two Kingdoms under the rulership of MANASSE's clan. 1742 BC - as soon as MANASSE and his sons in Northern Egypt realized that their attempts to take over the rulership had failed - they decided to return to Thebes. Meanwhile, MANASSE‘s third son HELEQ (Jos17:2) as the successor of his father in his role as Vizier & Mayor of Thebes will have announced himself additionally as Pharaoh of Thebes and Southern Egypt before his returning brothers were able to proclaim this title for themselves: Vizier Senebhenef - MANASSE's third son HELEQ - became Thebe’s Pharaoh Sekhemre Sewosertawi Sobekhotep VIII for 16 reign years, which is the second longest safely evidenced reign time of any Pharaoh in the Second Intermediate Period.

MANASSE's second youngest son HEPHER (Jos17:2) becomes Pharaoh Khendjer. Khendjer has to marry EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's daughter the widow Senebhenas in order to be under better control. His name Khendjer is Semitic according to Kim Ryholt and his reign time of 4,5 years is the longest one of the 13th Dynasty, which shows his ambitions to achieve Kingship power. EPHRAIM's/ Vizierking Ankhu's answer on his kingship ambitions and his idolatry and his attempts to appear as an Egyptian is naming him by his Hebrew throne name as a wild pig: He is named Khendjer which means „Boar“. To better understand the history of MANASSE‘s tribe and lineage in Egypt the reader has to realize that changing one’s own religious identification is the most striking evidence for identifying oneself more with the people of the foreign country than with one’s own people. So MANASSE and his descendants considered themselves primarily as Egyptians as we will see also in Chapter Moses; Even the Bible treats their Pharaohs more than Egyptians than Israelites because they indeed had become primarily Egyptians. After taking over the foreign religion taking over the foreign language as one’s own mother tongue is a second typical evidence of changing one’s identity: So we have to assume that MANASSE‘s sons, grandsons and great grandsons only spoke Egyptian and even didn’t understand Hewbrew. Khendjer‘s second prenomen was Nimaatre which is Egyptian but the Hebrew King EPHRAIM ensured that he was officially and thus primarily named Boar/Khendjer.

MANASSE's second son AVIEZER (Jos17:2) becomes 13th Dynasty Pharaoh Wegaf.
He outfights the Canaanite Hyksos.

MANASSE's third son HEPHER (Jos17:2) becomes 13th Dynasty Pharaoh Khendjer. He was the only Hebrew Pharaoh having a Pyramid. But not for long …




MANASSE had five sons with an Egyptian wife who is not named in the Bible: AVIEZER, HELEQ, ASRIEL, HEPHER, and SHEMIDA. His first son AVIEZER decided to be a warrior and became an archeologically evidenced officer of the town regiment of Thebes before his coronation as Pharaoh Wegaf. His coronation is also a most plausible reconciliation of EPHRAIM with his twin brother MANASSE after Sobekhotep‘s III JOSEPH's death, Wegaf did successfully avoid the Canaanite Hyksos invasion attempt 1750 BC. The second youngest son of MANASSE was called HEPHER and is the most plausible candidate for the second Pharaoh after JOSEPH's death Pharaoh Khendjer if You take a look at his sculpture. According to the Bible, the three first sons had no own sons in contrast to their further two brothers archeologically confirmed by HELEQ‘s Senebhenef’s son in law becoming Pharaoh under him in Thebes. Identifying MANASSE's second Viziername Ibiaw led to the identification of two further Pharaohs from his family: Khendjer's successor is called Pharaoh Wahibre Ibiaw. He is MANASSE's (Senebefni Ibiaw's) biblical son ASRIEL.

According to Kim Ryholt, the first Pharaoh of the next 16th Dynasty in Thebes (see Chapter Moses) was called Pharaoh Sekhemre Sementawi Djehuti. Djehuti was Pharaoh of the 16th Dynasty of Southern Egpyt after 1750 BC and before MANASSE's clan returned from the North to Thebes after the Pharaoh's reigns of Wegaf and Khendjer and after having rejected the reinstallation of yearly rotating Pharaohs by EPHRAIM. EPHRAIM's reason for this must have been attempts of MANASSE's sons to take over the kingship claiming MANASSE's original rights as the firstborn, which are indicated by the pyramid and huge building projects of Pharaoh Khendjer (HEPHER) and his over average long reign time. In the year when EPHRAIM’s conflict with his brother MANANASSE escalated before MANASSE’s clan left the North returning to Thebes EPHRAIM exchanged the peak of the Pyramid of MANASSE’s son HEPHER with a new Pyramidon dedicated to his own son BERIAH and announced him as the new Pharaoh and Vizier of Egypt: Pharaoh Merneferre Aya was also named Vizier Iymeru Ay. He never built a Pyramid but owns archeologically evidenced a Pyramidon.

Thebes had been ruled by MANASSE as Mayor and Vizier. His Co-Vizier and successor was his biblical son HELEQ called Vizier Senebhenef, who must have been ruling over Thebes while his father and brothers tried to take over the rulership in the North. Pharaoh Djehuti was the son-in-law of Vizier Senebhenef (HELEQ) and only co-ruled for a year in Thebes. Before MANASSE's clan returned to Thebes because of EPHRAIM's re-institutionalization of yearly rotating Pharaohs HELEQ shows Mannasse’s clan’s claims of original righteous Kingship by his additionally to his Viziertitle announced title as Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII. This is also a clear message of MANASSE's lineage to EPHRAIM not accepting the 13th Dynasty anymore by founding their own Southern Dynasty in Thebes - the 16th Dynasty. It is also a probable empowerment insurance of HELEQ against his from the North returning brothers and Ex-Pharaohs over Egypt. This all happened between JOSEPH's death and the Hyksos Invasion. Thus from around 1750-1729 BC the 13th and 16th Dynasties co-existed in parallel. Further attempts of MANASSE‘s lineage to achieve more power are probably evidenced in the upcoming obscure Abydos Dynasty 1750-1730 BC which ended with the Canaanite Hyksos war against Southern Egypt.


The Bible mentions in 1 Chr 7:14 also an Aramean concubine as the second wife of MANASSE; Her illegitimate son is biblically called MACHIR. MACHIR's sons are PERESH and SHERESH, their names are biblically combined with the geographical name Gilead, which is the region their later tribes lived in. PERESH's sons are called ULAM and REKEM. ULAM had a son called BEDAN. They will be all identified as Shepherd Kings of the 17th Dynasty of MANASSE's lineage in Chapter Moses. ULAM/ Sobekhotep IV, son of PERESH/ Haankhef was a grandson of MACHIR/ Nehy who according to all explained archeologically evidenced strong indications in Chapter Moses must have been the biblical illegitimate son of MANASSE. This lineage will further on show strong ambitions for claimed power in rivalry to EPHRAIM's lineage as we will see later on in Chapter Moses.

The last part of this Chapter deals about the Idolatry of Israel in Egypt. It is the biblical main reason for their following afflictions - first of all the Enslavement of Israel in Egypt. The REAL so-called origin of monotheism in Egypt will be unveiled. The hero-worshipping of JOSEPH and ASENATH will be unveiled as the root of the Idolatry of Israel in Egypt.

The chaotic inflationary mingling of the idols in their development is a phenomenon throughout the complete history of Egyptian idolatry. It is called Syncretism. It makes it hard for the reader not to get lost in the complex chaotic djungel of Egyptian idolatry. Stay brave. The fruits are worth the work.



"I told them,
'EACH OF YOU is to throw away the detestable things that draw your eyes.
Do not defile yourselves with the IDOLS OF EGYPT. I am the Lord your G'd.'
'But they rebelled against me; they did not,
throw away the detestable things that drew their eyes;
and THEY DID NOT abandon the IDOLS OF EGYPT."
Hezekiel 20:8



Vizier Zamonth 
and his son Senebefni
on Stela CGC 20102

For a second time we have to introduce the reader into the Stela CGC 20102 Inscription for an introduction and better understanding of the following findings:
"Stela of the Ruler and Governor, Chief of the Town and Vizier
ZaMonthu (Son of Monthu) ZatIp (Son of Ipy mother of Osiris) born of the Lady … A sacrifice that the King gives on the part of his son whom he loves, Sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, Priest of Amun, Senebefnithe Vizier’s Speaker Senwosret whom Henut has born, Za-Hathor (son of Hathor) …
a sacrifice that
King Osiris is giving … the great God … so that they give a dead sacrifice … Horus sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town VizierZaMonth (son of Month) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy mother of Osiris) born by her, the Lady of the House."

Here You have already first indications for (MANASSE) Senebefni being aditionally named Senwosret and identified with OSIRIS’ son HORUS and for (JOSEPH) Zamonth being additionally identified as OSIRIS.

Brooklyn Museum Sculpture:
Senwosret Senebefny

While Stela CGC 20102 showing Zamonth with his son Senebefni had already been presented in this Chapter some passages earlier - this is a sculpture leaving some questions open mostly answered in the following passages:

CPDV Genesis 46:34 tells us that JOSEPH recommended his family to say to Pharaoh “‘Your servants are
pastors of honor, from our infancy even to the present time, both we and our fathers.' Now you will say this so that you may be able to live in the land of Goshen, because the Egyptians detest all pastors of sheep." and (Senwosret‘s III son) Pharao (Amenemhet III) told JOSEPH „… the land of Egypt lies before you. Have your father and brothers live on the best property in the country - let them live in the land of Goshen.“ (Genenis‭47:6‬ ‭CJB‬‬) „and if thou knowest any particularly competent (anshai chayil) among them, then appoint them Royal Overseers/ Controllers of livestock (sarei mikneh) of mine.“ (c. Genesis/ Bereshit‬ 47:6‬‬‬ The Orthodox Jewish Bible)

That happened
1821 BC when ISRAEL arrived in Egypt. This statue must have been manufactured around 1800 when MANASSE was around 20 years old.

JOSEPH as Vizierking was named
Senwosret Ankh (biblically Zaphenat p’Aneach) by Pharaoh. Furthermore his son EPHRAIM was named Senwosret Ankhu by Pharaoh. Furthermore his elder twin brother MANASSE was named Senwosret Senebefni. This is indicating that all of them were favored by famous Pharaoh Senwosret III who was worshipped by the Egyptians as idol after his death. MANASSE’s name Senebefni is only two times evidenced in the complete Egyptian History: Once on this stela and once on this sculpture. The inscription is most plausibly read the way that he is “appointed by (Pharaoh) the King - through a sacrificial offering - as the Chief of the Royal Cattle Counters/ Lifestock Controllers.” This is matching exactly the biblical account cited above.

Picture: This wooden model of a cattle count was discovered in a tomb of that dates to the 11th dynasty. The royal cattle counter himself can be seen sitting on a chair beneath a pavilion flanked by scribes. Farm workers can be seen driving the cattle past him so he can inspect and count them.

There is a second smaller figure embadded in the above shown sculpture of MANASSE: A small image of Itneferu Seneb. She was the daughter of Nebetka most likely Senwosret Senebefni’s Egyptian second wife. Then Senebefni’s mother’s name shows an unclear first letter „F“ or „N“ (F is a snake and N are waves - they are often confused). It is the only letter left over of her complete name. This could be the „N“ in Senebefni’s mother Henut‘s prename Neferu. (MANASSE’s) Senebefni‘s „brother“ Crownprince Ankhu (EPHRAIM) is consistently called here his „head“: EPHRAIM was biblically set before MANASSE by the blessing of their grandfather Jacob. Nevertheless he is named here „Redi Ni Ptah“ instead of Ankhu. This leads to the question if this is another name of Ankhu in his younger years and if Ankhu may have been even worshipped as Ptah by the Egyptians. Senebefni’s father is given the idol’s name Dedwen or Dedun (sometimes confused with Dedef or Dedet) who is the idol representing foreign kings which fits quite well to JOSEPH. A mentioned King delivers sacrificial offerings to the deity Ptah-Sokar-Osiris

Dedwen or Dedun was the Foreign Idol of Egypt. He was the patron of foreign kings. He was also considered to be the representative of the South (Nubia) who brings people and treasures from the south to Pharaoh. This is exactly matching with what Zamonth (JOSEPH) archeologically evidenced did do in Amenemhet’s III 6th/9th reign year and what he later became to be. Dedwen or Dedun was feared because he was said to destroy by fire all other idols. Furthermore he became melted together with OSIRIS into one syncretic idol. We will learn later more about JOSEPH being worshipped by the egyptians as OSIRIS and Dewden. Mentioned Ptah-Sokar-Osiris is also a syncretism. Ptah is like OSIRIS a creator. He had green skin and was holding the Ankh, a Was Sceptre and the Djed. The Djed was seen as the backbone for stability. Ptah is like Khnum, Month, Amun and Osiris also incarnated in Apis the Bull. With his King’s beard he often visually co-ruled together with the King of Egypt; This is matching exactly the relationship of Ankhu (EPHRAIM) ruling together with Zamonth (JOSEPH). Sokar represented the anguished cry from OSIRIS to his wife ISIS: „Sykri!“ meant „Hurry to me!“. The connection of JOSEPH’s wife ASENATH with the idol ISIS and the connections of all other mentioned idols with JOSEPH will be unveiled in the coming passages …

Amun-Ra: A Bull with a Ram‘s Head                 2. Aten the Sun worshipped by Akhenaten‘s wife



According to Rabbinical Seder Hadorot 2233 JOSEPH's firstborn son MANASSE and his brother EPHRAIM were born as probably dizygotic twins. According to the Strictly Biblical Chronology there year of birth was 1824 BC. Before his grandfather JACOB's death in 1804 BC MANASSE was suddenly set behind his younger twin brother EPHRAIM by his grandfather JACOB's blessings (Genesis 48:14). That happened when he was 20 years old and grown up in the expectation of all privileged rights of a firstborn son. It was EPHRAIM then, and not MANASSE, who was given Pharaoh‘s daughter Mereret as wife. EPHRAIM was then treated as the most by G'd blessed one and as future Crown heir by his father JOSEPH. MANASSE was suffering hard under this decision; He decided to follow in his mother ASENATH's (Henut's) and his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR's (Khnumhotep's) former footsteps and became Senebefni the Priest of AMUN in Thebes. His second Viziername in his older years became Ibiaw. He was archeologically evidenced as Mayor of Thebes. His titles Royal Sealer and Priest of Amun are archeologically evidenced inherited from his adoptive grandfather (POTIPHAR) Khnumhotep II: „his grandfather also held the title Priest of Amun" (Grajetzki, Court Officials, p.98). Furthermore (JOSEPH‘s) Zamonth‘s statue CG42034 inscription reveals that his wife (ASENATH) Henut-pu Senebefni’s mother is the „daughter of the King‘s SealerPriest of Amun“. We have already identified him as Khnumhotep II (POTIPHAR). POTIPHAR (Knumhotep II) and his adoptive daughter ASENATH (Henut) had converted meanwhile to the G’d of Israel according to The Story of Joseph and Asenath and according to Anna Katharina Emmerich (1882, Secrets of the old and new Covenant p.107). 

The combinational appointment as Vizier, Royal Sealer, Priest of Amun and Mayor of the town of Thebes by a King started with Vizier Senebefni also named Ibiaw  (MANASSE) and was bequethed in his lineage: MANASSE‘s grandson PERESH named Haankhef also shows striking indications for having been a Priest of AMUN. And His son Sobekhotep IV (ULAM) evidenced grew up in the Temple of AMUN. It became from Pharaoh Ahmose I on in the New Kingdom common practice that the Theban Priest of Amun was appointed by the King. And several Priests of Amun in Thebes became additionally announced as Viziers in the following centuries.

AMUN was worshipped as invisible creator and highest father deity. He was additionally worshipped as idol of the herds, shepherds, and grasslands. He was wearing a sheep ram's head inherited syncretistically from the idol KHNUM. KHNUM was one of the name-giving idols for JOSEPH's Egyptian names: Khnumhotep III. In the time of MANASSE and MANASSE’s descendants as Priests of AMUN "AMUN‘s position as King of Deities developed to the point of virtual Monolatrism where other deities became manifestations of him." MANASSE‘s introduction of  a monolatrism around AMUN was a syncretism and counter religion against his former original Hebrew faith he fell away from. The cult around AMUN was archeologically evidenced proceeded by MANASSE's lineage in the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty. It finally found it’s official institutional establishment as a state religion under Pharaoh Ahmose I.

Further syncretisms of AMUN can be seen in Amun having melted with and replacing Thebes‘ patron deity MONTH. JOSEPH was hero-worshipped as Son of Month and Month himself as we will learn later. MONTH in his manifestation of the sun idol Ra was falcon- or bull-headed. He had a solar disc on his head. Later MONTH was also manifested as idol in form of a black snouted bull. This makes AMUN and MONTH the most likely main male idols of Hebrew idolatry in Egypt. They were mixed with BAAL the highest Canaanite idol. BAAL and his wife BAALAT were like HATHOR also associated with a bull or a cow. HATHOR mixed with ISIS became the most popular female idol of Hebrew idolatry as we will learn later.

Egyptologist Manfred Bietak excavated a Temple of Seth in Avaris. He dates it into the 13th Dynasty which would confirm Israel's biblically evidenced idolatry in Egypt around Baal/ Seth. Nevertheless because of the mistakenly 75 non-evidenced non-existing years in the Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period (see Chapter Chronology) and because of the unsafe excavation layer datings of Avaris the author proposes a Seth Temple construction date after 1729 BC. This is the historical year of the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion into Avaris correctly revealed by ancient Egyptian historian Manetho. This would also confirm Bietak's proposal for the Seth Temple being a Canaanite construction. 

(JOSEPH's son MANASSE) Senebefni was a Royal Sealer and Priest like his adoptive grandfather (POTIPHAR) Khnumhotep II. As Priest of AMUN in Thebes he is also evidenced as Mayor of Thebes. He had an essential impact on the religious traditions of the tribe of MANASSE: They were completely egyptianised Hebrews and they always lived in Southern Egypt. Sowith they were most probably spared of the Enslavement of Israel in Northern Egypt. The Island Elephantine in Southern Egypt will remain a melting pot for Hebrew Idolatry up until the 5th to 1st century BC as we will see later.

In the 17th Dynasty there was a family clan of three generations around a so-called Royal Sealer Haankhef. He was biblically called PERESH and was the firstborn son of MACHIR. MACHIR was the firstborn son of MANASSE. His already mentioned family was like his grandfather especially attached to the cult of AMUN (Ryholt 1997 p. 226): Haankhef's third son was MOSES' stepfather ULAM. He became Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV from 1666 to 1648 BC. He grew up as a boy in the Temple of AMUN in Thebes. He mentions on a stela placed in the temple of Amun: "I saw the vigor his majesty (AMUN) at every single feast when I was a child who could not yet conceive." According to Kim Ryholt (1997, p. 226) this archeological evidence suggests that ULAM's/ Sobkehotep's family was especially attached to the cult of Amun. One of his sons was even named Amun-hotep. Sobkehotep's grandfather and Haankhef's father Nehy was the biblical firstborn son of MANASSE. He was called MACHIR. MACHIR is biblically described as the illegitimate son of an aramean concubin. So he was like his father MANASSE in spite of being the firstborn son set behind his younger brothers who all became Pharaohs. MACHIR died in the first and failed Canaanite Hyksos Invasion attempt battle 1750 BC. Thus his biblical firstborn son PERESH/ Haankhef is the most plausible successor of MANASSE as Priest of Amun. Further confirming archeological evidence can be investigated in Chapter Moses.

Further idolatry of MANASSE’s lineage is archeologically evidenced:
In the time when father JOSEPH had appointed most of his sons as Pharaohs before his death 1750 BC and after EPHRAIM had become Vizierking there is one Pharaoh with the Semitic name Khendjer; EPHRAIM/ Ankhu marries him with his own daughter Senebhenas, the widow of his brother Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. Khendjer must be MANASSE's youngest son HEPHER according to his very young looking sculpture. EPHRAIM had to compensate his brother MANASSE after father JOSEPH's death because MANASSE’s sons had helped to defeat the Canaanites. MANASSE‘s firstborn son MACHIR/ Nehy died in this battle and MANASSE’s secondborn son AVIEZER became victorious military commander in this war. Thus he became compensated by becoming Pharaoh Wegaf.

Sidenote: MANASSE‘s apostasy and idolatry is echoed over one millennium later 697-643 BC by Judah’s King MANASSE, who was most likely the son of a mother of the tribe of Manasse. King Manasse was the biggest idolater in the time of the Kings.

MANASSE’s and his sons' total assimilation into Egyptian Idolatry and culture is also seen in his son (AVIEZER‘s) Pharaoh Wegaf's plaquette from Elephantine and his statue of the deity for foreign kings Dedwen. The idolatry is additionally evidenced by (MANASSE’s son HELEQ’s) Pharaoh Khendjer's building projects at the OSIRIS temple after JOSEPH’s death. And it is evidenced in Khendjer‘s Pyramide transforming himself into a deity in his afterlife in their Egyptianised idolitrous belief. Consequentially MANASSE’s son was given by his g’dfearing Uncle Ephraim/ Vizierking Ankhu the Semitic Pharaoh name H(n)zr = Boar (Ryholt 1997). This makes the best fitting Hebrew nickname for an idolater.

The Ten Plagues are geologically evidenced for around 1606 BC by Radiocarbon results for the Santorini eruption and they are archeologically evidenced by the Ipuwer Papyrus and the Storm Stela of the time of Pharaoh Ahmose I. He was the last Egyptian Ahmoside of the 17th Dynasty and the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom. Ahmose changed his highest family deity from the moon deity Khonsu to AMUN. AMUN became the highest worshipped deity of Egypt. AMUN even became the state diety of complete Egypt and took over from OSIRIS the role as official King above all deities of Egypt. AMUN had meanwhile under MANASSE and his sons melted together with the sun deity RA. He was called AMUN-RA now. 

This semi-monotheism found its climax in the seperation of RA’s sun disc. The Sun Idol ATON became worshipped as highest deity by Pharaoh Akhenaten three centuries later in the 14th century BC. One of his descendants Pharaoh Tut-Ankh-Amun later returned again to AMUN as King Deity of Egypt.

Pharaoh Akhenaten knew from his father Amenhotep III about the one and only g‘d of ISRAEL named YAHWEH: ISRAEL and YAHWEH are both archeologically evidenced in Amenhotep‘s III famous Soleb Inscription and Berlin Pedestal of roughly the transitional period from the 15th to 14th century BC. You are invited to check both out at the End of the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in Chapter Chronology. So Pharaoh Akhenaten must have known about the Monotheism of Israel in the transitional period from the 15th to 14th century BC through his own father: Akhenaten imitated Israel’s Monotheism by letting the Sun Aten become the highest and his one and only worshipped idol. This was primarily directed against the originally by MANASSE/ Senebefni Priest and Mayor of Thebes initiated semimonotheistic cult around AMUN.

Now the reader is enabled to evaluate and prove the scientific seriousness of the highly speculative hypothesis dominating historical science regarding the „Egyptian origin of Monotheism“ …

Egyptian deity Khnum
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg
One of Joseph's names was 
Khnumhotep = Khnum is happy

Egyptian Bull deity Month
Museum Louvre Paris

Joseph's names were also ZaMonth = Son of Month and Monthuhotep = Month is happy 



JOSEPH’s name Khnumhotep means "The deity Khnum is happy/ satisfied". Khnum was usually depicted as a sheep ram-headed man assumed by many as Egypt‘s oldest deity. He was the father of fathers, creator of men, breathing life into the first clay made humans and newborns. And he was the Lord of all created things. This deity is described like JOSEPH would have described his own Lord to an Egyptian. And the Egyptian would have thought he is talking about Khnum. For example when JOSEPH talked to his biblical master and later adoptive father in law, the noble high royal official Khnumhotep II biblical POTIPHAR/ POTIPHERA of Genesis 39:1,41:45. Khnum later melted together with the Amun in Syncretism. This happened when JOSEPH's son MANASSE most plausibly learned this former egyptian understanding of JOSEPH’s g’d from his adoptive grandfather POTIPHAR. MANASSE followed POTIPHAR in his footsteps as Egyptian Highpriest transforming Hebrew Monotheism into Egyptian Semi-Monotheism as we will deeper examine in this Chapter. Khnum was also the guardian of the life-spending river Nile. The Nile was the basis and place of Pharaoh's dream, unraveled by JOSEPH, which made JOSEPH the highest man besides Pharaoh in Egypt (Genesis41:15). This way JOSEPH became the guardian of the life spending (and destroying) Nile water level: The role of Khnum is mirroring the biblical role of JOSEPH in the eyes of Egyptians. This makes the name KHUM the most plausible candidate for naming JOSEPH in the eyes of his adoptive father Khnumhotep II.

Until the Middle Kingdom, the King/ Lifelong Ruler always was worshipped by Egyptians as a deity. Thus this naturally was even more the case for their beloved Savior out of Famine and Lifelong Ruler Grandvizier JOSEPH/ Zamonth. JOSEPH was worshipped against his will by the Egyptians; This is proven by his otherwise neither plausible nor explainable lifelong avoidance to accept the role as g’dlike Pharaoh for himself. So JOSEPH/ Zamonth was given many different names like usual for all other former Kings of Egypt too; For example, the Wadi el-Hol stela depicts JOSEPH's son Wphauthotep who became Pharaoh Sobekhotep III and describes him as standing before the deity Month and as receiving an Ankh and a Was-scepter as reign attributes from the deity Month. In the picture Sobekhotep is followed by his father ZaMonth/ JOSEPH, meanwhile called Monthhotep. He is also followed by his mother Henut. Here she is called Juhetibu as ASENATH's third name. Remember ASENATH’s granddaughters' names were also Juhetibu and Henut. Sobekhotep III is also followed by Khnumhotep's/ JOSEPH‘s granddaughter Senebhenas. She is Sobekhotep's wife. And indeed Vizierking Monthuhotep/ JOSEPH was the one from whom the reign attributes are received by Sobekhotep on the picture. Thus in fact JOSEPH is archeologically evidenced identified here by the Egyptians with their idol MONTH.

Montu’s root of name means "nomad". Montu was associated with raging bulls, strength and war. He manifested himself in a white bull with a black head. The later same looking Buchis bull was identified by synchretism as an incarnation of Montu, Apis, and Osiris. Senwosret III built a temple of Montu. The 13th dynasty was a period in which Montu became the supreme Egyptian idol before then gradually being surpassed by Amun due to Manasse’s cult in Thebes. King Mentuhotep’s II built Temple of Montu was enlarged and embellished during the 12th and 13th Dynasty. Montu and Pharaoh Neferhotep I are evidenced in a cartouche of his reign time 1677-1666 BC  (1747–1736 BC). Montu, as a griffin on a ceremonial ax is representing the warrior-Pharaoh Ahmose I (see picture in Phases of Enslavement Chapter Moses). As already explained the battle deity MONTH was the Patron of Thebes: In his manifestation of the sun idol RA he was shown falcon-headed or bull-headed with a solar disc on his head. in his later alternative manifestation he was increasingly shown as a BLACK FACED BULL.


According to Genesis 41:43 and explained in Jubilees 45:7 Pharaoh is announcing JOSEPH as Ruler over ALL Egyptians: "I am not bigger than You except the throne". He proclaimed him as "G’d, G’d, the Mighty of G’d!" In Old Hebrew this sounds "El, El, Wa'Abir El!". Abir is also the title of JOSEPH in The Story of Joseph & Asenath 3:6 & 18:1. This means that the worshipped g’dlike Pharaoh Amenemhet calls him not only the "Mighty of a G’d": He even calls him a G’d not smaller than himself as a G’d. So for complete Egypt JOSEPH was on the order of the g’dlike Pharaoh worshipped by all Egyptians as a G’d himself! Abir in old Hebrew means both „the Mighty“ andalso „Bull“; Berger identifies the BULL as the SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees50:7 Footnote a P.519). MOSES compares JOSEPH to a BULL and his firstborn sons to the bull‘s horns: „His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns: With them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.“ Deuteronomy‬ ‭33:17‬. Even also JOSEPH’s son Ephraim is called a young bull/ bullock: „I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the LORD my God.“ ‭‭Jeremiah‬ ‭31:18‬ ‭KJV‬‬

Israel itself is becoming infected by the Egyptian idolatry and is hero-worshipping JOSEPH against his will. This is indicated even in the Bible: Before JOSEPH unvealed himself being their own brother, JUDAH called JOSEPH his „LORD“ and he called himself JOSEPH’s „Servant“. Therefore he recognized fully JOSEPH‘s position as „godlike“ King saying „ … You are like Pharaoh himself.“ (Genesis 44:18). JOSEPH‘s brothers did not only bow before him like one bows before the „godlike“ Egyptian King with their faces to the earth three times before they recognized him as their brother (Genesis 42:6, 43:26, 44:14) as JOSEPH saw in his dream in his youth. They also fell down before his face“ (Genesis 50:18) as a possible act of semiworshipping after their father’s death. JOSEPH had to clarify to them that in spite of being worshipped by the Egyptians against his will he himself is no God at all saying:

„Fear not. 

For am I in the place of G‘d?“

We cannot say for sure if his brothers practiced semiworshipping tendencies towards JOSEPH. But we can for sure say that he was fully accepted as King ruling over them as brothers. This is the exact fullfillment of their outraged understanding of JOSEPH‘s dreams in his youth (Genesis 37:8) saying:

„Do you really think you are going to be King and rule over us?“ 

Father JACOB didn’t fully understand his son’s second dream when he asked JOSEPH about the moon and the sun bowing down to earth in front of JOSEPH (Genesis 37:10). He thought he and his wife were meant. But that clearly never happened. Neither when JACOB met JOSEPH nor when JACOB met Pharaoh. Nevertheless its fullfillment is unveiled in the beginning archeologically evidenced idolatry around JOSEPH: The Egyptians worshipped JOSEPH as KHNUM, MONTH or OSIRIS. The sun and the moon were seen as the two eyes of HORUS. And HORUS was worshipped as son of OSIRIS (JOSEPH) & ISIS (ASENATH): Horus‘ father OSIRIS stood above him and Horus had to bow down together with the sun and moon in front of his father. The sun idol RA was the son of KHNUM (JOSEPH) & HATHOR/ NEITH (ASENATH). Thus they both had to bow down in front of their father. The moon idol KHONSU was the son of AMUN who melted together with his predecessor idol chief  of Thebes MONTH (JOSEPH). Sowith KHONSU the moon also had to bow down in front of his father MONTH. Finally the sun and the moon bowing down in front of JOSEPH in his youth dream have to be understood as the forshadowing prophecy of his unwilling future passive involvement in Egyptian idolatry so that even worshipped idols would bow down in front of him …

Joseph and his wife Asenath 

worshipped as Osiris and his wife Isis (Picture)


Old Kingdom Egyptologists presume for since the 5th Dynasty that whereas the sun idol Ra increasingly became the exclusive personal deity of his son the Pharaoh on the other hand the common people of Egypt had to find their own favorite deity. This would have resulted in OSIRIS becoming folk idol of the common people of Egypt.

Egyptologists up until the switch from a majority of believers to unbelievers in the 1960’s (c. Haag 1956 Hyksos p.740) concluded from archeological evidence that the idol OSIRIS originally had been a former really existing living ruler. They thought of him being
„a Shepherd, in the Nile Delta, whose beneficial rule led to him being revered as a god“ (Strudwick, Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt 2006, pp. 118–119). This is exactly matching JOSEPH‘s biblical story.

Crook & Flail together are  symbols of the divine kingship of OSIRIS as Shepherd King over Egypt.  JOSEPH‘s family firstly became the King‘s Shepherds and secondly after Pharao’s death became Shepherd Kings. JOSEPH as Vizierking became the first and highest Shepherd King of all. These roles are matching the attributes of OSIRIS as „first and Divine King over Egypt“. Furthermore JOSEPH role as Divine King is also biblically evidenced as we have already learned. The humble Crook (Egyptian: Heka) used by Shepherds, is a long, multipurpose stick with a hook at one end, to herd and sometimes catch sheep. We know it already in form of a Hyroglyph in the tomb of Khnumhotep II (POTIPHAR) occuring for the first time in the word Hekakhasut. It was describing the title of father JACOB the chieftain of the Semitic Shepherds coming from the East or even of JOSEPH standing to the right of it. The flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing; Threshing is the process of separating grains from their husks. Egyptologist Budge sees the flail as representing Pharaoh's role in providing for the common people of Egypt and protecting his kingdom and farmlands. JOSEPH‘s biblical role was providing for the common people of Egypt and protecting the kingdom and farmlands, too. The flail is made from two large sticks attached by a short chain. When one stick is firmly held and swung, the other stick hits the pile of grain and loosens the husks. OSIRIS was divine and first original King over Egypt. He is holding crook and flail crossed over his chest. According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich the First Dynasty of Egypt was the time of the first Eastern Shepherd Kings ruling in Egypt. As we know from Chapter Hyksos shortly before the First Dynasty the Shepherd's crook was already used as a royal symbol of rulership. In the Second Dynasty the crook and the flail became paired. The crook and flail were carried by Pharaoh to all public appearances and became the most famous symbols of ancient Egypt. They symbolized the power and majesty of the divine King

The crook and flail were also associated with OSIRIS and signified his early rulership over the land. OSIRIS was the mythical First King of Egypt. He was the idol of fertility, agriculture, life, the afterlife, the dead, resurrection, and of vegetation. He was portrayed as either green, the color of rebirth, or black alluding to the fertility of the Nile floodplain. He wore a King‘s beard and a feathered white atef crown, and held a crook and a flail (remember Zamonth’s statue with the King‘s beard). The crook represents OSIRIS as a Shepherd guarding his sheep the common people of Egypt. Pharaohs were often associated with HORUS during life and with OSIRIS in death.

To sum it all up: The strictly biblical rulership time of JOSEPH as Shepherd and King was 1830-1750 BC. This was also the archeologically evidenced ruling time of Vizier Zamonth Senwosret Ankh. After the death of this Vizierking the divine Shepherd King OSRIS became the most popular idol of Egypt archeologically evidenced by the climax of relating building and worshipping activities of rulers in that following time period. This takes place in the time ancient Egyptian priest and historian Manetho is calling the time of the „Shepherd Kings“. OSIRIS was not only the most popular idol of Egypt. In myths he was also held to be the very first King of Egypt and in legends he was the First Eastern/ Semitic Shepherd King of Egypt beginning the Old Kingdom. This way he was foreshadowing the hero-worshipping of JOSEPH as the great Eastern Semitic Shepherd King who like OSIRIS „provided for the people of Egypt“. He was also foreshadowing the Eastern World in the time of great famine.

There is even more to it: On the one hand OSIRIS as Shepherd and King represents a foreshadow of JOSEPH as Shepherd and King. On the other hand JOSEPH and DAVID as Shepherds and Kings both represent a foreshadow of the MESSIAH as Shepherd and King (Isaiah 40:11,9:1-9, Zechariah 9:9, John 10:11, Matthew 2:2, Luke 19:38, Revelation 19:16). A review of Rabbinic Judaism leads to the conclusion that the one is providing Leadership (Messiah Ben David) and the other is providing Atonement (Messiah Ben Joseph). Since Ben David the Son of David cannot come without the atonement of Ben Joseph the Son of Joseph, the latter is crucial to the whole plan of redemption. Having gone back from the 17th century AD back to the early Tanakh period, there is evidence in every period that the death of Messiah Ben Joseph was regarded as having power to atone for the sins of Israel and purify the nations. (C. Messiah ben Joseph: A Sacrifice of Atonement for Israel, January 29, 2020 by David Mitchell in The idea of atoning death is not at odds with the general current of Israelite thought: It always was an idea relating to the Messiah quite familiar to Rabbinic Judaism. Life-giving death was a fundamental religious concept in Egypt and the near east, too. And furthermore the death of OSIRIS was thought to bestow benefits on his people and his land …

According to leading Egyptologists the idol MONTH (remember JOSEPH’s names ZaMonth and Monthuhotep) became merged with the idol OSIRIS by the Egyptians. And indeed this is even archeologically confirmed for JOSEPH himself on Stela CGC 20102: It is inscriptively identifying Vizier ZaMonth as "King OSIRIS, the First of the West, the great God, the Lord of Abydos and Wepwaut, the Lord of the Holy Land .. Horus .. Nobleman, Mayor of the Town Vizier ZaMonth, blessed, ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of OSIRIS) born from the Lady of the House".

Shortly after his son Sobekhoteph's III death (JOSEPH) Zamonth also dies in 1750 BC. After his death his son (EPHRAIM) Ankhu gives the instruction to restore the Temple of OSIRIS at Abydos. Obviously in order to honor his father's incarnation as King into the OSIRIS in his afterlife. This was the common Egyptian religious belief regarding the King. In this time, MANASSE's son HELEQ became Pharaoh Khendjer for over four years: He initiated huge building projects at the OSIRIS temple. Obviously he wanted to honor his deceased uncle and glorious Vizierking of Egypt (JOSEPH) Zamonth. Altogether these indications clearly speak for the fact that not only Egyptians but also Israelites were heroworshipping JOSEPH as OSIRIS after his death.

The Egyptians worshipped OSIRIS additionally in a star constellation, later called ORION the Greeks and then later called Holy JOSEPH in the Christian star catalog. When OSIRIS melted together in syncretism with APIS he became named OSIRIS-APIS which developed around 300 BC into his greek name SERAPIS still written in Hyroglyphs as Usir-Hep meaning OSIRIS-APIS. SERAPIS was worshipped together with his wife ISIS. AD 391 the Roman Christian Emperor Theodosius I destroyed the last temple and ancient statue of SERAPIS in Alexandria of Egypt. One century earlier historian Eusebius states that according to local traditions this very ancient statue had originally been erected to honor JOSEPH for having been the savior of Egypt out of famine (Eusebius-Rufinus XI p. 23, in Freising, Chronicle, 1157, in: Schmidt, Freising Chronicle, 1974, p. 81).

In the 1st century Josephus discovers in historian Manetho's ancient Book of Egyptian History an undetected interpolation he considers authentic "as for the additions which Manetho has made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales" the following about Israel according to Pseudo-Manetho:

"... they appointed as their leader one of the Priests of Hêliopolis called
OSAR-SEPH ... It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Hêliopolis, named OsarSêph after the god OSIRIS worshipped at Hêliopolis; but when he joined his people, he changed his name and was called Moses." (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I.26‑31, §§ 227‑287)

This „Leader“ – whom the legendary tale thinks of as Moses – is named OSAR-SÊPH. The legendary tale is clearly confusing and telescoping here two biblical characters: This name is a hybridization of OSIR-is with Jo-SEPH the Egyptian theophoric element OSIR replaces the Jewish theophoric prefix JO (C. Loeb Classical Library edition, 1940). 

This is scriptural evidence strongly indicating JOSEPH having been worshipped as OSIRIS in Egypt not only by the Egyptians but even also by the Israelites. The Egyptian worshipping is additionally manifested in (JOSEPH‘s) Zamonth‘s CGC 20102 Stela Inscription:

" … A sacrifice that the King is giving … A sacrifice that King OSIRIS is giving … Horus (is the son of OSIRIS identified here as Vizier Senebefni son of Vizier Zamonth) sacrifices to the Ka of the Noble and Mayor of Town the Vizier ZaMonth (son of MONTH) … ZatIpy (son of Ipy, the mother of OSIRIS)"


According to Jewish beatified Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824 Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, in german pages 101,103) Virgin Priestess Aseneth would have been prophesied to become JOSEPH‘s wife. Both of them are described as often holding an Ankhsymbol - a cross with a circle. She would become a great Mother of many, a great Queen of many and an IDOL OF MANY in the future. This prophecy would become misinterpreted by the Egyptians and would have lead to worshipping her divinely in idolatry against her will and would in later times lead into "depicting her with so many breasts". Against their will JOSEPH and his biblical wife ASENATH/ ESENUTH (archeologically evidenced as ZaMonth or KhnumHotep or MonthHotep and Enutsen/ Henut) would have been together adored and worshipped as OSIRIS & ISIS. And Aseneth would have been called "Mother of God's" by the Egyptians: As a matter of fact Zamonth Khnumhotep Monthotep's wife Henut became an archeologically evidenced mother of several Pharaohs and they were worshipped as deities by Egyptians. 

Archeological evidence is indeed confirming Anna Katharina Emmerick's descriptions: According to Egyptologists the ancient Egyptian goddess SATIS/ SETET formed as wife of Khnum together with him a deity couple on the Island Elephantine. SATIS/ SETET was a female fertility and battle deity and was also conflated with the goddess ISIS who was the wife of the deity OSIRIS. Originally she was called Iunit/ Henut the wife of the deity MONTH. JOSEPH and his wife ASENATH were called ZaMonth later Monthuhotep and Henut by the Egyptians.

ASENATH is translated as "belonging to the g’ddess NEITH/ IUNIT/ HENUT" in Genesis 41:45 footnote 17 in the Allioli Bible of 1875 AD: JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ASENATH is believed by experts to derive from the Ancient Egyptian "js.w-n-njt" meaning "holy to Anath" or "belonging to Neith".   

Later the deity IUNIT became the wife of KHNUM. After KHNUM was conflated with RA or HORUS she also sometimes became the Eye of RA or HORUS. She was depicted as an antelope or with antelope horns, with a bow, and with arrows, holding an Ankh. The Ankh was a cross with a circle, the symbol of enlifement. Aseneth's son Ephraim was named Ankhu. The Egyptian deity ZENENETH - later called IUNIT or HENUT - was the wife of the deity MONTH and was later merged with the deity ISIS, the wife of OSIRIS and mother of HORUS. In Greece ISIS was later merged with ARTEMIS matching indeed Anna Katharina Emmerich’s mentioned g‘dess „with so many breasts“ and finally indeed confirming her revelation of ASENATH later becoming „an idol for many“.

Iunit wife of Month
later wife of Khnum became
later Isis wife of Osiris

Isis later became merged
with Artemis
with "so many breasts" 

JOSEPH was hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as

 Dewden <=> Khnum <=> Month <=> Osiris

After his death JOSEPH was hero-worshipped by the Israelites as

 Dewden <=> Khnum <=> Month <=> Osiris

ASENATH's Biblical name forms were


ASENATH's Egyptian name forms were

tAhenut <=> hEnutsen <=> Henut <=> Iunit <=> Henu

ASENATH was hero-worshipped in Egyptian Syncretism as

Anat <=> Ashtart 
  <=> Iunit/Neith/Henut <=> 
<=> Seteth/Satis <=> 
<=> Hathor <=> 
<=> Zeneneth <=> 
Isis <=>

After her death ASENATH was hero-worshipped by the Israelites as

Anat <=> Ashtart 
  <=> Iunit/Neith/Henut <=> 
<=> Seteth/Satis <=> 
<=> Hathor/Balaat<=> 
<=> Zeneneth <=> 
Isis <=>




Some Israelites - especially the ones who had achieved profitable arrangements with the Egyptians - preferred going on living their comfortable life in Egypt in contrast to a uncertain future in the dangerous deadly desert in spite of all the ten plagues they had witnessed.

Heliopolis is the town of OSIRIS & ISIS and seven other deities. It has been already identified as On, the oldest town of Egypt. And one of the three enwalled cities the Israelites had to rebuild as slaves after the Hyksos Invasion. According to Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerick, the tribefathers who did not belong to the royal house like EPHRAIM, BENYAMIN, and LEVI did, were settled by JOSEPH in Heliopolis after Jacob's death. Heliopolis/On is also the name of the nome around the town Heliopolis and Heliopolis was a huge town. LeONtopolis was only around 10 kilometres away from HeliO(N)polis and was originally a district of On. It included some massive rectangular earthwork enclosures of the Second Intermediate Period. Egyptologists assume their purpose was defensive. The enclosure is very unegyptian and often interpreted by Egyptologists as a fortification built by the Canaanites, generally also known as the "Hyksos Camp": The Septuagint and the fifth-century Latin version of the Book of Jubilees in 46:14 says that (after the Canaanite Invasion) the foreign new King announced supervisors over the Israelites "to let them torture them with slavery. And they built enwalled towns for Pharaoh, Pithom, Romasse, and On. And they built all walls and dams which were destroyed (in the invasion by the Canaanites) in the towns of Egypt." The Bible calls JOSEPH‘s father-in-law „POTIPHERA Priest of On. The Book of Jubilees calls him „POTIPHAR Priest of Heliopolis“. LeOntopolis was a district of On or Heliopolis that is inscriptively evidenced since the 2nd century BC as a Hebrew colony in Goshen. About AD 1160 Benjamin of Tudela was in Egypt; he has given a general account of the Jewish communities he found there. At Cairo (Heliopolis & Memphis) there were 2000 Jews. And up until today this district is called „Tell el Yehudiye“ which means the "Jewish Mound". LeOntopolis dates back to the end of the Middle Kingdom the time of Joseph. Latest in the reign of Ptolemy VI (180–145 BC) a temple, modelled after that of Jerusalem, was founded by the exiled Jewish priest Onias IV who referred to the Prophecy of Isaiah that a Jewish temple will be erected in Egypt. After the outbreak of the Jewish War in AD 70 the Leontopolis Temple was closed, amid the general backlash against Judaism. The Land of Onias, which included the city of Leontopolis was located in the nome of Heliopolis.  According to Josephus, the temple of Leontopolis existed for 343 years, 270 BC - AD 73. The Onias Temple was not exactly similar to the Temple of Jerusalem, it was more in the form of a high tower; The Egyptian Hebrews sacrificed evidenced frequently in the Temple of Leontopolis. There are Talmudic contatradictories about the Temple: there is the question as to whether idolatry was praticed there or not (Menahot 109a; Tosefta, Menahot xiii. 12-14). According to Jewish Beatified Anna Katharina Emmerich (Das Leben der Heiligen Jungfrau Maria, S. 384) Leontopolis was located between On and the Nile. The rituals in the Jewish Temple (around AD 5) „sunk in abominable idolatry“: a golden calf statue with an ox head, and like ferrets looking ichneumons which were defendant against crocodiles were worshipped as animal images and a false ark of the covenant with abominations inside was placed in the temple. Idolatry with all kinds of secret fornication (eg. Messiah begetting) would have taken place in secrete underground cellars. They also would have sacrificed their misshapen babies and sacrifices of even healthy babies were considered particularly pious.  

It took some time until the author fully realized that Leontopolis as original Hebrew district of Heliopolis and up until today called the „Jewish Mound“ was founded by JOSEPH after his father’s death in 1804 BC as confirmed by ancient historian Josephus and Anna Katharina Emmerich confirmed; All his brothers except Benjamin and Levi were resettled there with their families. When the Canaanites invaded Egypt and enslaved Israel the Israelites had to build walls around Leontopolis to avoid their flight into the Hebrew South and it became a Hebrew Ghetto Slave Town; The Hebrew citizens of Leontopolis are the remaining descendants of the Israelites in Egypt who did not follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt and the descendants of Israelites who had returned to Egypt (Numbers 14:45). The other two enwalled Hebrew Ghetto Slave Towns Avaris (biblical Raamezes) and Lahun (biblical Pythom) are together with Leontopolis (biblical On) eaxamined in Chapter Moses in the passage about Israel’s different phases of enslavement.

The fascinating ancient "Story of Joseph & Asenath" also called “Asenath’s History” takes place and finds its home base in Heliopolis. You can read here:
Gideon Bohak (1996) and others have drawn attention to the geographical location of the Story of Joseph & Asenath in the town Heliopolis or more precisely to the „Jewish“ diaspora community centered around the „Jewish“ Temple in Leontopolis as a district of Heliopolis during the Ptolemaic period; they see Leontopolis as the probable starting point for the Story of Joseph and Asenath. [compare Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press]. Burchard (1985) writes "Every competent scholar since Batiffol has maintained that Joseph & Aseneth isJewish‘ … As to the place of origin, the majority of scholars look to Egypt." 

The archeological evidence is confirming the worshipping of ASENETH & JOSEPH in Heliopolis/On as Setet & Khnum or Zeneneth/Iunit & Month or Isis & Osiris. Furthermore it is confirming Heliopolis/On itself as the archeological starting point of the The Story of Joseph & Aseneth. This leads to the conclusion that the Hebrew citizens of Leontopolis in the last centuries BC and the Hebrew citizens of the so-called Jewish Mound up until today have to be at the core the remaining descendants of Israelites in Egypt who did not follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt and furthermore the Israelites who did come back from the desert in Numbers 14:45.

These are striking confirmations that The Story of Joseph & Asenath were originally authoritative writings of Israelites from the time of JOSEPH or his descendants in Egypt if not eyewitness reports from ASENATH herself. They were well known in Egyptian Judaism and early Jewish Christianity and later then in Oriental and European Christianity until recent centuries, evidenced for example by catholic art of AD 1490-1500 in Brussels: The here shown picture is called

"Joseph meets Asenath 
throwing her idols out of the Tower"

POTIPHAR's and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest of ON/ HELIOPOLIS Khnumhotep II and his daughter Henut
are as archeological indications for
the roots of the Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH.

(c. Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)

Archeological evidence for Hebrew idolatry in the form of honoring JOSEPH as OSIRIS are a statuette of his son MANASSE called the Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw in the Temple of OSIRIS in Abydos, and the building projects of MANASSE's sons AVIEZER and HELEQ named Pharaoh Wegaf and Pharaoh Khendjer at the Temple of OSIRIS.
(KS 1839) 




As already shown MANASSE and his tribe archeologically evidenced lived and practiced idolatry in Thebes and Southern Egypt since the beginning of the 13th Dynasty. So MANASSE‘s tribe was spared from enslavement because of not living in Northern Egypt. Being the most evidenced tribe practicing idolatry and always having lived in freedom makes them the most plausible tribe having initiated the "dance around the golden calf". They also were the most plausible tribe having moaned "… in Egypt … we used to sit around the pots with the meat boiling, and we had as much food as we wanted." in Exodus16:3 because meat was by no means the regular food of slaves in Egypt. Meat was always in the history of mankind the regular food of the wealthy, not of the poor and certainly not of slaves. A confirming detail corroborated by an ancient record is found in Numbers 11:5. It states that the Israelite slaves were fed leeks and onions. Fifth-century BC historian Herodotus wrote of viewing an ancient pyramid inscription on his tours of Egypt; It detailed a menu of leeks and onions for the pyramid building slave workforce.

Thus a part of the idolatrous egytianised privileged tribe of MANASSE in Southern Egypt is also one of the most plausible groups of people who decided not to follow MOSES into the desert in spite of having experienced the Ten Plagues and their original G'd as the only powerful G'd in contrast to all their worshipped Egyptian idols. But to avoid the tribe of MANASSE becoming the scapegoat for all idolatry committed by Israel in Egypt the author reminds the reader that ALL Israelites were involved in idolatry as Ezekiel20:7-8 reveals.

In Southern Egypt - on the Island Elephantine - the already mentioned deity couple Khnum & Satis (hero-worshipped JOSEPH & ASENATH/ Khnumhotep & tAhenut) and also Amun were still worshipped and had local festivals in the 5th century BC. JOSEPH/ Khnumhotep became hero-worshipped as the deity Khnum in the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History. JOSEPH's wife ASENATH can also be written ESENETH; She became Seneneth/ Satis. 

The 5th-century Elephantine Papyri are a collection of by scientists so-called "Jewish" manuscripts dating from the 5th century BCE. They would come from the "Jewish" community at Elephantine in Southern Egypt. But as a matter of fact, there is no proving evidence that all Hebrews of Elephantine are descending from the tribe of JUDAH thus not „Jewish“ but instead Hebrew would be the precisely correct identification. To call them Jews is as inadmissible as calling contemporary Samarians Jews. Taking into account all discovered archeological evidence in this work MANASSE was the only tribe always having lived in Southern Egypt as a melting pot of Hebrew Egyptian idolatry. Thus it is more evidence-based plausible to call the oldest original Hebrew inhabitants of Elephantine descendants of the tribe of MANASSE instead of descendants of the tribe of Judah or „Jews“.

This left behind part of the tribe of MANASSE and the fact that the tribe of EPHRAIM included the tribes of EPHRAIM's archeologically evidenced six further brothers not mentioned by the Bible does explain the huge difference of the biblical sizes of the two tribes EPHRAIM and MANASSE. Like the different careers and deeds of EPHRAIM's and MANASSE's descendants their different tribe sizes are also an impressive historical fulfillment of Father JACOB's biblical prophecy regarding EPHRAIM and MANASSE in Genesis48.

Anat is attested in Egypt since the 18th century BC. As a warrior-goddess, Anat was one of several Syrian or northwest Semitic deities who was prominently worshipped by the warrior-pharaohs of the 16th Dynasty; They weremostly grandsons or great grandsons of queenmother ASENATH. Anat was often paired with the goddess Ashtart. During the so-called Hyksos period (14th-17th Dynasty) Anat had temples in Avaris and in Memphis as well as in Beth-shan in Canaan. She can be identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith/ Iunit/ Henut (see last passage); These are Egyptian name forms of biblical ASENATH/ ESENUTH like also Henutsen. In the Bible the prophets mourned several times about Israel adoring Anat so she had also become a part of the Hebrew idolatry in Egypt.

As already mentioned JOSEPH's wife's biblical name ASENATH is believed by many experts to derive from the Ancient Egyptian "js.w-n-njt" meaning "holy to Anath" or "belonging to Neith". Neith/ Iunit/ Henut was an already mentioned Egyptian goddess; She was the wife of the deity Month  (remember JOSEPH's name ZaMonth) and became later the wife of the deity Khnum (remember JOSEPH's name Khnumhotep).

The Egyptian deity Zeneneth later called Neith/ Iunit/ Henut was also worshipped as the wive of Month and was later merged with Isis, the wive of Osiris - which are as already explained the idols' names of hero-worshipped Asenath & Joseph according to AK Emmerich. And as we already know Henut was the name of the wife of Zamonth/ Khnumhotep. Thus not only the Egyptians but also the Israelites evidenced practised Egyptian idolatry in Leontopolis and also in Elephantine. Both locations were Hebrew idolatry melting pots which lead to the worshipping of ASENATH & JOSEPH in LeOntopolis and also in southern Elephantine. In the second half of the last Millennium BC in Elephantine ASENATH & JOSEPH had merged into the Egyptian idol pair of Anat & Khnum and into the Hebrew idol pair of Anat & Jahew. While the Egyptian Priests worshipped Anat & Khnum in their temple on Elephantine the Hebrew Priests had their own temple for Jahew (JHWH) worshipped together with Anat which functioned alongside that of the Egyptian deity of Khnum: This caused conflicts between Egyptian and Hebrew Priests which lead to the destruction of the Hebrew temple in the 5th century BC.

Zamonth and Iunit/Henut
are Joseph and Asenath 

As already seen for Leontopolis the Hebrew citizens of Elephantine are also remaining descendants of the Twelve Tribes of Israel in Egypt mainly the Tribe of Manasse.

Additional strong indications for this are found in the Elephantine Papyri saying "Now our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the Kingdom of Egypt." The latest Kingdom of Egypt was the New Kingdom from 1070 BC back to the biblical year 1606 BC the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite Hyksos out of Egypt.

Southern people of the tribe of Manasse were Israelites who decided not to follow MOSES into the Exodus out of Egypt but having experienced themselves the Ten Plagues, especially the night of the Tenth Plague: So they well knew and celebrated the Passover with its rules telling the story of the last night in Egypt. And they consequently worshipped the G'D of Israel - known as Jahew/JHWH - since 1606 BC in Egypt. Jahew/JHWH had turned out to be the by the Ten Plagues evidenced only really powerful g'd of all their Egyptian and Canaanite former worshipped deities. But the Israelites who stayed on the Southern Island Elephantine certainly could not know the Mosaic Law (eg. the Deuteronomic law) which was afterwards given outside Egypt at Mount Horeb in the land of Midian in Arabia in the desert. And MANASSE‘s descendants on Elephantine naturally also did not write down anything about the man, they decided NOT to follow; MOSES, who took all the scriptures from AMRAM, LEVI and JACOB and the older books of Genesis as old family knowledge treasure with him as the Book of Jubilees tells us in various details. Thus the complete Torah - the five Books of Moses - is a treasure ONLY of the descendants of the Israelites who left Egypt 1606 BC but not of the descendants who stayed and were left behind in Egypt and melted their own oral traditions of the days of the Exodus with Egyptian and Canaanite traditions and idolatry. So the left behind Israelites did certainly neither know the stories of the Book of Genesis nor Leviticus or Numbers nor Deutoronomi nor the later Books of the Judges, Kings or Prophets. And in their two centuries of apostasy and idolatry in Egypt 1804-1606 BC their only oral memories about the patriarchs plausibly did get lost; This gets all evident and obvious in the Elephantine Papyri. And in the 5th century's Elephantine Papyri the idolatrous left behind descendants of the tribe of MANASSE clearly took care not to reveal their duotheistic idolatry towards the only JHWH worshipping High Priest of Jerusalem - "no other god is mentioned than Yahew/YHWH" - when elaborating a petition to ask for his support in rebuilding their destroyed temple in Elephantine. And naturally, there is no evidence at all that would confirm Jerusalem answering with any support for a well known duotheistic idolatry in foreign lands in any way. Only the pretense of solely worshipping Jahew had obviously the chance to get support from Israel.

Having also access to all the used contemporary archeological and ancient relating scriptive evidence in this work but building on their Bible falsifications based and by Jericho self disproved Ramesses Time Paradigm the leading Egyptologists and “Biblical” Archeologists of today celebrate the Elephantine Papyri however as a further “proof” for the Bible/ Torah being an invented fairy tale and compendium of political lies written one millennium later than it claims. For example Wajdenbaum 2016 in Hjelm's Biblical Interpretation writes:

"There is no hint of any suspicion that the temple could be considered heretical, and they would surely not have appealed to the High Priest at Jerusalem if any doubt about it. On the contrary, they give the impression of being proud of having a temple of their own, and as pious devotees of Ya'u/Yahweh (no other deity is mentioned in the petition!) seriously distressed at the loss of religious opportunities caused by its destruction... So far as we learn from these texts Moses might never have existed, there might have been no Bondage in Egypt, no Exodus, no monarchy, no prophets. There is no mention of other tribes and no claim to any Heritage in the land of Judah. Among the numerous names of colonists, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Samuel, David, so common in later times, never occur (nor in Nehemiah), nor any other name derived from their past history as recorded in the Pentateuch and early literature. It is almost incredible, but it is true." (Cowley, Arthur 2005, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC Eugene).

In order to better understand the intentions and motivation behind these opposite conclusions the reader can click on the index tab of Chapter Conclusions and study today’s paradigms in Egyptology and Leading Biblical Archeology.

Recent discoveries in Shilo give further hints confirming the idolatrous pollution of Manasse’s faith; Shilo excavator Scott Stripling states: „We had an inscription in Shilo that says ‚Isis is blessing the temple of …‘ and there the inscription is broken. We hope we‘ll find one day the second part confirming it is the ‚temple of Jawhe‘.“ This puzzle part would complete the evidenced history of the Hebrew worshipping of Asenath and Joseph as Isis and Monthu/ Osiris. After the Ten Plagues the part of the tribe of Manasse that had not followed Moses into the Exodus and stayed in Elephantine in Southern Egypt replaced Monthu/ Osiris with Jahu (JHWH). The other part of the tribe of Manasse that followed Moses and later settled in the Promised Land most plausibly stayed polluted with rests of its Egyptian idolatry. And indeed Shilo was a town of the tribe of Manasse and belonged to Manasse’s land. Another indication for idolatrous rest pollutions in the tribe of Manasse in the Promised Land is the fact that the Elephantine Hebrews asked the highpriest and the head of Jerusalem and also the head of Samaria for help to rebuild their Temple for Jahew and Anat. Samaria was the contemporary capital of the western Jordan land of the tribe of Manasse.Jerusalem belongs to the land of the tribe of Benjamin who still partly worshipped Anat evidenced in one contemporary town name Anatot. JOSEPH‘s wife ASENATH was worshipped by the Egyptians and after her death even by Israelites as Anat as we have learned already in this chapter.


POTIPHAR's and his daughter ASENATH's identification
as Priest of Heliopolis Khnumhotep II and his daughter Henut serves as archeological evidence for
the roots of the Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH.

(c. Gideon Bohak 1996, Joseph and Aseneth ..)

Strong archeological indications for the knowledge of The Story of JOSEPH & ASENATH in Elephantine in the Second Intermediate Period are evidenced by statues of their grandson BERIAH/ Vizier Iymeru Aya, discovered in the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine.
(Detlef Franke 1984, Personendaten .., Dossier Nr. 25/26, S.55)

A stela of JOSEPH's son MANASSE as Priest of Amun Senebefni Ibiaw and a plaquette of MANASSE’s son AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf both found inside the Hequaib sanctuary of Elephantine
serve as archeological evidence confirming Hebrew idolatry in Southern Egypt before the Exodus.

The Hebrew Hero worshipping of Joseph & Asenath 
as Month & Zeneneth, Khnum & Henut and Osiris & Isis 
in the Second Intermediate Period was exercised in Leontopolis and on the Southern Island Elephantine up to the turning point of time.

Archeological evidence unveals MANASSE‘s apostasy in Egypt away from the g‘d of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob towards Amun. This is the root of the alleged Egyptian „Origin of Monotheism". 

Leading Egyptologists’ claim the root of Monotheism would not be the history of Israel but instead the "earlier" Egyptian worshipping of the sun in the time of Akhenaten turns out to be an archeologically evidenced disproved antibiblical speculative hypothesis based on the by Jericho self disproved Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Dogma.



Heqet is a frog-headed deity, she is the Goddess of fertility, birth and regeneration. JOSEPH’s wife ASENATH gave birth to 18 children and therefore fullfilled father JACOB’s prophecy regarding JOSEPH’s fertility. Heket is referred to as the spouse of Khnum like ASENATH is referred to as the spouse of JOSEPH. Heqet is sometimes spelt Heket and identified with Hathor the Mother Goddess who is also connected with ASENATH as we will see next. Heket is holding the Ankh, the symbol of life, thus giving life to a person. In the resurrection story of Osiris (already identified as JOSEPH), it is Heket who breathes new life into the Godchild Horus. The birth of Horus is deeply connected to the resurrection of Osiris. In this way, Heket became a G’ddess of resurrection and regeneration. Horus is Osiris reborn and regenerated. MANASSE/ Senebefni is identified as Horus son of King Osiris/  Zamonth on Zamonth‘s stela CGC 20102. Heket is depicted as a frog because of the frog's connection with the flooding of the river Nile. Through the biblical frog plague the deity Heket worshipped by tribes of Israel fell under the Almighty’s judgement. Everything altogether clearly speaks for the Egyptians and Israelites having worshipped ASENATH also as the idol Hequet. A stela of MANASSE here named Dedumonth Senebtifi reveals in its inscriptions that one of his mother ASENATH’s names was Hebegeget, a name connectable with the g‘dess Heket.

Hathor, worshipped as cow goddess with the sun disc between her horns (same as the biblical golden calve), was the idol of motherhood, maternal care, of the sky, and of promiscuity. She was seen as mother of Horus (embodied by the living King), the son of Osiris; the Second Intermediate Period is the time of Syncretism of Isis with Hathor. Like Osiris was called the First of the Western, Hathor was evidenced called the First Lady of the Western and the patroness of the western miners. She is evidenced in the turquoise mining locations in hyroglyphs and even also in Hebrew inscriptions as we will see in chapter Moses. As already revealed (JOSEPH’s) ZaMonth’s wife (ASENATH) Henut was hero-worshipped as Isis in sycretism with many other “goddesses”. Her son Rensenebu/ Senebefni is called son of Hathor „Za-Hathor“ on stela CGC20102 and Zamonth is giving sacrafice to Hathor for the Ka of his wife Henut on stela CGC42.034. Alltogether this speaks strongly for ASENATH additionally having been hero-worshipped as Hathor; Hathor enables as wife and mother of Kings the reincarnation of the King as Horus; ASENATH/ Henut as the King’s wife gave birth to 2 Vizierkings and 6 Pharaohs.


The Bull deity Apis served as an intermediary between humans and other powerful deities like Ptah or Osiris. Ceremonial burials of bulls indicate that ritual sacrifices were part of worshipping the early cow idol Hathor and a bull represented her offspring, a king who became worshipped as deity after death. He was entitled "the renewal of the life" of the idol Ptah but after death, he became Osorapis, i.e. the Osiris Apis, just as dead kings were assimilated to Osiris, the ruler of the underworld. Later Apis was also identified as an incarnation of Osiris.

In order to fully understand the final conclusion of this Chapter it is necessary to remember something: According to Genesis 41:43 and explained in Jubilees 45:7 Pharaoh (Amenemhet III) is announcing JOSEPH as ruler over ALL Egyptians "I am not bigger than You except the throne” and proclaimed him as "G’d, G’d, the Mighty of G’d!" in Old Hebrew "El, El, Wa'Abir El!" This is also the title of JOSEPH in The Story of Joseph & Asenath 3:6 & 18:1. Therefore the as HORUS worshipped Pharaoh Amenemhet not only calls JOSEPH "Mighty of God" but even biblically a “God” himself not less godlike than Pharaoh himself. So for all Egyptians JOSEPH was on order of „God“-Pharaoh Amenemhet worshipped by all Egyptians as a “God” from the very beginning of JOSEPH‘s Vizier enthronement on. Abir in old Hebrew means both: „the Mighty“ and also „the Bull“. Klaus Berger identifies the BULL as SYMBOL OF JOSEPH (Berger 1981, Jubilees 50:7 Footnote a P.519) because Moses compares JOSEPH to a BULL and his firstborn sons to the bull‘s horns: „His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, And his horns are like the horns of unicorns: With them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth: And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh.“ (Deuteronomy‬ ‭33:17‬ ‭KJV‬) Furthermore Joseph’s son Ephraim is called a bullock: „I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke: turn thou me, and I shall be turned; for thou art the LORD my God.“ ‭‭(Jeremiah‬ ‭31:18‬ ‭KJV)‬‬

The Golden Bull Worshipping by Israel in the Desert - by MOSES derogatively called "the dance around the Golden Calf" - is often tried to be relativized as idolatry by rabbinical scripture interpretations, now finally we can see it has indeed to be relativized: The Golden Bull must now also be seen in the context of the Bull idol Month and Apis Osiris unvealed as syncretic hero-worshipping of King JOSEPH as Saviour of Egypt and after his death by several tribes of Israel. 

The biblical golden calf can also be seen as a COW and then would have to be identified with the cow idol Hathor. Obviously it is again a syncretism and melting together of the COW Hathor and the BULL Month and Apis Osiris and stands for Israel’s heroworshipping of ASENATH & JOSEPH melted together into one worshipped idol:

According to beatified Jewish Anna Katharina Emmerich the Egyptians would have robbed JOSEPH‘s mummified body after his death in order to prevent the Israelites from fleeing and keeping their promise to take him with them into the promised land. And indeed this robbery is archeologically evidenced by his empty robbed tomb (including his sarcophagus) in Avaris excavated by Bietak and identified by Rohl. Furthermore it is confirmed by a Talmudic rabbinical story, according to which Joseph later was buried in the Nile river, as there was some Egyptian dispute as to which province should be honored by having his tomb within its boundaries. MOSES was enabled by a miracle to raise the sarcophagus and to take it with him at the time of the Exodus. The rabbinical Midrash says without JOSEPH’s bones the Israelites could not leave Egypt, so the Pharaoh had JOSEPH’s coffin cast into an underground flooded chamber at the Nile. This was an attempt to prevent the Israelites from leaving Egypt. The mummified body of JOSEPH united with the body of ASENATH would have been embedded in a sarcophagus formed as a BULL (c. Anna Katharina Emmerich, Geheimnisse des Alten und des neuen Bundes, page 109).
MOSES took JOSEPH‘s body with them out of Egypt (Exodus 13:19) sowith the „dance around the golden calve“ was accompanied by JOSEPH‘s and ASENATH’s hallowed remains. This leads to the most plausible conclusion that many Israelites heroworshipped JOSEPH and ASENATH as MONTHU or OSIRIS and HATHOR by dancing around the golden calve and their sarcophagus.

The Jewish Apocryphes about MOSES' Ascension - confirmed in the NT letter of Jude (Jude9) in the Bible - clearly reveal that not just  after but furthermore before the Exodus the People of Israel was strongly infected by idolatry; They did not only have the inclination to worship Egyptian or Canaanite deities in Egypt however furthermore they had the inclination to hero-worship their own leader. And their great famous leader before MOSES was JOSEPH: The biblical and apocryphal dispute about the body of MOSES between archangel Michael and the devil shows how Michael wants to avoid Isreal's leader to be hero-worshipped a second time by the people of Israel after MOSES his death. Archangel Michael concealed the tomb of MOSES to prevent the Israelites from the sin of hero-worshipping MOSES; This would have been obviously the same sin Israel already had fallen into regarding JOSEPH & ASENATH - archeologically evidenced many times and biblically confirmed by the dance around the Golden „Calf“ ...

Black Snouted "Golden" Bull of the 16th century BC:

"But they rebelled against Me, and would not pay heed (listen) unto Me; they did not EVERY ish (man) cast away the shikkutzim (abominations) from before their eynayim (eyes),
neither did they forsake
(abandon) the gillulim (idols) of Mitzraym (EGYPT);
then I said, I will pour out My chemah
(fury) upon them,
to vent My anger against them IN the midst of Eretz Mitzrayim
(the land of EGYPT)."

Yechezkel/ Ezekiel 20:8 OJB Orthodox Jewish Bible

All here discovered Egyptian Idols worshipped by the Israelites are later identified as being EXACTLY the same Idols (Hesekiel 20:8) that evidenced fell under the Almighty's Judgement through the Ten Plagues (Exodus 12:12) to make Israel (Exodus 6:7,10:2) and Egypt (Exodus 7:5.17, 8:10) recognize who is the real ONE and ONLY G'D. (The idols are identified in Chapter Moses in the headlined passage „THE TEN PLAGUES“.) The chaotic inflationary mingling of deities in their development is a phenomenon of the complete history of Egyptian idolatry and is answered by the clear structur and order of the divine judgement of the Ten Plagues in the next Chapter.



There is no evidence PROVING 
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty 
being Canaanites.

There is no evidence DISPROVING 
the Semites in Egypt of the 12th and 13th Dynasty 
being Israelites.

Over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence in this work
are unvealing the opposite is the case.

Leading Egyptologists’ and Biblical Archeologists‘
postulated paradigms regarding Israel in Egypt
stand and fall with the by themselves disproved
Bible Forgers' Ramesses Time Paradigm.

This here disproved dogma is their fundament for discarding as untrustworthy nearly all relating ancient writings without any disproving evidence: Nearly all these ancient writings confirm the time of the Foreign Rulers in Egypt 
as the time of Israel in Egypt and the time of the Hyksos Expulsion as also being the time of 
the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.

The end of this Chapter Joseph is strongly connected to the end of Chapter Hyksos; Both chapters lead finally into the cognizance that the Real First Shepherd King of Egypt of this period was not the first Canaanite Pharaoh of the 15th Dynasty but instead the Vizierking (JOSEPH) of the 13th Dynasty which turns out to be a Viziership Dynasty and that he was heroworshipped as Shepherd King OSIRIS by all Egyptians from his enthronement on and also by many Israelites since after his death. The leader of Manetho’s attested Hyksos Invasion the Canaanite Hyksos King Samuquenu had to erase the glorious history of Egypts worshipped savior out of famine Vizierking JOSEPH order to be able to take over and replace his position as new self announced Hyksos/ Shepherd King. So he destroyed all statues and artefacts revealing JOSEPH‘s grandness and only tattered apart puzzle pieces of evidence in Southern Thebes survived thanks to the 16th/ 17th Dynasty; JOSEPH and his 5 Viziernames became dispersed into 5 more or less unknown “different“ Viziers without any left corpses. Therefore nowadays opponents of Rice, Michael, Beckerath, Hayes, Helck, Kemp, and Junker are able to discard their archeologically corroborated conclusions that (JOSEPH) Vizier Zamonth and his son (EPHRAIM) were the real rulers over Egypt above around 50 mostly yearly rotating Pharaohs within only one century. And even these Pharaohs were close family members of Zamonth.

After having investigated and critically proven all findings of this chapter, the reader realizes the end of the Book of Genesis is an archeologically evidenced compendium of trustworthy eyewitness reports of the history of Joseph and Israel in Egypt:

The biblical stories of Joseph in Egypt in the Book of Genesis are historical first and second degree eyewitness reports of Levi (Jubilees 46:16) a hundredfold archeologically evidenced in this work.

Now this is how the Qumran Scriptures (the five Books of Moses and the Book of Jubilees) unveil the real times of the Second Intemediate Period of Egypt (the so-called dark period of uncertain highly speculative time estimations) and purify history from around 75 non evidenced non existing years confirming Roger Liebi's words:

"The Bible is the Diamond, 

that cuts the stones of archeology

and not the other wrong way around." 

The rock that Moses struck

Picture: 12m high Split Water Rock east of  Gebel El Lawz the biblical Mount Horeb in biblical Midian in Arabia east of the Gulf of Acaba the Biblical Yam Suph - On the way to Mount Sinai, the Israelites camp where there's no water. Moses goes up to a distinct rock and strikes it with his rod and miraculously water pours forth for his followers.
Ancient historian Josephus said that The Split Rock could still be seen in his time in Arabia near Mount Horeb and it was so big that it could not have been moved. 



Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.



*2111-1936+ BC


& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR



Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


*2011-1831+ BC




*1951-1804+ BC

& Wife LEAH

Brother ESAU

Pharaoh Senwosret III

JOSEPH Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Khety Khnumhotep Zamonth

*1860-1750+ BC
1830-1750 BC

The Egyptians named him 
God Sealer, Gate of Foreign Lands, Pharaoh's Real Friend, Overseer of the Fields & Hunters, Arm of Month, Mayor and Mouth of Nekhen.

His early Viziernames were

Senwosret Ankh, 
Amenemhet Ankh, 

A-Henut or Henutsen

She was the daughter of POTIPHERA named Khnumhotep II. The Egyptians called her Priestess,

Queenmother, and

Mother of Gods.

She was mother of the two Viziers
EPHRAIM named Senwosret Ankhu and
MANASSE named Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw.
Furtheron she became mother of six Pharaohs:
Rensenebu named Imyrmashaw,

Wepwauthotep named Sobekhotep III,
Kingson Khakaw named
Kingson Sonb named Ined and 10 Kingdaughters two are evidenced called Seneb and Satamun. 

12 Brothers &

Leah's sons are called
LEVI was Pharaoh Amenemhet V. Three of his sons became Pharaohs. His grandson became Pharaoh Amenemhet VI.
Pharaoh. LEVI is the father of KHAHAT, father of AMRAM, father of


Rachel's sons were called JOSEPH and BENJAMIN.
BENJAMIN became Pharaoh Amenemhet IV. All of his ten sons became Pharaohs. His great-grandson was Pharaoh Amenemhet VII.

Bilhah's sons were called DAN and NAPHTALI.

Zilpah's sons were called GAD and ASHER.

Amenemhet III 

Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his own father and JOSEPH Therfore he was not memorized. Amenemhet's adopted son in law Amenemhet IV is biblical BENJAMIN.

His daughters: Nofrusobek became Pharaoh,

Nubheteptikhered became the wife of Amenemhet IV  (BENJAMIN). His daughter Mereret became the wife of (EPHRAIM) Senwosret Ankhu.

Further  daughters are Nofruptha, Hathorhotep, Sithathor and evidenced Kingdaughter Hatshepsut.

Vizier Senwosret Ankhu 

*1828-1726+ BC

He co-ruled together with his father JOSEPH
1798-1750 BC.

He was also named
Senwosret Mayor of Lahun  under Vizier Khety.

He ruled as Vizierking over Egypt 1750-1726 BC.

& Wife Mereret

She was Pharaoh Amenemhat's III daughter.

Furtheron she was the mother of SHUTELAH 1 Chr 7:20 named Vizier Senwosret Resseneb and
BERIAH 1 Chr 7:23
called Sonbhenaf and named Vizier Iymerew Aya.

Her daughters were called
Senebhenas and Aya.

Two of his sons died in an attack of the sons of DAN & GAD: They were called ELEAD 1 Chr 7,21 and ESER named Nebankh.

Vizier Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw

*1828-1726+ BC

Senebefni was also named Senwosret the speaker of Vizier Zamonth. Later he was also named Ibiaw.

He became
Mayor of Thebes, Vizier,
Royal Sealer and
Highpriest of Amun.

His illegitimate first son
1 Chronicles 7:14 of an Aramean concubine was called
1. MACHIR and named Nehy

His legitimate sons in
Joshua 17, 1 Chronicles 7 of an Egyptian mother called Nebetka are 

2. AVIEZER named
Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ called
Vizier Senebhenef
later named
Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL's name is lost
5. SHEMIDA named
Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER named
Pharaoh Khendjer 

Vizierking  ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthotep

1830-1750 BC

He was the First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekakhasut = Hyksos).

He is archeologically evidenced as
King Khnumhotep,
King Zamonth and
King Monthotep.
The Egyptians named him

Father of the Land and Father of G'ds. They

worshipped him as
Month, and

He was the brother of BENJAMIN the first Hebrew Pharaoh Amenemhat IV.

Vizier Resseneb 

*1794-1714+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:20

He was the assistant of his grandfather JOSEPH and the entitled Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Khety.

He co-ruled as Vizier
with his father EPHRAIM
and his brother BERIAH
1750-1726 BC.

He ruled as 16th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1726-1714 BC.


She was HUPPIM's sister
Genesis 46:21 and granddaughter of BENJAMIN. 

Furthermore she was the evidenced King's Daughter
of BENJAMIN's son IR
1 Chron 7:12 named
Pharaoh Hor.

She was entitled as

Lady of the House“. 

She was the former widow of (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR
1 Chronicles 7:14 named Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites in the year of JOSEPH‘s death.

Brother BERIAH
Vizier Iymeru Aya

*1786-1698+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:23

He co-ruled as Vizier together with his father EPHRAIM and his brother SHUTELAH 1750-1726 BC.

His sisters were called Aya and Senebhenas. His wifes were called ZatJan and Redinetes.

His son REFACH 1 Chronicles 7:25 was named Vizier Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II.

BERIAH rules as 16th Dynasty Vizierking Ayamerew over Southern Egypt 1714-1698 BC.

EPHRAIM Vizierking
Senwosret Ankhu 

He rules as 13th Dynasty Vizierking over complete Egypt 1750-1726 BC.

He is archeologically evidenced named King Senwosret the King of Pharaoh Wegaf.


*1752-1658+ BC

1 Chronicles 7:16

He was the son of (SHUTELAH's) Resseneb's wife and former widow (MAACHAH) Senebtisi and (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son (MACHIR) 1 Chr 7:14 Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death.

PERESH named Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne and died early before his sons' kinghship. His sons proclaimed him as Royal Sealer, Father of Gods and Father of Kingsons.

& Wife  Kemi

She died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep. She was the mother of two self-called Kingsons:

1.REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I.

2.ULAM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV.

Vizier Neferkare Iymeru  or Ayameru II 

*1752-1646+ BC

He was the son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1 Chronicles 7:23 named 
Iymeru Aya.

His mother was called Redinetes.

He co-ruled together with his father Vizierking Iymeru Aya 1716-1698 BC.

He was 17th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1698-1666 BC.

Finally he was degraded to Vizier under Pharaohking Sobekhotep IV 1666-1646 BC. 

Samuqenu  (Salitis)
First Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh

1729-1710 BC:
He was the first 15th Dynasty self announced HYKSOS = Foreign King who arose in enmity over Egypt Exodus 1:8.

Parallel Southern
Hebrew Shepherd Kings in his time were:
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:20 named Vizierking Senwosret Resseneb
16th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:23 named Vizierking Iymeru Aya and Ayamerew.
17th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:25 named Vizierking Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II. 

ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV

*1720-1626+ BC

He was the second son of PERESH 1 Chr 7:16 named Haankhef.

Furthermore he was the husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris.

This way he co-ruled together with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt
1666-1658 BC.

He was the stepfather of

Sobekhotep Mio =


1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan

1. His first wife was Canaanite and called 
MERIS or Mereryt. She was Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan.

She became mother of Pharaoh Sobekhotep V (BN Sobekhotep Djadja) and Haankhef Iyhkarnofrat.

But beforehand and first of all she became the
doptive Queenmother of
crownprince Sobekhotep Mio  =


2. His Second wife was Hebrew and called Tjan:
Her son became Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI BN Amenhotep.
Her daughter Nebtiunet
became Queen Tetisheri, the wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose.

Brother REKEM/
Neferhotep I

REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I. He was the father of Pharaoh Sihathor who as a nephew of Sobekhotep IV had no reign time and suffered an early death.

Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV

1666-1658 BC:

He co-ruiled as Hebrew son in law together with Canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC.

1666 BC was the year of the switch back from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover by the Ahmosides 1627 BC.

Pharaoh Ahmose I

Reign Years: 
1618-1581 BC 

(1562-1525 BC)

Ahmose built his temples and Pyramid with a huge Semitic slavework force. During the impacts of the Santorino mega vulcanic eruption on Egypt/ the biblical Ten Plagues Ahmose was the main pharaonic opponent of


His grandfather Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose had married into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty clan. His Hebrew mother in law was (ULAM’s) Pharaoh Sobekhotep’s IV Hebrew wife Tjan who’s daughter Nebtiunet became his Hebrew wife named Queen Tetisheri. Their son is Ahmose’s father Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao who ruled 1626-1621 BC. One of his sisterwife‘s was Queen Sadjehuti. Her birthname was the Hebrew name Satibu. She was Ahmose’s aunt so his female lineage was Hebrew..

Pharaoh Ahmose’s wifes

were called 
1. Ahmose Nefertari
2. Ahmose Sitkamose
3. Ahmose Henut Tamehu
4. Kasmut
5. Thenthapi

Ahmose became father of at least eight children. His firstborn son was named Ahmose Sapair. He abruptly died as a young boy in the time around 1606 BC probably in the time of the impacts of the Santorini mega vulcano eruption on the Ten Plagues in Egypt.

Brother Pharaoh Kamose

Reign Years:
1621-1618 BC

Ahmose’s brother Pharaoh Kamose was the firstborn son of their father Sequenre Tao. He died in a battle against the Canaanite Northern Hyksos King Apophis.

Canaanite Hyksos King of Egypt Khamudi

Reign Years:
1617-1606 BC

Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khamudi in greek called Archeles is the biblical King of Egypt: During the time of Israel’s flight through the desert of Sinai and the biblical Sea Miracle Khamudi is the pharaonic opponent of 


Notes and References

Baker, D. Darrell, The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC, Stacey International 2008

Berger Klaus, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981 

Bietak, Manfred (2016). “The Egyptian community in Avaris during the Hyksos period”. Ägypten und Levante/ Egypt and the Levant. pp. 263–274. doi:10.1553/AEundL26s263. JSTOR 44243953.

Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press

Booth Charlotte, The Role of Foreigners 9. in Ancient Egypt: A Study of Non-Stereotypical Artistic Representations. in Oxford: Archaeopress, 2005.

Emmerick Anna Katharina, Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Emmerick Anna Katharina, The life of Holy Virgin Mary, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Emmerick Anna Katharina 1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Volume 3, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.

Grajetzki Wolfram, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, pp. 136-138, 160-161, 36, pl.3.

Haag Herbert, Bibel-Lexikon, Einsiedeln 1956.

Hentschke Steffi, Um Gottes willen, in: Zeit Online, 10th of Sept 2020, web retrieved 11th of Sept 2020.

Lichtheim M., 1980, Ancient Egyptian Literature, The University of California Press.

Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.

Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.

McKoy Samuel, Macdonald Brad, Did the Israelites really live in Egypt?, in:

Rohl, David M., Exodus: Myth or History? - St. Louis Park, MN: Thinking Man Media. [2015]

Ryholt Kim, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 BC, Copenhagen 1997 (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20).

Strudwick, Helen, 2006, The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 118–119.