The Chronology of Israel in Egypt
As a foretaste of the complete Chronology Israel in Egypt these are the truly pure biblical cornerstone years of Israel in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology which is providing the chronological framework for over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence matching the biblical story of Israel in Egypt:
JOSEPH is enthroned (Genesis41:46) by Pharaoh Senwosret III and his son Pharaoh Amenemhet II as Vizierking above all Egyptians except Pharaoh. His first Vizierking name was Senwosret-Ankh and Amenemhet-Ankh serving as Enlifement of his Pharaohs. His second Viziername found at Joseph's Canal (Bar Yusuf) was Khety. As adoptive son-in-law of his former slavemaster POTIPHAR/Khnumhotep II his third Viziername was Khnumhotep. His fourth and fifth Vizierkingname were ZaMonth and Month(u)hotep. He rules over Egypt and it’s Pharaohs for 80 years (Genesis50:22).
1821 BC ('1820-1800 BC')
Israel's arrival and ensettlement in Egypt (Genesis41:46,41:53,42:1,43:1). Manfred Bietak's Avaris Excavations and Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hassan reveal the archeological evidence for a Semitic ensettlement in Egypt 1820-1800 BC matching the unfalsified biblical account.
1798 BC ('1795' BC)
Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. JOSEPH arises as Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhoteph (later melted together into) Monthhoteph above selected yearly rotating Pharaohs from his family; Their descendants in the 16th/17th Dynasty are called "Hebrew Shepherd Kings" by the ancient historian Manetho.
1729 BC ('1649 BC' or 'around 1720 BC')
Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion:
Jubilees46:14 originally says "After having defeated the Egyptian King, the King of Canaan makes the plan to oppress the Israelites and executes his plan."
Exodus1:8 originally says "Then a FOREIGN RULER (Greek: HYKSOS), who did not ACKNOWLEDGE Joseph, rose up IN ENMITY AGAINST Egypt … they put SLAVE masters over Israel to OPPRESS them with forced labor."
Enslavement of Israel: Archeological Evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeOntopolis are matching enslaved Israel building the fortified city of On in Heliopolis according to 5th century Latin Jubilees 46:14 & Exodus 1:11: The archeologically evidenced Semitic enwalled slave town Lahun in Fayum matches biblical Pythom confirmed by middle ages evidenced rabbinical traditions and enwalled Semitic megacity Avaris matches biblical enwalled Ra-amezes. All three mentioned towns were archeologically evidenced fortified/ enwalled in the biblical time of Israel’s enslavement (Chapter Moses).
1606 BC ('1620-1600'BC/'1531'BC)
The Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in Exodus12:30 are dated into the time of the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' by nearly all relating ancient writings; This is confirmed by Archeological and Geological Radiocarbon Evidence of the Santorini Eruption (1620-1600 BC) & the Ten Plagues in Egypt matching the biblical account. Ra-amezes/Avaris and Pythom/Lahun are archeologically evidenced abruptly abandoned by its Semitic population in the time of the Canaanite 'Hyksos Expulsion' and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt (see Chapter Moses).
ACCORDING TO THE REDISCOVERED
ONLY UNFALSIFIED STRICTLY BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY
THE BIBLE SAYS THE EXODUS TOOK PLACE IN 1606 BC.
Leading Biblical Archeology is still insisting on the claim
that the Exodus had never happened
and at the same time had to have happened in the 13th century.
This would allegedly prove the story of the Exodus
being an ancient political lie.
In this work, the reader can find and check both sides of evidence evaluation results. Thus he becomes enabled
to find and choose on his own the right path to the truth.
The question is none less than
does archeological evidence really prove
the Bible to be a compendium of political lies
or does the archeologically confirmed Bible reveal
leading "Biblical" Archeology's claims
to be a compendium of errors?
THE TIME OF ISRAEL'S EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT
IS THE TIME OF THE CANAANITE HYKSOS EXPULSION
According to ancient Africanus, the Egyptian historian Manetho wrote "The 18th Dynasty consisted of 16 Kings ... The first of these was Amôs (Ahmose I), in whose reign Moses went forth from Egypt." According to ancient Josephus, Manetho also wrote that after the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' Ahmosis ("Tethmosis") lived another 25 years and 4 months.
The name Ahmose is confirmed in connection with the Exodus dating by 10! ancient writers: By the Church Fathers Africanus, Hippolytus, Clement, and Tatiana and by the secular writers Apion, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Manetho, and Ptolemy of Medes.
Archeologist Kenneth Doig and other modern Archeologists even nowadays defend an Exodus under Ahmose I in the year '1552'BC according to the Leading Egyptologists of the Second Intermediate Period. In AD 2014 Egyptologists Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritner (1) identified the Ahmose's I Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini and concluded that Radiocarbon results regarding the Santorini Eruption attest a necessary correction of the time Ahmose I who initiated the Storm Stela in his 11th to 22nd reign year ('1530-1519' BC according to Leading Egyptologists and 1605-1594 BC according to the Strict Bible Chronology). So Ahmose‘s I 11th to 20th reign years have to be corrected into the Radiocarbon proved time of the Santorini Eruption between 1620 and 1600 BC according to the majority of experts (Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Friedrich, Heinemeier, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutshcera, Higham, Steier, Wild).
In The Antiquity of the Jews (1830, 166; Book 8.3.1) Josephus writes the Exodus occurred 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built. This is according to the Strict Bible Chronology 1012 BC. So the Exodus, according to Josephus, would have taken place 1604 BC; The strictly biblical year of the Exodus is 1606 BC. According to Stephen C. Meyers 1 Kings 6:1 states that the Exodus took place 480 years before the Temple of Solomon was built. Yet Josephus clearly states in his book The Antiquity of the Jews that it took place 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built: "The difference seems to be in the way the rule of the Judges was calculated. Josephus seems to include the oppressions as well as the judges, whereas the writer of Kings excludes the rule of oppressors, as was customary at this time (Jackson and Lake 1979, 151). This amounts to about 111 years difference."
The „about 111 years“ are strictly biblically precisely 114 years as Dr. Roger Liebi will prove in the last part of this chapter by taking into account the complete amount of all unfalsified biblical time figures.
Further on, Josephus quotes Manetho who wrote a history book about Egypt. Josephus says, "Manetho has granted us one fact. He has admitted that our race (the Jews) was not of Egyptian origin, but came into Egypt from elsewhere, conquered it, and afterward left it" (1926, 267; Book 1.252). Manetho clearly identifies Israel with the Hyksos being expelled by Ahmose called Tethmosis by Manetho (in Josephus). Tethmosis is a corrupt form of Ahmose who expelled the Canaanite self-called 'Hyksos' (Gardiner 1961, 444). Africanus, Eusebius, and Tatian cite Manetho saying Ahmose expelled the Hyksos. According to Josephus the entrance into Egypt was 215 years before the Exodus which would be 1823 BC. The strictly biblical year is 1821 BC. Josephus also mentions and then discards in his work against Apion the antisemitic claim of Chaeremon in his history of Egypt that tells about a contaminated people called 'the Jews' who were exiled from Egypt by "Amenophis" which is Greek for Amenhotep. This may be the reason for 'Early' Date (1446 BC and Amenhotep II as Pharao of the Exodus) devotees like Stripling erroneously claiming the famous Egyptian historian Manetho would have identified 'Amenophis/ Amenhotep' as the Pharaoh of the Exodus (Compare Youtube, Digging for Truth Episode 44, 24th minute: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpRUe6-tkzQ).
In Dr. Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation and work "The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers" he examined all ancient Jewish writers, ancient secular writers, ancient Christian early church fathers, and the Tanakh/OT and New Testament/NT regarding the date of the Exodus. His result is:
Most ancient writings date the Exodus of Israel
into the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos under Pharaoh Ahmose.
(They are written in Bold letters)
Examined Jewish ancient writers were:
Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah, Book of Jubilees, Pseudo-Philo, Demetrius, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Testament Of Moses, Targum Neofiti I, Babylonian Talmud, Genesis Rabbah, 1Qumran Genesis Apocryphon, 4Qumran559 Biblical Chronology and Midrash Abkhir.
Examined Secular ancient writers were:
Apion, Chaeremo, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Lysimachus, Manetho, Ptolemy of Medes and Tacitus. Tacitus was a Senator in Rome and the most famous historian of the first century. He acknowledges that there was a plague in Egypt, the Jews were expelled out of Egypt, Moses was their leader, and they conquered a new country. Tacitus gives us the contemporary secular viewpoint.
Examined Church Fathers' writings were:
Africanus, Eusebius, Hippolytus, Clement, Tatian, and Theophilus.
Meyer does not include Eusebius but Eusebius cites the secular writer Ptolemaeus, who identifies Ahmose I as the correct Pharaoh of the Exodus: "Now this Ptolemaeus ... says that the departure of the Jews out of Egypt under Moses as their leader took place in the time of Amosis king of Egypt".
Examined 3rd century Bible canonical books were:
The Old Testament/ The Tanakh & The New Testament.
The key verses in the Old Testament are Genesis 15:13, Exodus 12:40, and 1 Kings 6:1. The key verses for the New Testament are Acts 13:20 and Galatians 3:17.
Meyer says: “Eusebius in his ‘The Preparation for the Gospel’ quotes Clement on Ctesias saying: … the movement of Moses out of Egypt took place in the time of Amosis King of Egypt, (1981, 533) … then the Exodus would be about 1598 BC (Roux 1964, 504-5).” This is only eight years away from the strictly biblical year of the Exodus 1606 BC.
THE TIME OF ISRAEL ISRAEL IN EGYPT
WAS 215 YEARS INSTEAD OF 430 YEARS
The 430 and 400 years of ABRAHAM, ISAAC and ISRAEL in foreign lands in Exodus12:40.41, Genesis47:9 and Galatians3:16.17 and in Acts7:6-7, Genesis15:13,21:5.12,47:9 are cristal clearly clarified as the time of Abraham and his seed in Canaan and Egypt together.
Meyer writes: "One of the major stumbling blocks for the conservative is their understanding of the 480 years from the founding of the temple to the Exodus. This number does not include the one hundred and eleven years of oppression in the book of Judges that ancient writers included in their totals." This is a deciding result of Meyer's work explained even more precisely by Dr. Roger Liebi in the last passage of this Chapter.
Meyer also writes: "This paper has shown that most of the ancient writers equated the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt... Most ancient writers put the Jews in Egypt for 215 years or less. According to most ancient writers, the 430 years in Egypt were taken to start with the promise to Abraham, and the 400 years from the birth of Isaac. Others begin these years with Abraham's entry into Canaan. All of the ancient Jewish and Christian writers considered in this paper took this 430 or 400 years to cover the time in Egypt as well as Canaan. Biblical writers also agree with these ancient traditions, and the archaeological evidence reinforces these views." He also writes: "All took the 400 or 430 years to cover the time in Egypt AND Canaan. Most counted the 400 years from the birth of Isaac or Abraham's entry into the land of Canaan. NONE of the ancient writers including the apostle Paul said the Jews were in Egypt for 430 years." Josephus says in the Antiquities of the Jews 2.15.2 „They left Egypt… four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.“
"This follows the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Greek Septuagint (LXX) reading of Exodus 12:40 which says, "And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt AND the land of Canaan was four hundred and thirty years" (1970, 88; 1979, 109). The Septuagint is the oldest and most important complete translation of the Hebrew Bible made by the Jews. Whiston in his notes on Josephus is puzzled by the Masoretic text (MT) that leaves out "Canaan" when Masoretic chronology clearly shows that Israel only stayed HALF of the 430 years in Egypt (1830, 59)." In Judaism, it is today common knowledge that Israel was in Egypt for 215 strictly biblical years. This is easier to understand, even more convincingly explained and helpfully visualized in this 12min video documentation on https://youtu.be/FF0F8YjT1og. All contemporary Bible translations show the incomplete sentence of Exodus 12:40.41 which is in incorrect and mathematically impossible proven by the lifespan of Moses‘ ancestors in the Bible.
The reader can deeper explore Dr. Stephen C. Meyer's findings on https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/exodusdate.htm#BIBICAL%20WRITERS
LATE DATE THEORY - EARLY DATE THEORIE - STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
1260 BC: Ramesses II
THE LATE DATE THEORY
- mainly based on one single word in the Bible: Rameses Genesis47:11, Exodus12:37
- no archeological evidence
+/- Identifying one Pharaoh of the time of Israel in Egypt archeologically matching the modified biblical account
- contradicting the 480 years of 1Kings6:1, 300 years of Judges11,26 and the 450 years of Acts13:18 as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges
-/- predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates, parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work.
-- Jericho was uninhabited in 1220 BC: No Conquest possible
- In 1210 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
- No evidence at all for any Ten Plagues
- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: no unnatural death of Ramesses II's firstborn son
- Pharaoh Ramesses II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.
- Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Ramesses II predecessors ruled 12, 2, and 14 to 27 years.
+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela clearly disprove the 1260 BC theory.
+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC: Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.
430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC contradicts Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC. Complete abundance of Avaris & Lahun in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.
- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC disprove as evidence the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC and the 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC.
- No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt 1475-1260 BC (215 years Israel in Egypt) or 1690-1260 BC (430 years Israel in Egypt)
- No evidence for any ancient historian confirming Ramesses II as Exodus Pharoh.
1446 BC: Amenhotep II
THE EARLY DATE THEORY
+/- mainly based on one single sentence in the Bible: the 480 years in 1Kings6:1
+ some archeological evidence
+ Identifying two Pharaohs - Amenemhet III & Amenhotep II of the time of Israel in Egypt archeologically matching the modified biblical account according to the non biblical 430 years in Egypt Theory of 1876-1446 BC
+ confirming the 480 years of 1Kings6:1 and the 300 years of Judges11,26
- contradicting the 450 years of Acts13:18 as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges
-/- predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates, parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work.
-/+ No destruction layers in 1406 BC: No Conquest possible. Redating attempts of Jericho's destruction are weaker evidenced than undisputed circa 1550 BC.
- In 1406 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
- Radio Carbon redating attempts from c. 1606 BC into c. 1446 BC of the Ten Plagues indicating Santorini Eruption impacts on Egypt turn out to be a weak affair and attempts to throw enough doubts on c. 1606 BC fail in the light of additional confirming pottery evidence of Cyprus.
+/- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: unnatural death of Amenhotep II's firstborn son possible without proving evidence
- Pharaoh Amenhotep II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.
+ Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Amenhotep II predecessor ruled 54 years.
+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela disprove the 1260 BC theory and support the 1446 BC theory.
+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC and 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC contradict both Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC & complete abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion. But Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.
+/- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC and disproves as evidence the biblically correct 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC
+/- Joseph as Vizierking for the 430 years Israel in Egypt theory (1876-1446 BC) confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC. No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt in 1660-1446 BC thus no evidence for the biblically correct 215 years Israel in Egypt
+/- Ancient historian Chaeremon antisemitic writing about "the Jews" being contaminated and therefore exiled from Egypt by Amenophis (Amenhotep) used as Exodus Pharaoh evidence by Early Dater Scott Stripling.
1606 BC: Ahmose I
under Hyksos King Khamudi
THE STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
+ based on the entire complete amount of unchanged biblical data: The Strict Bible Chronology
++ archeological evidence revealing the complete history of Israel in Egypt
+++ Identifying 79! Pharaohs of the time of Israel in Egypt archeologically matching the original biblical account
++ confirming ALL time figures in the Bible
++ no predating, no postdatings, no dual datings, no ignoring dates, no manipulating dates, no reinterpretation and parallelizing of dates. Maths proves ALL biblical dates work out fine and must not be changed.
++ 1566 BC: Jericho of Joshua6+11 archeologically proved only for the biblical numbers, not for the early or late date theory; Jericho's city walls were destroyed by 'earthquake' & the city by fire. The same: Hazor was massively devastated.
+ In 1566 BC Canaan is not part of the Egyptian Empire: Only in this case, Canaan is an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
+ Bietak confirms the ashes of Santorini in Northern Egypt. Ahmose I Storm Stele documents an environmental disaster with biblical Plagues, Storms, destroyed Temples, and Darkness. Radiocarbon results prove necessary correction of Ahmose's reign time from '1531' BC to the Santorini Eruption around 1606 BC.
++ Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: Southern Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose lost his firstborn son Sapair who died young at the time of the Santorini Eruption.
+ King of Egypt Pharao Khamudi: No evidence of any tomb or skeleton supports his death in the Red Sea.
Archeological Hyksos Expulsion evidence + Manetho documentation speaks for a missing army.
+ Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Pharaoh Khamudi's predecessor ruled 41 years
++ a) The Amarna Letters, b) the Soleb Inscriptions, c) the Berlin Pedestal, and d) the Merneptha Stela confirm more differentiated and precisely the Strict Biblical Chronology:
a) 1340-1333 BC: Judges6:3
b) 1480-1400 BC: Judges3:30
c) 1480-1340 BC: Judges4:3, 3:31, 3:30-5:31 d) 1227-1196 BC: Judges12:7,9,11,14
++ 430 years theories disproved by the Strict Bible Chronology and all ancient relating writings. Biblically proven 215 years in Egypt 1821-1606 BC archeologically match Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlements 1820-1800 BC. Complete Semitic abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion 1606 BC (‘1531’BC).
++ The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the biblical account. Midwife Shipra and Joseph's grandson Shutelah (Resseneb) identified.
++ Joseph as Vizierking confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC. All 5 Viziernames in the time of Joseph's biblical Vizierkingship 1830-1750 BC show archeological evidence for being the same person and for biblical attributes of Joseph.
++ 10! ancient historians confirm Ahmose I as Pharaoh of the Exodus: Apion, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Manetho, Ptolemy of Medes, Africanus, Hyppolytus, Clement, and Tatiana.
++ New archeological evidence of Father Jacob, Joseph's slavemaster Potiphar, his wife Asenath, his father Jacob, his brothers Benjamin and Levi, his sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons confirming the Strict Bible Chronology
++ 2034 BC: Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II archeologically evidenced collected many wives and five of them died young matching the biblical account.
+++ 1729 BC: The Book of Jubilees Jub46:14 & Exodus1:8 reveal the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion as the reason for "the new foreign King (=Hyksos) who arose in enmity against Egypt" not knowing Joseph: Sharek was the first Canaanite Foreign King (='Hyksos') who arose as an enemy over Egypt.
++ The Ipuwer Papyrus archeologically confirms the Ten Plagues written at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty after Pharaoh Ahmose's death.
++ Israel's Exodus following sudden loss of the complete slaveworkforce in Egypt is evidenced by Ahmose's Pyramid and all his huge mud-brick production-based building projects being suddenly broken off around 1606 BC (‚1531‘BC).
+++ New archeological evidence confirming Moses and all by the ancient historian Manetho identified Hebrew Shepherd Kings of the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty
THE CHRONOLOGY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
- THE SOURCES -
The following Chronology unveils two contrary different groups of Semitic 'Rulers of Foreign Lands' or 'Hyksos' in Egypt. It is mainly based on books, documentaries, or lectures of Israel Finkelstein, Manfred Bietak and Kim Ryholt, and Dr. Roger Liebi but first of all on the Chronologies of two Qumran Books - Scriptures of the Second Temple Period seen as holy by the essentially large groups of the jewish population: The Torah/ Five Books of Moses and the Book of the Divisions of Time - known as Book of Jubilees:
1. Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 BC, Copenhagen 1997 (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20)
2. Dr. Roger Liebi, Chronology of the Old Testament, 2016,
PDF Printout on https://rogerliebi.ch/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Skript-Chronologie-des-AT-©-Roger-Liebi-Skript.pdf
You can order and buy a glossy brochure in english, french or german writing to firstname.lastname@example.org or on
3. Dillmann/ Herrmann Rönsch, The Book of Jubilees, Leipzig 1874
& Prof. Dr. Klaus Berger, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981
& James VanderKams, Translation of all known Books of Jubilees 1989
You can listen to the full Ethiopian translation of the Book of Jubilees in English on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVxJvSHUrjk
All Tanakh Old Testament books (except the book of Esther) and at least 14 different exemplars of the Books of Jubilees of the Second Century BC were found as Scrolls or in fragments in the Qumran Caves. Their yet unidentified fragments are essentially relevant sources for future even deeper verification of the findings in Chapter Hyksos.
The Bible says Joseph ruled over Egypt for 80 years 1830-1750 BC.
How could his glorious peaceful foreign rulership
stay hidden for millennials?
The leftover history of this time would have to be a dark intermediate period of helpless guesswork within endless uncertainties between tattered apart puzzle pieces:
The complete so-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period
- enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings -
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt.
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF
ISREAL IN EGYPT
ACCORDING TO THE REDISCOVERED FIRST AND ONLY UNFALSIFIED
STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
(in brackets according to actual
egyptologists' highly speculative estimations)
All chronological years in this work are Bible corresponding years. The 'Years' in brackets () are dominant scientific date speculations, ignoring all time biblical data AND nearly all relating ancient writings and adding by helpless guesswork finally around 75 non-existing non-evidenced years into the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Ryholt 1803-1550 BC versus Bible 1785-1625 BC);
This has been proven scientifically by the Radio Carbon Dating of the Santorini Eruption environmental disaster consequences somewhen in the timeframe 1620-1600 BC (footnotes 6,7,8). Radio Carbon Dating has been established in Archeology of this time by Israel Finkelstein considered to be the safest dating method after scriptural concrete dating evidence. This biggest volcanic eruption in the history of mankind is archeologically evidenced confirmed by the Ipuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose's I Storm Stele initiated in his 11th to 22nd reign year describing exactly Santorini impacts and simultaneously describing exactly the biblical impacts of the Ten Plagues. In 2014 Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter identified Pharaoh Ahmose’s Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini. Their conclusion is a reign time of Ahmose I closer to the Santorini Eruption 1620-1600 correcting the reign time of Ahmose I estimated by leading Egyptologists into '1531' BC closer to the Santorini Eruption around 1606 BC by eliminating 75 non-existing non-evidenced years (9). Leading Archeologists like Manfred Bietak and Leading Radio Carbon Experts agree on Ahmose I being the Pharaoh of the Santorini Eruption Time. The Storm Stela confirms together with the Ipuwer Papyrus exactly and precisely most essential unique biblical details of the Ten Plagues (See The Ten Plagues in Chapter Moses) and most details of all plausible Santorini Eruption impacts in Egypt.
The so-called "dark period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" (German/English Wikipedia) counts around 75 Pharaohs within only two centuries. This is an extraordinary high number leading egyptology has never been able to explain and thus has expanded non evidenced estimated reign times. This is veiling the fact that the only lifelong rulership (= Kingship) in this time was the rulership of Viziers above obviously selected quickly rotating Pharaohs (precisely evidenced and explained in Chapter Joseph and already assumed as leadership behind the scenes by several Egyptologists).
Scientific evidence and indications are written in cursive and deeper documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses:
Haran: The LORD ADONAI tells Abraham "Go to the land that I will show you." Genesis 12:1
Canaan/ Shechem: G'd promises the Land, HAM’s son Canaan had robbed from SEM‘s son ARFAKSAD to SEM‘s seed ABRAHAM (The Book of Jubileesb 10:29, Genesis 11:10-26). Thus according to the Bible as a matter of fact Canaanites are not Semites but Hamites which won’t be corrected in this work. This is the start of the 430 years in Exodus 12:40.41, Genesis 47:9 and Galatians 3:16.17 from promise in Shechem to law on Mount Horeb and return of Israel to the Promised Land in their 4th generation.
(Genesis 15:16) ABRAHAM moves 2 years later, driven by a famine (Jubilees 13:10.11) to Egypt for 5 years. Wifes collecting Pharaoh is informed by his elite about the beauty of SARA. So he robs ABRAHAM's wife (Genesis 12:15). ABRAHAM is compensated with sheep, cattle, servants, handmaids like HAGAR, donkeys and camels. The Bible says that afterwards heavy plagues came upon his house and harem. Pharaoh releases SARA, ABRAHAM, and LOT with even more cattle, silver and gold treasures. As a very rich clan they return to Canaan (Genesis 12:15-13:2 Jubilees 13:14). So the Pharaoh of Abraham’s strictly biblical time in Egypt should at least show evidenced several wifes and at least one of them should show a shorter lifespan than natural (due to the plague) to indicate we have found the correct Pharaoh: Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (2060-2010 BC) archeologically evidenced collected an extraordinary amount of wives - a harem unique in the history of the Middle Kingdom. Seven of his wifes are even namely evidenced in his different shrines/tombs and there are further three destroyed unexamined harem shrines/tombs left. At least five of his wifes died very young according to their sceletons.
Canaan/Gerar: ISAAC becomes ABRAHAM's official heir. Start of the 400 Years of ABRAHAM's seed in foreign lands Acts7:6-7, Genesis15:13,21:5.12,47:9
ISAAC, driven by a famine, starts to move to Egypt but is stopped by the LORD ADONAI: "Go not down into Egypt!" Genesis26:2
2060-2010 BC: ABRAHAM's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
('1895’ or ‚1859'BC)
Young Nomarch POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II as one of the highest officials at the royal palace starts his career young in reign year 19 of Amenemhet II. As Priest of Horus/Re he is Priest of On/Heliopolis,
as Highest of Court/Law Enforcement, he is also Chief of the Royal Prison. He becomes the "sole friend" of Pharaoh Senwosret II (5).
1843 BC he will buy JOSEPH as a slave and will set him over his complete house.
1833 BC he has to arrest JOSEPH and sets him over his prison Jubilees46:3.
1830 BC he becomes JOSEPH's father-in-law and adoptive father.
1819 BC he dies. (see Chapter Joseph)
Death of Senwosret II, the last Nomarch supporting Pharaoh, in his 6th official and sole reign year. According to Jürgen von Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on IV Peret Day 14 as the plausible date of death of Senwosret II (see 1819 BC). According to Wegner he must have died at the beginning of Senwosret‘s III 19 years of sole reign.
(Collier: 1842 BC)
Pharaoh Amenemhet III starts his 20 years Coregency with his father Senwosret III.
1822-1801: sole reign.
1801-1798: Co-reign with Amenemhet IV
(Collier, Quirke, UCE Lahun Papyri)
Memphis/Thebes: Genesis41:46 JOSEPH becomes Egyptian Grand Vizier and travels through complete Egypt to prepare the country against future famine. JOSEPH's built canal up to today called Bar Yusuph supports 7 years of plenty. Joseph's biblical first Viziername in Gen41:45 is Zafenat Pa'Aneah in original Egyptian Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh. The name is archeologically evidenced by his contemporary Viziernames Senwosret-Ankh and Amenemhet-Ankh. His second Viziername - archeologically evidenced near Joseph's Canal (Bar Yusuf) - is Khety. In Pharaoh Amenemhet's III 9th reign year JOSEPH's third Viziername Zamonth is found in Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. His adoptive noble nomarch's Viziername is Khnumhotep. (compare Franke in Quirke 1991 p.51)
Death of Pharaoh Senwosret III in the 20th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III. In the 17th to 20th reign year of Amenemhet III the Nile level increases in Semna/Kumma from 18m to 21m in 3 years; Dams are flooded and cause a complete loss of the harvest: Start of the 7 years of famine. Engraved 20th reign year and 21 meters.
Sinai Desert Copper Mine: Contemporary oldest Alphabet discovered by Flinders Petrie with uniquely distinctive Hebrew letters and words, and biblical names and events according to Douglas Petrovic. Donald Redford calls them „hallmarks of the Early Hyksos'. One of them dates into the 20th reign year of Amenemhet when Joseph biblically was traveling around in Egypt taking care against the famine.
Nile level increasing (in Semna/Kumma from 12 to 18 meters). Pharaoh Amenemhet's III first pyramid is unusably damaged in his 3rd reign year. Harvest Decreasing.
1827 BC in his 15th reign year his new Pyramide is built.
1821 BC: Israel's Arrival and Ensettlement in Egypt
BerSheva: The LORD ADONAI sends JACOB to Egypt Genesis46:3 "go down to Egypt .. I go down with You .. I will also bring you back .."
Avaris/Goshen: 21st year of the reign of Amenemhet III, end of 2nd year of famine. Israel, Father Jacobs Clan, arrives in Egypt. Settlement in Avaris. Jacob's sons are made the 'King's Shepherds' of Egypt by Pharaoh Genesis47:6 - Avaris excavator Manfred Bietak 2006 estimates the first ensettlement of the 'Early Hyksos' into 1840-1800 BC and calls them firstly Proto Israelites, later then "for convenience sake" Canaanites. He identifies the earliest Stratum H building, a large villa, as Northern Syrian Style, the style of Jacob's ancestors. David Rohl identifies it as Father JACOB's House. Scarabs with the name Retjenu for Eastern Semites from the land of Canaan ('Asiatics') dating to the 12th Dynasty are excavated.
Death of Nomarch POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, adoptive father-in-law of JOSEPH Khnumhotep III. POTIPHAR is buried in his famous tomb in Beni Hassan with a picture of JOSEPH's family on the Going Forth to Heaven Festival in 1821 BC, the 40th-anniversary festival for his friend and Pharaoh Senwosret's II death in his 6th reign year 1861 BC. Kessler and Rabehl propose anniversary festival celebration related tomb wall pictures (see 1861 BC and Chapter Joseph).
End of 7 years of famine in the 27th reign year of Amenemhet III after the extension of JOSEPH's Canal. Joseph's fourth Vizier name Kethi/Chety is engraved near the Bar Yusuph at his office in the 29th reign year of Amenemhet.
Near Thebes: In today's Wadi El-Hol Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. They date into reign year 26 of Pharaoh Amenemhet III.
Phitom/ Lahun in Fayum: Workers Town with an increasing number of Semitic inhabitants found by Flinders Petrie. Fayum is identified as Phitom in local rabbinical scriptures of the middle ages as knowledge from ancient traditions. For the 29th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. In complete Egypt and Sinai 5 oldest Alphabetical inscriptions in an at least 11-year time window have been excavated. Petrovic identified uniquely hebrew words and uniquely biblical names and events. Joseph's wife's Hebrew name ASENATH was identified.
Avaris: Death of Father JACOB
EPHRAIM receives beforehand greater prophesied blessings from his grandfather JACOB than firstborn twin brother MANASSE, being fulfilled by his three generations Vizier Dynasty of
1. EPHRAIM Ankhu
2. his sons SHUTELAH Resseneb and
3. BERIAH Iymeru Aya
4. his grandson REFACH Neferkare-Iymeru/ Ayameru II
JACOB's house in Avaris is replaced by a Stratum G4 palace fronted by a portico of twelve wooden columns with twelve Semitic leader graves in the garden excavated by Manfred Bietak and identified by David Rohl as JOSEPH's Palace. Emmerich and Josephus confirm the relocation of Joseph's 11 brothers in Heliopolis after Father JACOB's death.
Biblical Year of the Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III according to the contemporary narrative "Joseph & Asenath". He is followed by his adopted son-in-law and husband of his daughter Nubhetepti Amenemhat IV 1801-1789 BC who is identified by Ryholt as Ankhu's EPHRAIM's uncle and thus Zamonth's JOSEPH's brother BENJAMIN. Next Pharaoh is Amenemhet's III daughter Nofrosobek 1789-1785 BC. 1842-1795 BC is the biblical and scientific nearly conjoint reign time of Amenemhet (Collier, Quirke 2006 p. 325). From here on egyptologists of the "dark period of uncertain speculative estimates" add 75 non-evidenced and non-existing years into Egyptian history rejecting the evidenced fact that the only Vizier with a King's beard Zamonth JOSEPH and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret EPHRAIM both archeologically evidenced as Kings were the obviously only lifelong rulers in this century. They selected their close relatives as rotating Pharaohs (see Chapter Joseph).
By Egyptology defined Start of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I. (Parker/Ryholt)
Genesis50:26 Death of JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep - his later fifth name was Monthotep - after 80 biblical years of rulership as Vizierking over Egypt and after the first battle of Egypt against the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur where his son Pharaoh Sobekhotep III was killed. Canaanite Ruler Makamaron of Assur chased after the Egyptian army but was stopped in front of Hermeapolis Jubilees46:7 by MANASSE's son AVIEZER who had been elected as the next Pharaoh named Wegaf. Manfred Bietak confirms the region of Assur as the original home of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' based on excavated religious practice relicts. Pharaoh Sobekhotep III of '1749' BC (Kim Ryholt 1997 Tab.88) and Pharaoh Wegaf are both evidenced as previous Chief of Army Commanders (see Chapter Joseph).
1729 BC: Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion & Enslavement of Israel
Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks: "the Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" (Exodus1:13). This is one of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC ('1553 BC') - the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I 19 years before the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt - until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Vizier Rekhmire (1479-1425 BC). Further archeological evidence for Israel’s Enslavement in Egypt is the famous Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 from Thebes. It is an Egyptian slavelist of the 18th century BC containing many Hebrew and exclusively biblical names and will be examined in Chapter Moses.
1729 BC ('1720'or'1648'or'1630' BC)
Avaris: Second war of Egypt against the Canaanites of Assur leading into the 'Invasion of the Hyksos' into Egypt. Canaanite Warlord Samuqenu/ Salitis defeats Pharaoh Dedumose/ Tiatimaos, invades Egypt and occupies Avaris. He brings Northern Egypt under his 15 years of rulership as self announced 'Hyksos' King of Egypt Exodus1:8.15, bringing destroying, massacres, and enslavement according to Manetho, Jubilees 46:18.104.22.168 and Exodus1:8-11. This violent invasion is confirmed by Ryholt and Redford (Kim Ryholt 1997 302/303 + Ftnt. 1057). Manfred Bietak excavates war mass graves in Avaris for this time in layer G/1-3 exactly matching Manetho‘s described massacres but he misinterprets them as “epidemic” because they seem to him around 75 years too early for Manetho‘s Hyksos Invasion (see also 1606 BC The Ten Plagues).
JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM flees with his 13th Dynasty Clan to his brother MANASSE Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw, Mayor of Thebes, and proceeds his rulership in the 16th Southern Dynasty of Thebes (contemporarily left future unused administration residence in Avaris and growing increase in courtyard residences and office inscriptions of Vizier Ankhu in Thebes) The 16th and 17th Dynasties are by Manetho (Africanus) identified as Hyksos and Hebrew Shepherd Kings. The evidenced tallest Hebrew towns Avaris/ Ra-amezes, Lahun/ Phitom (Exodus1:11), and On/ LeONtopolis (Septuaginta & Jubilees 46:14d 5th century version) were built up as fortified/ enwalled cities by the enslaved Israelites: Avaris/ Ra-amezes is confirmed as excavated huge Semitic town archeologically evidenced „rebuilt and fortified with massive walls“ by Salitis after his invasion according to Manetho. Lahun in Fayum is confirmed as Phitom by middle ages evidenced millenia old rabbinical tradition and by an excavated Semitic enwalled workers ghetto with many buried newborn sceletons. LeOntopolis in Heliopolis/ On - up until today called Tell el Yehudiye (Jewish Mound) - is confirmed by an excavated Hyksos fortification.
From now on all occasions from the Hyksos Invasion until the Hyksos Expulsion are estimated around 75 years too late by egyptologists due to the ignorance of lifelong Vizierkingships over quickly rotating Pharaohs (see Chapter Joseph):
a) over 20 non evidenced Pharaoh reign times being estimated as too long
b) Ibiaw’s and Aya‘s rulership times as Viziers in the time of the 13th Dynasty are confused with their participation in the yearly rotating Pharaoh reigns
c) Khayan‘s co-ruling Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV of the 17th Dynasty being misplaced into the 13th Dynasty together with his brothers and sons (see 1666 BC).
1729 BC within the war against the Canaanites of Assur some of the Levites left Egypt in order to secretely burry Israel‘s tribe-fathers next to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob at Hebron in Canaan (Book of Jubilees 46:9 & Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 2 p.199–201). The tombs of the tribe fathers in Joseph’s palace garden were then found by the Canaanites left empty and they used them for their own leaders evidenced by their warrior equipment excavated in the graves (Chapter Joseph). Some of the Levites remained after the burial in Canaan in the hill country of Hebron for forty years before they returned to Egypt in 1689 BC (Jubilees 46:10; 47:1). Levi’s grandson Amram, father of MOSES, was one of them; As a Levite he knew reading and writing (Jubilees 45:16 & 47:9) the Alphabet invented by Joseph (Chapter Joseph). Nearby in sight of the hill country of Hebron at Lachish an ancient ivory comb was unearthed by Garfinkel, Hasel & Klingbeil in 2017. For there were no elephants in Canaan this ivory comb has to be a luxury item brought from near Egypt. According to Vainstub “the comb’s inscription is written in the style that characterized the very earliest stage of the alphabet’s development” otherwise exclusively evidenced in Egypt for that time (1821-1606 BC). It is the earliest record of the word “tusk” until its use in Hebrew and it bears also the oldest example of the Hebrew letter ‘sin‘. It seems to be the oldest alphabetical inscription discovered outside of Egypt before Israel’s Exodus out of Egypt and Conquest of Canaan (see 1566 BC). Although the comb was found in the one millennium younger Babylonian destruction layer of Lachish …
Hyksos Pharaoh Aper-Anati/Apakhnas initiates 7 months of murdering 1000 male newborn Israelites (Exodus1:16-22, Jubilees 47.48:14). The tremendous increase of newborn skeletons in Lahun and Avaris, Manfred Bietak confirms extremely high mortality of newborns in Avaris, excavated contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40%. MOSES is born (Exodus2:2) after seven months of male newborn mass-murdering, hidden for 3 months at home, then for a week at the Nile (Jubilees47:3) until he is found by Pharaoh's daughter MERIS/Meristheki/Mereryt. Pharaoh Apaknas dies. The new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan, MERIS' father, reigns for 28 years.
Avaris: MOSES grew up in his family in Northern Egypt, left to his adoptive mother MERIS/Meristheki/Mereryt and became an Egyptian Prince (Exodus2:10, Jubilees47:9). Ancient historian Artapanus identifies MERIS' husband Pharao Khanefere Sobekhotep IV as Thebes Southern Vassall Pharaoh who achieved by this marriage the co-rulership over reunited Egypt with his father-in-law 'Hyksos' Pharao Khayan. 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location prove the same time rulership according to Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers. His Vizier is called Neferkare-Iymeru REFACH, JOSEPH's great-grandson and the last Vizier of EPHRAIM's lineage: Shift back from Vizier Kingship to Pharaoh Kingship.
(c.'1590' or c.'1575' BC)
Memphis/Avaris: Canaanite Pharaoh Ippi/Apophis reigns for about 40years. In later years conflicts with Southern Egyptian tributary Pharaos of Thebes increased and lead to battles with the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs Sequenre and Kamose, who are defeated by Apophis. The Semitic population of Avaris grows tremendously; Manfred Bietak confirms the city grows to 250 ha around 1650 BC and believes that Avaris became the largest city in the world.
Fayum/Lahun: according to Gardiner some stelae and papyri confirm Semitic slave workers carefully guarded by a village wall and a ghetto wall separating from the wealthy part (see 1821 & 1606 BC) excavated by Flinders Petri. MOSES kills an Egyptian slave driver and has to flee to Midian in Arabia onto the other side of the Gulf of Aqaba to avoid being killed by Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis (Exodus2:11-15, Jubilees47). Contemporary Alphabet with Hebrew and biblical words discovered in Fayum/Lahun (See Chapter Moses). Fayum is evidenced back to the middle ages by rabbinical traditions identified as Phytom.
Egyptian Senakhtenre and his son Sequenre Tao marry themselves into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Southern Egypt and become the first Egyptian Pharaohs since the 12th Dynasty. Their wives are Tetisheri the daughter of Pharaoh Sobekhotep’s Hebrew wife Tjan and Tetisheri‘s daughter Sadjehuti - an evidenced Hebrew name (see Ahmosides in Chapter Moses).
1625 BC ('1550' BC)
Leading Egyptology defines the End of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Kim Ryholt) counting '253' non evidenced estimated years instead of the 160 safely evidenced years since 1785 BC. The difference of 93 nonexisting years in Ryholt’s chronology is melting down until 1636 BC into around 75 neither archeologically nor biblically evidenced years. Their non existence is not only proven by the Radiocarbon evidence for c. 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption impact on Egypt and the Ten Plague evidenced in the Ahmose Storm Stela; Also the war mass graves of the Hyksos Invasion exactly matching the by historian Manetho described massacres dated by Manfred Bietak into the time around 1729 BC prove around 75 artificial non existing years in the by Leading Egyptology dogmatically defended highly speculative Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period. Bietak reveals by his confusion of the Hyksos Invasion with a speculated epidemic around 1729 BC that the 13th Dynasty is hiding the around 75 non existing years: They are mainly hidden in
a) over 20 non evidenced reign times and in
b) the extraordinary long “reign” times of Ibiaw (11 years) and Aya (24 years) which have to be explained with their Viziership time in the 13th Dynasty after one year as Pharaoh
Khamudi becomes the 6th and last Canaanite 'Hyksos' "King of Egypt" (Exodus4:19). Kamose's young brother Ahmose I becomes the Southern Pharao of Thebes in Khamudi‘s 7th Year of Reign.
1606 BC: Exodus of Israel out of Egypt
(1620-1600 BC or c.1600 BC)
The Aegean Sea Santorini Island Vulcano Mega Eruption has eruptive consequences on Egypt including environmental disasters like Earthquake Storms and an ash cloud producing a „darkness so thick it can be felt“ Exodus 10:21. Bietak confirms Santorini Pumice in the Palace District of Avaris above the layer of the Hyksos Expulsion: Radiocarbon results confirm a time between 1620-1600 BC and Cypriot Pottery findings confirm a time around 1600 BC (10).
The Ten Plagues - Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I initiates in his 11th to 22nd reign year a Storm Stele documenting an environmental disaster with biblical plagues, storms, destroyed temples, and darkness. 2014 Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter (9) identified the Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini and according to Radiocarbon results attest a necessary correction of the reign time of Ahmose I into the time of the Santorini Eruption between 1620 and 1600 BC confirmed by many experts (Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Friedrich, Heinemeier, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutshcera, Higham, Steier, Wild). Israel Finkelstein claims Radiocarbon results as the most reliable dating proof apart from scriptural proof: This unveils 75 non-evidenced and non-existing years in Egyptian History and proves all pure biblical time data in the Strict Bible Chronology of Israel in Egypt being 100% correct.
This is secondly archeologically evidenced by many war emergency mass graves around 1729 BC in Avaris matching precisely historian Manetho’s described massacres of the Hyksos Invasion in the strictly biblical time. These 75 non evidenced and non existing years of the 13th Dynasty are falsifying all ancient Chronologies until 722 BC the end of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. King David’s and Solomon’s reign times are still dated 45-75 years later than the unfalsified Bible gives evidence. So nearly all Pharaoh and King reign times 1729-722 BC have to be shifted into 45-75 years later!
The Ten Plagues: The Ipuwer Papyrus
is documenting an environmental disaster with a storm, darkness, plagues, and biblical people impacts (eg the poor plunder the rich in Exodus12:35) The first three plagues combined with the Nile have their biblical impact on all people while the fourth to tenth plague have no impact on the people of Israel living mainly in the northern part of Egypt.
(Late Daters: '1260' BC)
(Early Daters: ‚1446‘BC)
MOSES Comeback in Genesis 4-15. The 10th Plague: Death of all male firstborn in Egypt. Ahmose’s firstborn son Sapair dies evidenced young. The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt: Avaris/ Ra-amezes and Lahun in Fayum/ Phitom are archeologically evidenced abruptly abandoned by its Semitic population. Nearly all ancient writings date the time of Israel's Exodus into the time of Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion. Ahmose's Pyramid and all other huge building projects evidenced had to be broken off abruptly. Canaanite Hyksos Pharao Khamudi and his army chase after Israel through the Sinai desert and finally sink in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba (Chapter Moses). In contrast to Ramesses II and Amenhotep II there is no evidence of any sceleton or tomb of Khamudi.
The Egyptian Southern Vasall Pharaoh of the Ten Plagues Ahmose I
(only wearing the Upper Egypt Crown)
under the Canaanite Northern Pharaoh and King of Egypt Khamudi
Southern Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I takes Heliopolis, Sile, and after a siege Avaris. It’s his 18th and Northern Pharaoh Khamudi's 11th year of reign. He chases after the Canaanites in the land of Canaan and takes their town Scharuhen after a siege. The „Hyksos Expulsion“ ends. Ahmose I becomes the first Egyptian Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Period; The highest deity is changed - it’s now the hidden invisible deity Amun; This monolatry had been initiated by JOSEPH's son MANASSE Senebefni as High priest of Amun two centuries earlier (see Chapter Joseph). Celebrating the g’dlikeness of Pharaohs abruptly stopped after the Ten Plagues had humiliated and disproved the divine power of Pharaoh.
Fourty biblical years of Israel wandering through the desert until the Conquest of the Promised Land. Contemporary desert settlement places of large populations with rock sanctuaries, water sources, and Hebrew indications found at Hashem El Tarif in the Sinai and at Jebel El Lawz in Midian, Arabia (see Chapter Moses).
(mid 16th century BC)
Image: Logos Bible Software
Destruction of Jericho
archeologically proven for the correct biblical time according to the Strict Chronology of the unfalsified Bible; Leading anti-biblical Archeologist Israel Finkelstein delivers in his book „The Bible unearthed“ against his intention the hardest archeological evidence proving the Bible/ the unfalsified strictly biblical time of Jericho’s destruction:
1. Jericho is heavily fortified at the time of Conquest confirming Josh2:5,15
2. Piles of brick from the base of the collapsed city wall verifies Josh6:20: “the wall fell beneath itself”
3. The earthen embankment required Israel to go “up into the city” Josh6:20
4. Houses were built into the lower city wall and did not collapse verifying Rahab’s house location Josh2:15
5. A layer of ash indicates the Israelites burned the whole city and everything in it AFTER the wall collapsed Josh6:24
6. The destruction occurred recognized in BA in the middle of the 16th century BC = the strictly biblical time of the conquest
7. A large amount of grain discovered at Jericho indicates
a) the harvest had just been taken Josh2:6,3:15
b) the siege was short, only 7 days Josh6:15
c) the Israelites did NOT plunder the city Josh6:18
(Mid 16th century BC)
of the Promised Land Canaan:
1) Mid 16th century BC: Jericho was destroyed remaining nearly uninhabited without walls for centuries proving the biblical account in Joshua 6:20,24
2) In Ay (today’s Kirbit El Makata) Wood excavated a fortress destroyed by fire (Joshua 7.8). According to Bimson it has to be dated into the 16th century. The biblical north side entry gate and geological location of Ay is archeologically confirmed.
3) Joshua 11:10: In the mid 16th century BC Hazor was massively devastated evidenced by the destroyed palace confirmingthe biblical account together with the evidenced subsequent rebuilding of Hazor. The biblical King Jabin is archeologically corroborated by his name on a contemporary tablet.
4) Joshua 19: In the mid 16th century BC Dan was devastated evidenced by a contemporary layer of ash proving the biblical account (11)
5) Joshua 24:26: In the mid 16th century BC Shechem was evidenced destroyed remaining uninhabited for a century proving the strictly biblical account (11) and Joshua's biblical covenant stone was excavated by Sellin, who was then withdrawn from his excavations because his identification contradicted the Ramesses Time Paradigm
6) Matching Joshua18 in the 16th century BC Shilo was destroyed by a major fire (11) and the excavated place of the tabernacle with the exact biblical metrics was identified. Its second Bible matching destruction took place 1056 BC at King Saul‘s death and is also archeologically confirmed.
c. 1446-1409 BC
The 15th Century BC Berlin Pedestal resembles the spelling of the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep II or more likely his grandson Amenhotep III who claims to have dominated the Philistines (Ashkelon) Canaan, and Israel as the three contemporary obviously most relevant peoples in that region; Görg, Van der Veen, and Theis conclude that the incomplete hieroglyphic name is best translated I-3-SR-I-L becoming clearly the oldest evidence for Israel. This is archeological evidence confirming the Bible's claim Canaan in Judges 4:3, the Philistines in Judges 3:31, and Israel in Judges 3:30-5:31 to be the three most relevant peoples in that region in the strictly biblical time 1480-1340 BC matching Amenhotep‘s III reign 1446-1409 BC = '1386-1349‘BC plus 60 years: melted down from 75 years proven by Radiocarbon results of the Santorini Eruption impacts on Egypt around 1606 BC inscripted on the Ahmose Stela. This is the strictly biblical time of the Judge Ehud ruling over Israel and Moab.
In case Amenhotep II would have been the owner of this pedestal, we would have again a matching with the Bible, this time with Joshua 13:3; for 1560 BC onwards it is affirming that the main portions of the Promised Land were held by Israelites, Philistines, and by Canaanites (a second time the three peoples directly paralleled on these artifacts). According to the Santorini Eruption Radicarbon results together with the Ahmose I Stela Amenhotep‘s II 26 reign years have to be corrected into c. 1487-1461 BC ('1427-1401’BC plus c. 60 years). This would have been the strictly biblical time of Eglon of Moab as foreign ruler over Israel which makes this option less likely.
Late 15th Century BC:
The Soleb Inscription:
The Bible says in Judges 3:30 the Israelites conquered the complete land of Moab and occupied Moab for 80 years 1480-1400 BC. It’s the strictly biblical time of the Judge Ehud. Kennedy and Kramer reexamined the famous Soleb inscription estimated roughly into the end of the 15th century in a temple for Pharaoh Amenhotep III in contemporary Southern Egypt: A list of allegedly dominated eastern peoples mentions the (semi-)nomadic People of Yahweh "Ta Shasu Yahweh" - meaning they worshipped Yahweh - and contextually places them in the land of Edom and Moab as new direct neighbors to Egypt; As to be admitted by every Egyptologist and Archeologist Israel is the only people in ancient history ever having worshipped JAHWHE. It is the earliest inscription mentioning Yahweh and proves the historicity of Judges3:30 in the Bible. Donald Redford in his book Egypt, Israel & Canaan admits „For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here … the name of the Israelite God YAHWEH … the passage constitutes … the whereabouts during the late 15th century BC of an enclave revering this god.“ Amenhotep‘s III reign was c. 1446-1409 BC ('1386-1349’ BC plus 60 years melted down from 75 nonexisting years in 1729 BC)
c. 1412-1396 BC
The Canaanite Amarna Letters in Akkadian Cuneiform are addressed to Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, later called Akhenaten (‚1352-1336 BC‘ plus 60 years melted down from 75 years since 1729 BC) ruling c. 1412-1396 BC: They ask him for help and complain about the so-called Habirus, who are plundering the land of Canaan. Following the Strict Bible Chronology (after the time of the Judges Barak and Deborah) the Bible identifies them in Judges 6:3 concretely as Midianites, Amalekites - and the Nomads of the Syrian Desert; this third group is biblically called "the Sons of the East" and in the Amarna Letters they are also called the "Shutu" or the "Shasu". (compare Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 125 and Rainey 1995, p.483)(12). The Bible compares all of them with a „swarm of locusts“ ruining the whole land. Judge Gideon and the Israelites defeat them in 1333 BC. Many so-called Early Exodus Dating (1446 BC) devotees identify the Habirus as Hebrews in order to strengthen their dating theory.
The Mount Ebal Curse Inscription and the Destruction of Shechem was announced in march 2022 by a team around Dr. Scott Stripling: A Hebrew Curse Inscription including the name of the G’d of Israel JHWH was found at Mount Ebal the biblical (Josh8:30) so-called Curse Mountain (Deut27). It is dated to be from the time of change from bronze to iron age in the timeframe between 1400-1150 BC which is strictly biblically the time of the Judges. This discovered Curse Inscription has to be from the year 1293 or 1290 BC according to the unfalsified Bible and its Strict Chronology, rediscovered by Dr. Roger Liebi because the only essential Mount Ebal Curses described by the Bible in that archeologically relevant timeframe are
1. The Curse of Jotam 1293 BC against Abimelech and the town Shechem near Mount Ebal (Judges9:20) followed by an evil ghost sent by G‘d between Abimelech and Shechem and
2. the Curse of Gaal, son of Ebed, against the Judge Abimelech in 1290 BC (Judges8:26) near Shechem.
The discovered Mount Ebal Curse inscription says: „Cursed, cursed, cursed … cursed by God JHW. You will die, cursed, cursed, cursed, You will surely die. Cursed by JHW - cursed, cursed, cursed.“ And indeed according to Judges9:45 and 9:54 the people of Shechem and Abimelech died in a battle against each other and Shechem - the second time - was destroyed archeologically evidenced for the strictly biblical correct time. The reasons for these curses were Israel’s idolatry (idol Baal-Berit) after Gideon‘s death (Judges8:33) and Abimelech‘s killing of his 70 half brothers, the sons of the Judge Gideon. This Curse Inscription is also further evidence that the Bible was written at the time it literally claims to be written, and not half a millennium later as those who hold to the outdated documentary hypothesis assert.
In the strictly biblical year 1290 BC the Judge Abimelech destroyed Shechem. Judges9:46 „And when those living in the Fortress of Shechem had heard about it, they entered the Temple of their g‘d Berit.“ Abimelech „set it on fire“ and „1000 persons died“. The remains of the ancient Fortress and Temple were excavated and dated into the time between the 17th and 12th century BC.
c. 1218 BC
The back inscription of the Merenptah Stele (front inscription: 1392-1353) was discovered by the father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie: Pharaoh Merenptah claims to have destroyed Canaan, Ashkelon (the Philistines), and Israel. He says he "laid waste to Israel and their seed is no more": same as in the Berlin Pedestal, Israel is here mentioned a second time as one of the three same key players in this region which is archeological evidenced fitting to the Bible revealing in Judges 12:7,9,11,14 that Israel dominated Canaan in the Strict Biblical Time of 1227-1196 BC after the Ammonites and before the Philistines dominated their land. It was the time of the Judges Yiftach, Ibtzan, Elon and Avdon.
around 1200 BC
The biblical Conquest of Israel by the Philistines in the strictly biblical years after 1196 BC is archeologically evidenced by the contemporary second destruction of Hazor around 1200 BC. The repelled Invasion of the Philistines into Egypt in the first half of the 12th century BC is archeologically evidenced by Ramesses III wall inscriptions and pictures in Medinet Habu.
around 1200 BC
The Philistines ruled over Israel in the strictly biblical time of 1196-1156 BC including the last 20 years in which Samson was the Judge of Isreal (he never liberated Israel from the Philistines). Excavated Philistine Temples at Tel Quasile and Tel Miqne (biblical Ekron) reveal two roof holding only 67 feet apart Pillars like the biblical Temple at Gaza that Samson brought down with his own hands in Judges16:29.
12th Century BC
The Judge Gideon ruled in the strictly biblical time 1333-1293 BC. His second name is archeologically evidenced for the Time of the Judges: An excavated Ostracon from Khirbet Er-Ral bears the inscripted very rare name Jerubaal. The same nickname was given to the biblical Judge Gideon in Judges6:32. The inscription is estimated into the 12th century BC.
(12th Century BC)
Tel Dan: The Conquest of Laish by the tribe of Dan around 1116 BC - the strictly biblical year of change of Judges from Eli (1Sam4:18) to Samuel (1Sam7:2) - is archeologically evidenced by the destruction of Laish in the early 12th century. From then on Laish is named Dan.
Around 20 years later in 1096 BC the 450 years of the Judges come to its end. The time of the Kings begins with the reign of Saul, David and Solomon for 40 years each.
Bible: 1016-976 BC
(Thiele: ‚971-931‘ BC)
King Solomon’s Six-Chamber-Gates:
„And this is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised; for to build the House of the Lord, and his House, and (build up) the Millo, and the Wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. For Pharaoh (Siamun) king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, Solomon's wife. And Solomon (re)built Gezer …“ (1Kings9:10.15-17) According to Kitchen Pharaoh Siamun commemorated his victory over Gezer and other places by depicting himself in a formal battle scene relief at the Temple in Tanis. The three contemporary huge Six-Chamber-Gates of the same building type in Hazor, Meggido and Gezer match this biblical account of Solomon’s building projects and mirror the wealth and power of his Kingdom. Dever excavated Gezer‘s Six-Chamber-Gate‘s destruction by fire during the campaigns of Pharao Shishak in the 5th year after Solomons death (2Chron12:2), which proves its construction in the time of Solomon. According to Kitchen Pharaoh Shishak/ Shoshenq in his Triumphal Relief is also referring to the defeated “hydebet dawit” Highlands of David: “This would give us a place name that commemorated David in the Negev barely 50 years after his death, within living memory of the man.” According to the unfalsified Bible it was only 5 years after his death 1021 BC. he built up Millo (Stepped Stone Structure), the City Wall and the foundations of the eastern wall of King David’s Palace, together with a fourth Six-Chamber-Gate were excavated by Mazar in the City of David. (The pottery of the Gate was dated to 1015-975 BC while Mazar tried to date the Gate later because of Thiele’s conventional dating of Solomons reign into 971-931 BC. The unfalsified strictly biblical time data reveals 1016-976 BC as Solomon’s reign time exactly approved by the pottery, so that way the Strict Bible Chronology is revisionizing the conventional Chronologies from 1729 - 722 BC. The 75 nonevidenced nonexistent years of the 13th Dynasty have melted down to 45 years now.)
„And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms … unto the land of the Philistines … they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.“ (1Kings4:21) Archeological evidence corroborating that Solomon reigned over the Philistines is his contemporary Six-Chamber-Gate built in Ashdod. His Palace building type and his mighty Six-Chamber-Gates became so popular that they were copied by the Syrians and in Lachish even generations later.
The Kurkh Victory Stele of the Assyrian King Salmanassar III is the oldest definite evidence of a Northern King of Israel: It is „King Ahab“ the son of King Omri.
Tel Dan Stela
On the famous Tel Dan Stela (picture) including the „House of David“ Inscription the Aramean King claims to have defeated the King of Israel Joram and the King of the House of David (biblically often evidenced as designation): The stela recounts a campaign of Hazael of Damascus in which he allegedly defeated both Jehoram King of Israel and Ahaziah King of Judah. According to 2Chron22:5-6 both were only wounded and they both were instead killed by Jehu, the next King of Israel. Ahaziah only ruled in the strictly biblical year 886 BC. Thus one of ancient Israel’s fiercest enemies more than a century after King David’s death, still recognized David as the founder of the kingdom of Judah.
The Black Obelisk of the Assyrian King Salmanassar III states in its military report against Aram-Damaskus the tribute payements of the King of Israel Jehu, son of Joram who is bowing down in front of Salmanassar in its picture.
The Mesha Stele/ Moabite Stone is a victory monument set up by the Moabite King Mesha, recording his rebellion against Israelite subjection (2Kings3). Israel, the God JHWH and the House of David are archeologically evidenced in Semitic Alphabetical writing. Langois, Lemaire and Delorme having used new imaging techniques unequivocally confirmed the House of David/ BET DAWID inscription: „The reading BT DWD is confirmed once and for all”. Thus the Aramean AND the Moabite King of 888/885 BC confirm archeologically evidenced King David as the Founder of the Kingdom of Judah.
Israel is no more
Assur conquers Samaria and the Northern Kingdom called Ephraim. The people of Israel is deported and exchanged with peoples of Assyria; An inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III boasts of making Hoshea king 10 years earlier after his predecessor had been overthrown: „Israel/Omri-House … overthrew their king Pekah and I placed Hoshea as king over them. I received from them … [tri]bute and brought them to Assyria.“
Hoshea later had stopped his tribute payments. This had lead to the fall of Samaria and Israel in 2Kings17,4-6.
This is the year when finally the 75 nonevidenced and nonexisting years of the 13th Dynasty of Egypt are dissolved in the chronologies of the Kingdom of Israel since Hoshea and the Kingdom of Juda since Jotam; The fall of Israel 721 BC and the fall of Judah 586/587 BC are the finally matching fixed years of the unfalsified Bible with actually leading scientists estimations. The Good News for leading Chronology Revisionists like John Bimson are; The mysteries of the speculative unsecure Third Intermediate Period of Egyptian History - the biblical time of the Kings - are ready now to be resolved by the comprehensively approved first unfalsified Bible Chronology rediscovered by Roger Liebi.
7th Century BC
Photo Credit: Tamar Hayardeni/ Wikimedia Commons/ Public Domain
Oldest Biblical Text Evidence
The Ketef Hinnom Scrolls are the oldest surviving texts known from the Hebrew Bible, dated to the early 7th century BC. The text, written in the Paleo Hebrew script on unrolled silver scrolls, contain the priestly blessings of the Book Numbers 6:24-26 in the Hebrew Bible and are the oldest portions of scripture discovered to date (Barkay 2003, pp. 162–171).
The time figures of this complete Chronology are the pure bibilical time figures of the rediscovered first and only Strict Bible Chronology in accordance with nearly all ancient writings.
(The time figures in brackets and in cursive are actual leading egyptologists' speculative estimations.)
Scientific evidence and indications are written in cursive and documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses as far as they are related to the time of Israel in Egypt.
THE CHRONOLOGY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
(When watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as a subtitle. When citing in quotation marks without mentioning the source then Wikipedia is the referred source to make it easier for all readers to roughly check things; In the relating Wikipedia articles, You find further referred sources.)
THE BIBLE FALSIFYING BY JERICHO SELF DISPROVED RAMESSES TIME PARADIGM
Before You can prove that the Bible - regarding the time of Israel in Egypt - is confirmed by over 100 examples of archeological evidence You first have to prove what the Bible really says regarding the times WHEN what happened. Falsifying the Word has been the fundament of disproving the Word since its very beginning (see Genesis3:2.4.5). Falsifying what the Bible really says about WHEN what happened has been the very fundament of "Biblical" Archeology from its very beginning onwards as we will see in this work.
In the 20th century, biblical time figures often were dismissed as false without ever having been disproven. The 13th century BC Ramesses Time Paradigm for the Exodus does not build literally and solely on the comprehensive amount of the pure biblical time figures but instead does ignore, change and add time figures and thus changes what the Bible really says by over three centuries. Many changes are based on the Bible external Second Century Rabba Seder Olam which is also cited in the Jewish Talmud: The Seder Olam ads Bible Tanakh external time estimations into its chronology and does change the meaning of biblical time figures by reinterpretation based on rabbinical Bible external traditions to make its Chronology work. These Bible figures changing time estimations and reinterpretations have been misused up until today by Leading "Biblical" Archeology to prove the Bible/Tanakh being a compendium of politically motivated lies of the first millennium BC based on "contemporary reflections" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ck4ZJFXYzaM).
The resulting Ramesses Time Paradigm is an outdated Egyptology and Biblical Archeology still dominating dogma that a never happened Exodus the same time must have happened in the 13th century and cannot have happened at any other time. It is also based on picking out and isolating one single word out of hundreds of ignored biblical sentences; one single unproven reinterpreted town name is up until today the by Leading "Biblical" Archeology only permitted proving evidence for the time of the Exodus: The town name Piramesses - confused with the biblical town name Ra'amezez in the Book of Exodus - as shown now:
IS RA'AMEZEZ AN UPDATED TOWN NAME FOR AVARIS?
Leading 'Biblical' Archeology claims the biblical town name Ra'amezez would prove the mid 13th century to be the only possible time for the Exodus in spite of the Bible saying it took place 1606 BC instead of 1260 BC as later explained. Already if You ignore all other time data of the Bible and only pick out one isolated sentence like 1Kings6:1 the Bible would already clearly date the Exodus more than two centuries earlier than Ramesses. But if You take into account the complete amount of unmanipulated biblical time data and the knowledge of nearly all relating ancient scriptures You know for sure the Bible unambiguously states 1606 BC is clearly the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
But let us first inspect more accurately the by leading scientists isolated used town name originally written Ra'amezez in the Bible; According to excavator Manfred Bietak, Avaris was a huge town firstly settled by Semites in the timeframe 1840-1800 BC (1). According to the Bible, Joseph's rulership over Egypt began exactly in the year 1830 BC, and precisely in 1821 BC, Israel's family clan arrived in Egypt.
Kim Ryholt estimates '1531 BC' as the year of the Hyksos Expulsion. The Hyksos Expulsion is confirmed by nearly all ancient relating writings as also being the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the biblical year 1606 BC; How this time difference came will be explained later in the full Chronology of Israel in Egypt timetable in this Chapter.
It sounds plausible that the name of the older town beneath Avaris of the 18th century BC later was replaced with the name of the later town above called Piramesses in the 13th century if You assume the ancient biblical copying process was a typical neglectful ancient scripture copying process - here are three easy to understand examples to understand:
When You read in an Encyclopedia that the town New York was founded by the Dutch or the town York was founded by the Romans You get the understanding of the function of an updated town name: It is generating directly contemporary understanding by the reader. As a matter of fact, New Amsterdam instead of New York was founded by the Dutch, and Eboracum instead of York was founded by the Romans. But in our time nearly nobody knows these two old town names and their locations anymore. But nearly everybody knows New York and York as locations; Thus the updated town names are generating a common understanding of the location, the writer wants to talk about. The same case could be easily the biblical town name Ra'amezez, often misleadingly written Ramesses in English. PiRamesses was founded in the 13th and abandoned in the 11th century BC. The forgotten unknown town name Avaris would stand for the older town underneath. Avaris was founded archeologically evidenced in the 19th century BC confirming Exodus47:11. It largely grew in the 18th century BC according to Exodus1:11 and finally was abandoned at the end of the Second Intermediate Period 1606 BC according to Exodus12:37. All three times are confirmed by biblical time figures of the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strictly Biblical Chronology, by the Book of Jubilees, by the resulting Chronology of Israel in Egypt in this work, by Manfred Bietak's excavation results in Avaris, and by their resulting Chronology of the 'Hyksos' at the beginning of Chapter Hyksos. Avaris is the original town of the Israelites who came from Canaan to Goshen in Egypt. These Israelites are confused by Manfred Bietak with allegedly early previous Canaanite 'Hyksos' identified by him as ancient historian Manetho's 'Hyksos' Invasion Canaanites as we will see in Chapter Hyksos. After the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion Avaris was the summer residence of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaos of Egypt and their Canaanite and Egyptian staff (2).
A second example shows that updating town names in order to generate a common understanding is a common biblical practice: Tel Dan is the modern Israeli name of the old city Dan of the tribe of Dan near the river Jordan at the northeastern end of Israel; In the time when the tribe Dan occupies the city in Joshua19:47, Dan's former town name Leshem is additionally mentioned. In Jesaya10:30 it is called similarly Layish. But centuries before the eponym giving person Dan was born as the great-grandson of Abraham, Abraham himself biblically travels "to Dan" to rescue his nephew Lot in Genesis14:14. Thus a later copier obviously generated a common understanding of the location by the reader in his time while writing about a time, centuries before the name-giver of the city was born. Dan. Same with Bethel. Same with Ramesses? This is already sufficient plausible evidence for an updated town name for Avaris. But there is an additional second expert evaluation result leading into another direction ...
To equate the biblical town name Ra'amezez
with the 13th century name Piramesses
is scientifically a weak affair.
According to Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, Professor Hans Goedicke believes that the biblical city Ra'amezez is incorrectly equated with the city Piramesses of Pharaoh Ramesses' 13th century. Hershel Shanks writing about Goedicke's view states ".. the fact is that the store city of Ra'amezez can not be identified with Piramesses, the Residence of the Ramessides. This identification is impossible phonetically, as has been demonstrated conclusively more than 15 years ago by D.B.Redford in 'Exodus I, II' (Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 13, pp. 408-413, 1963)." And Exodus1:11 would have had to call it the "the new residence" or "the new capital city" of Ramesses instead of the store city of Ra'amezez. Moreover, the residence of the Ramessides Piramesses is not denoted in Egyptian sources by the use of the royal name Ramesses alone. When the residence of the Ramessides is referred to, the royal name is connected with the Egyptian word Pr (Pi), meaning house or residence: the reference is in the form 'PerRamesses' (BAR, September/October 1981, p. 44). Long before PerRamesses .. was Avaris, the later capital of the Hyksos kings .. (it) was written in hieroglyphics transliteration .. R3-mtny (Khatana) which is today called Tell el-Daba and is being excavated by Manfred Bietak. The hieroglyphic R3-mtny can be projected back into Semitic transcription as Ramesen (better Ra'amezez). Therefore Hershel Shanks concludes "Biblical Ra'amezez can therefore almost certainly be identified with Tell el-Daba, the old town Avaris beyond the later town PerRamesses." (3)
Today's Town Tell el-Daba,
the hieroglyphic 18th & 17th century BC Avaris,
was contemporary written Ra'amezez in Old Hebrew.
Another this research result supporting theory is that Avaris's second name was Ra-meses from the very beginning on already in the 19th century BC meaning "Ra is born", honoring the sun deity Ra.
However, a single town name reinterpretation is the very fundament of Egyptology and Leading 'Biblical' Archeology to ignore the comprehensive biblical chronological data and still claim the mid 13th century, the time of Pharao Ramesses, as undisputable Exodus time AND as indisputable proof that Israel in Egypt, the Exodus and the Conquest of Canaan never happened. Further on it is their fundament to avoid any other chronological date and thus also the real biblical date of the Exodus in the leading scientific discussion with the blocking sentence "Chronology does not permit us to make such conclusions .." (38th minute of Bietak's lecture against the biblical Exodus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfpRUj9qoEU) which is the official language for the Ramesses Time Paradigm does not permit the real true biblical times to be used for matches with any contemporary archeological evidence. Oddly enough the Ramesses Time Paradigm is disproven by the same leaders of 'Biblical' Archeology proclaiming the detected missing of any confirming archeological evidence for an Exodus or Israel in Egypt in the Ramesses time. But instead of admitting their Ramesses Time Paradigm has been disproven by themselves, they claim to have allegedly disproven the Bible.
In contrast, the Bible always said the Exodus took place in 1606 BC. Nearly all relating ancient writings back then understood and confirmed the biblical time of the Exodus as the time of the contemporary Hyksos Expulsion (see the start of Chapter Moses).
"Without dating it's impossible to do anything ...
Dates and Chronology are fundamental to everything,
because without knowing the chronology ... you can't progress."
Israel Finkelstein, 2013, Archeology & the Bible, Interview
Israel Finkelstein's world-known book
The Bible Unearthed builds on the fundament of
the self disproved Bible falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm.
- THE FACTS -
THE REDISCOVERD FIRST AND ONLY UNFALSIFIED STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
The Ramesses Time Paradigm based Chronology does ignore and change many biblical time figures. It reinterprets and manipulates biblical time figures to make them fit into its time estimation of 1260 BC. It changes them by predating, postdating, and so-called dual dating when not understanding different ancient counting methods between Israel and Judah. This way it does falsify what the Bible really says by over three centuries.
Ignoring or changing one single biblical time figure
can already falsify what the Bible really says by over 100! years.
One chronological ancient fundament of the Ramesses Time Paradigm is the 3rd-century Seder Olam Chronology of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). Suprisingly enough even the Seder Olam Chronology does "also determine certain dates which are not indicated in the Bible.": It compresses the Tanakh‘s chronological data by over 300 years through assigning the shortest „choosable“ time to events and by adopting always the lesser of two „possible“ numbers. It also squeezes the Tanakh external time of the evidenced centuries-long rulership of the Persians into less than one century. And the time of the Judges is squeezed together by a not Tanakh congruent understanding of the 300 years of Jephta in Judges11:26 as we'll see later. The result is an Exodus which allegedly happened in 1312 BC, three centuries earlier than the full amount of unfalsified time data of the Tanakh (Bible) does document. Neither the 480 years of theocracy between the building of the Temple and the Exodus in 1Kings6:1 nor the 300 years in Judges11:26 allow an Exodus around 1300 BC.
The so-called 'Early' Date Estimation into 1446 BC does ignore and change even more biblical time figures by predating, postdating, and dual dating. This is based on invented nonbiblical parallelized ruling times of different rulers to make them fit into the 'Early' Date Estimation and it contradicts harshly Acts13:17-22 that states the time of the judges counts 450 years confirmed a second time by the summation of all single reign times of the different judges in Judges3:8, 3:11, 3:14, 3:30, 4:3, 5:31, 6:1, 8:28, 9:22, 10:2, 10:3, 10:8, 12:7, 12:9, 12:11, 12:14, 13:1, and 1Samuel4:18, 7:2.
Additionally, the 300 years in Judges11:26 are describing the time of Israel having been fully settled in Gilead from the conquest 1567 to 1267 BC; The rulership of the Judge Jair in Judges10:3 before the conflict with the Ammonites started is misunderstood by Chronologists of the late and early date estimations and we will see how they have to be understood in the later calculation of the Exodus.
The rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology is the first and only externally independent Bible Chronology that uncompromisingly integrates the complete amount of all unfalsified biblical figures and they all open up and work out fine. It reveals as a pure biblical fact, that the Exodus took place 1606 BC in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, additionally confirmed by nearly all Bible relating ancient writings (see Start Chapter Moses). Not even one single previous Biblical Chronology succeeded in taking the complete amount of biblical figures into consideration; Everyone dismissed or changed bible figures to make the calculations fit in dependency on bible external dates. Thus they all simply do not tell what the Bible says; Their date estimations are not purely biblical dates but instead more or less their own creations. Find Dr. Roger Liebi's first explanation of the Strict Bible Chronology together with proving archeological evidence (30th minute) on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84. If You want to examine the Chronology deeper together with precisely explained solved open issues and wipeouts of wrong compromises in previously mentioned Bible Chronologisations study Dr. Roger Liebi's lecture on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdLLr2C5Ihc&t=9s.
Let us now examine the example the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC:
It is calculated by taking seriously into account the complete amount of all biblical time figures parallelly on two different paths: First the seemingly easy light direct path and second the long path "by foot"; The second long path "by foot" is counting up all biographical time data, reign times and other time data of the complete Tanakh/ Old Testament. The result is the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC. To check the whole way 'by foot' study the PDF https://www.rogerliebi.ch/sites/default/files/downloads/chronologie_des_at.pdf. Both ways are also explained in the mentioned linked video lecture - here are the cornerstones of the "easy light direct" way:
Synchronicity with the Bible externally safest historical date; M’lakhimBet/2Kings25:8 says the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in DivreiHamYamimBet/2Chronicles36 took place in the 19th reign year of Nebukadnezar which is according to contemporary astronomical data exactly 586 BC.
Hesekiel4:4-5 confirms 390 years between Jerusalem's destruction and the division into the Northern and Southern Kingdom.
120 years between the division and the beginning of the monarchy
= 40 years of Saul in Acts13:21 + 40 years of David in 2Kings2:11 + 40 years of Salomon in 2Chron9:30
450 years - the Time of the Judges in Acts13:18 - is additionally confirmed by the summation of all biblical reign times in the Book of Judges:
Judges3:8, 3:11, 3:14, 3:30, 4:3, 5:31, 6:1, 8:28, 9:22, 10:2, 10:3, 10:8, 12:7, 12:9, 12:11, 12:14, 13:1 and 1Samuel4:18, 7:2.
14 years between the Time of the Judges & the Conquest of the Promised Land can be calculated on 2 different ways:
1606-1012 BC is the time between the first temple built and the Exodus =
480 years of G'd ruling Israel in 1Kings6:1 + 114 not counted g'dless years of Israel's idolatry under foreign rulership in Judges3:8, 3:14, 4:3, 6:1, 9:22, 10:8, and 13:1 = 594 years
594 years - 4 years Salomon - 40 years David - 40 years Saul - 450 years Judges - 6 years of Conquest - 40 years of Israel in the Desert = 14 years
From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You add all the time figures until the first year of Jair when the problems with the Ammonites began = 1267 BC
Jephta states that for 300 years (Judges11:26) the Ammonites did not complain since the conquest of the eastern land of Jordan in the 39th year (Numbers21) of the wandering in the desert: 1267 BC + 300 = 1567 BC - 1 = 1566 BC the first year of the Conquest - 6 years of Conquest = 1560 BC
From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You sump up all the time figures until the beginning of the time of the judges = 1546 BC
The time between the Judges & the Conquest End = 1560 - 1546 = 14 years
6 years of Conquest Joshua14:7-10 B’midbar/Numbers9:1 Kaleb was 79 years old in the 40th year in the Desert and 85 years old when the conquest was finished.
40 years of Israel in the Desert in Sh’mot/Exodus16:35, B’midbar/Numbers14:34, D’varim/2:7.8:4 and Acts13:18
The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt
You see the 'easy light direct' way is revealed as by no means so obvious, easy, and light as it seemed to be to biblical scholars; They ignored or even discarded nearly all never disproved relating ancient writings and they predated, postdated, dual dated, ignored dates, manipulated dates, parallelized dates whenever they wanted because many biblical dates needed to be changed to make their (late or early dating) theory work.
THE EXODUS OF ISRAEL AND THE EXPULSION OF THE 'HYKSOS'
TOOK PLACE IN 1606 BC
The end of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt is unveiled in this work as the biblical and the historical time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' out of Egypt (See Start of this Chapter). The dissolving of so-called contradictory chronological figures (eg. the 594 and 480 years between building the Temple and Exodus) in the Bible is realized by understanding the scriptures not only as never disproved trustworthy eyewitness reports but also as the self-claimed from G'ds view inspired truth; And from G'ds view certainly, only HIS ruling time over Israel from the Exodus to the time of the Kings does chronologically count. This means atheistically translated: Only the years of Israel's theocracy do chronologically count in a biblical time summary of the history of a self-called People of G'd. Thus the 594 years between King Salomos 4th reign year of building the Temple and the Exodus (see calculation in the chronology above) do not contradict the famous 480 years in 1Kings6:1 as soon as one realizes that from the LORD's view and from HIS people's view the 114 years of g'dless foreign idolatrous domination over Israel in Judges3:8, 3:14, 4:3, 6:1, 9:22, 10:8, and 13:1 logically do not count. Ancient relating writings do confirm and prove this ancient contemporary common knowledge and chronological understanding of the biblical time figures (See Start of this Chapter).
In contrast to this Jackson and Lake (1979, p. 151) claim that in the first century the Jewish historian Josephus would indeed have counted the foreign idolatrous oppression times in the Book of Judges; Josephus could be called a 'modernistic' Jewish historian of his time because his target readers were mainly the nonbelieving pagan idolatrous Romans and these certainly would have been confused by the principle of not counting any existing years for any reasons, so Josephus who evidenced trusted in the Bible as a fully trustworthy compendium of eyewitness reports and inspired scripture did not mention the 480 g'dfearing years in order to avoid Roman irritations.
The Bible and nearly all ancient relating writings eg. old church father Eusebius did not count the ruling time of g'dless oppressors, as it was custom knowledge in this time (check Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers at the Start of this Chapter). And in Egyptian ancient historians' writings of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, the deletion or ignorance of foreign rulership times was also usus: The Hyksos ignored most Egyptian deities. In both the Abydos list and the Sakkara list the foreign oppressors, the Hyksos, are left out (Gardiner 1961, 440). This leads to the question of why should Israel even want to include foreign pagan rulership years in their 480 years of history as a nation of G'd count if even pagan nations of these times did not do it. To finally sum it up, chronologically ignoring foreign rulership times was common practice in the iron and bronze age and it was commonly known and understood in ancient times.
THE BIBLICAL 430 AND 400 YEARS OF ABRAHAM ISAAC AND ISRAEL IN FOREIGN LANDS
The 430 and 400 years of ABRAHAM's seed in foreign lands in Exodus12:40.41, Genesis47:9 and Galatians3:16.17
and in Acts7:6-7, Genesis15:13,21:5.12,47:9
are cristal clearly clarified in the Bible as the time of Abraham and his seed in Canaan AND Egypt together. It is additionally proved by nearly all ancient relating and confirming writings that the 430 years of Israel in foreign lands are counting the years in Canaan AND in Egypt. The only mathematically possible 215 years in Egypt are biblically clearly proved by the four generations in Genesis15:16 given as time frame for Israel in Egypt: The four generations are evidenced by Jacob's son Levi in Ex6:16, Levi's son Kahat in Ex6:18, Kahat's son Amram in Ex6:20, and Amram's son Moses in Ex12:40. Levi’s son Kahat was born in Canaan before they arrived in Egypt according to Jubilees44:14. So the only two generations of Levi‘s family born in Egypt are Kahat‘s son Amram and Amran‘s son Moses. Thus a time frame of 430 years of Israel in Egypt would lack any plausibility in contrast to the 215 years because eg. Abraham, Jacob and Moses were older than 90 years when their last sons were born. The resulting half of 430 years = 215 years in Egypt is derived by Genesis12:4, 21:5, 25:7, 21:5, 35:28, 47:28, 30:23, 50:26, 41:46, and 41:53. How to understand the 430 years in Exodus12:40 is also explained by first-century Rabbi Gamaliel's former student and pharisee Shaul (roman citizen name Paul) in Galatiens3:16,17 as the time from Abraham to Moses in Foreign Lands. The Greek Septuaginta - the Greek Old Testament of Alexandria - clearly explains: "The time of living of the sons of Israel, who lived in Egypt AND Canaan was 430 years." This has been evidenced the ancient understanding in early all writings and the Jewish and Christian understanding up until today. The 400 years from Isaac as heir of the covenant until the Exodus in Genesis15:13 explained in Acts7:6,7 are meant the same way - For more evidence reread the first passage of this Chapter Chronology and You can examine and prove everything even deeper in the linked lecture of Dr. Roger Liebi on
Because of lots of archeological evidence confirming the time of JOSEPH in the time of Amenemhet III, the Late Date (1446 BC) theory has to represent the understanding of the 430 years as only in Egypt to be able to incorporate all all the evidence. Like in the case of the already mentioned 480 years the so-called Early Date Theory is based on ignoring or altering all the many biblical time figures which disprove this kind of understanding (480 biblical years of theocracy + 114 biblically evidenced years of foreign rule and idolatry = 594 biblically evidenced years in total). Thus the understanding of the 430 years AND of the 480 years in both cases builds on picking a cite out of its bigger biblical context and interpreting it in strong contradiction to the biblical context. This method has proven to be highly effective for convincing huge masses for non biblical theories or ideologies to be ‘biblical’. It can even convince to represent as statement the Word of God in its ‘literal‘ meaning. It is historically evidenced as a confessional preference having changed the history of Christianity. The less You know the Bible the easier You are convinced and it is the chosen easy light broad way for seeking for the truth.
The exact precise matching of the complete amount of all biblical time figures taking all this into account is no wonder, no mysterious coincidence, and no hypothesis: It is just simple, logical, and most plausible mathematics. Alternative Exodus dating attempts and all other self-called "Biblical" Chronologies have dismissed and manipulated many biblical time figures for reasons of externally oriented small trust or open mistrust in the credibility of the Bible and they simply do not take into account what the Bible always said; It is externally evidence-based since (Qumran) 200 BC and it is internally content based since 1606 BC what the Bible always said:
The Bible always said the Exodus took place 1606 BC.
This was commonly known in ancient times
which is confirmed by nearly all ancient relating writings.
THE BY G'D NOT COUNTED YEARS IN HISTORY
The 114 by G'd not counted g'dless years are not an exemption invented by Dr. Roger Liebi but instead evidenced ancient common practice and knowledge (see start of Chapter Moses) and there is a method to it in the Biblical Prophecy; The Biblical Prophecy divides the time of Israel with G'd into Four Phases of 70 Year Weeks (1 Year Week are 7 years) which are 490 Years:
1. The First 70 Year Weeks are the time between Abraham's birth and the Exodus 2111-1606 BC = 505 Years. Here the time of Abraham not believing enough the Word of G'd and marrying Hagar to have Ishmael as firstborn son is not counted in HIS eyes; In these 15 years from his marriage with Hagar to the 5 years old Isaac becoming the heir G'd even didn't talk with Abraham for 13 years. 505 - 15 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
2. The Second 70 Year Weeks are the time between the Exodus and Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall 1606-1002 BC = 604 Years. Here the already examined 114 Years of foreign rule and idolatry are not counted in HIS eyes. 604 - 114 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
3. The Third 70 Year Weeks are the time between Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall and the Building up of Jerusalem in Nehemia 1 1002-445 BC. The time of the 67 years in Babylonian Captivity of Israel in Dan1:1,Hes1:1-2,2Chr36,Jer52:30 as a time of atonement of sins and missing rulership/ theocracy is not counted in HIS eyes. 557 - 67 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
4. In Daniel 9:2-27 the 70 Year Weeks between the Building up of Jerusalem and the 1000 years of the reign of the Messiah at the end of time are interrupted after 69 Year Weeks by the Messiah being killed and the Temple being destroyed and Jerusalem would be under war until the end of time and Israel would be dispersed throughout the complete world until the end of time. At the end of time, Israel is brought back to its Promised Land, and the seven last years until the Kingdom of the Messiah start with a 7-year peace contract and an alliance between Israel and Europe, biblically called the islands. The two millennia of Israel living in Exile as their time of atonement and missing theocracy is not counted within the 70 Year Weeks.
[5. The author discovered a fifth g'dless phase probably not counted in the eyes of the Almighty: One approximate century plus-minus at least a third in Jubilees4:33-5:1 and 5:22-25 of g'dless idolatrous evil domination - this time over complete mankind - is the century before 2463 BC before the world's biggest natural disaster, the flood. This probably not by G'd counted time does not touch today's Christian chronology back to 2463 BC but it touches the Jewish calendar counting from the day of creation on with zero. And it is relevant for believers who take Psalm 90,4 seriously that says 1000 years in the eyes of the Lord being like one day; According to the Strict Biblical Chronology and in case taking that century out of account then in our generation (4119 BC - 2021 AD) 6 days are done in the eyes of the G'd of Israel and the Sabbath Millenium of peaceful reign of the Messiah would be knocking at the door now. For the Christians: check 2Petrus3:8, Revelation20:4, Jubilees4:29 - in the first century AD Jesus' disciple Barnabas, the greek apostolic father Holy Papias, and Jesus' disciple John inscriptively evidenced preached the Sabbath Millenium after the end of the world.]
SIDENOTE OF SIDENOTE
ONLY FOR CHRISTIANS:
THE BY G'D COUNTED YEARS IN PROPHECY
Last but not least an opposite example that the living G'd of the Bible is counting the years seriously and precisely and therefore every single biblical time figure MUST NOT be changed or ignored and MUST be taken seriously from HIS view as Word of G'd;
The prophecized coming of the Messiah in Daniel 9:25-26:
"seven weeks (of years) will elapse between the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim until the Moshiach, the Prince comes ... Then after sixty-two weeks, the Moshiach will be (exterminated) cut off but not for himself. The people of a prince yet to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary, but its end will come (like) with a flood, and desolations are decreed until the war is over."
(Complete and Orthodox Jewish Bible)
- One week of days counts seven days = One week of years counts seven years.
- According to all unfalsified biblical time figures/ according to the Strict Bible Chronology 445 BC, King Artaxerxes issued the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim in the month of Nisan.
- According to Daniel 11, a prophesized year counts 360 days because
"42 months count 1260 days".
- Thus the time until the coming of the Messiah counts
69 weeks of years times 7 days times 360 days = 173.880 days.
- If You take the leap days into accounts You reach exactly the month Nisan in the year AD 32.
- According to Luke3 John, the Baptist baptized at the river Jordan
in the 15th year of Caesar Tiberius.
Tiberius' reign started AD 14 thus it was the year AD 29.
- According to Luke13:3-9 Jesus prayed from then on for three years until he entered Yerushalayim. He was celebrated like a prince and as the Messiah and Son of David. He entered Yerushalayim exactly in the month Nisan in the year AD 32. Later he was crucified/exterminated/cut off not for himself but for all of us.
- In AD 70 the Romans destroyed the city and the sanctuary which is not yet built up again until today.
- Desolations followed for Yerushalayim in AD 135, AD 614, AD 629, AD 638, AD 1071, AD 1099, AD 1189, AD 1244, AD 1517, AD 1917, AD 1948, and AD 1967. Since then Yerushalayim and the Temple Mount are back in Jewish hands.
The oldest copy of Daniel's prophecies has been found in Qumran. Handwriting style, grammar, and unique words date his prophecy into the 6th to 7th century. According to scripture, Daniel went into Exile to Babylon 606 BC. This fulfilled prophecy is called the fatal blow for atheism and the other religions and the proving evidence for the living G'd of Israel being above space and time.
There is no evidence
PROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th/13th/16th/17th Dynasty being CANAANITES.
There is no evidence
DISPROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th/13th/16th/17th Dynasty being ISRAELITES.
This work delivers over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence
revealing the opposite is the case.
Radiocarbon Results of the Storm Stela and the Ypuwer Papyrus evidenced Santorini Vulcano Eruption Impact on Egypt
prove the Hyksos Expulsion and Ahmose's I reign
took place 75 years earlier.
Egyptology does not deliver the necessary archeological evidence
to prove the defined Second Intermediate Period counting
'254' years in '1803-1549' BC (Kim Ryholt).
This work delivers the archeological evidence
revealing same defined Second Intermediate Period is counting
160 biblical years in 1785-1625 BC.
FOR BELIEVERS IN THE HEBREW BIBLE - TANAKH -
BY CHRISTIANS CALLED OLD OR FIRST TESTAMENT
Until the end of World War II the oldest evidenced scriptures of the Tanakh (Old Testament) were only one millennium old. They revealed that every word and even letters were counted to ensure a 100% correct copying process without any changes. Nevertheless the „scientific neutral“ Bible Criticism proclaimed the Bible was falsified all over in the millenium before. This was disproved finally by the Qumran discoveries of the c. 2200 year old scriptures of the complete Tanakh. Nevertheless „scientific neutral“ Bible Criticism from then on proclaimed the written Bible is no older than around 2500 years and was falsified all over by oral traditions handed down in the up to 500 years before. Nevertheless the Word of G‘d always sayed Moses wrote his five books 1606-1566 BC; His first book is based on Henoch‘s, Noah’s, the Patriarchs‘, Levi’s and his other book’s are based Amram‘s, Moses‘ and at the end Joshua‘s eyewitness reports.
An ancient rabbinical warning to the copiers of the Bible says:
„If You change one single Word of the Bible
You are a destroyer of the World!“
This Chapter has unveiled that only three single biblical words changed in their meaning were enough to lead the world astray and ensure the destruction of its faith in the Word of G‘d. These three words are:
1. „JHWH“ in the book of Genesis allegedly disproving Moses‘ authorship of his books and allegedly proving instead many different authorships one millennium later than the Word does claim (and this in contrast to the history of alphabetical writing in Egypt at the start of Chapter Moses and tons of more Bible corroborating archeological evidence)
2. „Ra-amezes“ allegedly meaning Piramesses and proving a by 3 centuries falsified „Biblical“ Chronology and proving an extraordinary amount of biblical time figures wrong - and at the end allegedly revealing the Bible as a compendium of lies
3. The biblical „430 years“ of theocracy allegedly proving a (by 160 years falsified) Biblical Chronology based on the attempt to date the Exodus into the year 1446 BC and allegedly „proving“ an even bigger amount of biblical time figures wrong - „proving“ the Word of G’d wrong at many places for the sake of proving the Word of G‘d right in one selected unexamined misunderstood sentence - and by this in the end strengthening Leading Archeology’s and Egyptology‘s proclamation the Bible would allegedly by Jericho be proven as to be a compendium of political lies written around 500 BC; Jericho‘s destruction around 1550 BC will never be disproved for the simple reason that it is indeed the strictly biblically approved correct time.
What does that mean to Christian believers in the Word of G‘d?
It means that the Almighty in his perfect plan only needs to allow three of his Words to be interpreted in a misleading way to let HIS biblical end time prophecy regarding apostasy come to an essential part to its fullfillment; Paul relates in 1Tim4:1 and 2Thess2:3 on Jesus himself who prophezised the fall away (from faith) before his return in Matthew24:10 confirmed by the New International Version Bible, the English Standard Version Bible, Hoffnung für alle, and the Catholic Bible, especially the comment of the Allioli Bible of the 19th century.
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Pharaoh Senwosret III
Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Amenemhet-Ankh Khety KhnumHotep
- God Sealer
- Gate of Foreign Lands
- Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
- Arm of Month
- Mouth of Nekhen
- Senewosret- Ankh
- later Mon(th)-hotep
& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut
Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II
- "Mother of Gods"
MANASSE Senebefni Ibiaw
Wepwauthotep/ Sobekhotep III
„Kingson“ Khakaw/ Sewadjtew
„Kingson“ Sonb/ Ined
Seneb, Satamun, …
12 Brothers &
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, ZEBULON
LEVI Pharaoh Amenemhet V,
3 of his sons became Pharaohs, his grandson became Amenemhet VI,
Pharaoh Amenemhet IV,
all of his 10 sons became Pharaohs, his great-grandson became Amenemhet VII
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH and thus was not memorized
Amenemhet's III children:
- Daughter Pharaoh Nofrusobek
- BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nubhetepti-khered
- Daughter Nofruptha
- EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
- Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV
Vizier Ankhu Senwosret
Co-Rulership with his father JOSEPH:
Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety
Vizierkingship over Egypt:
& Wife Mereret
Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
Vizier Iymerew Aya
2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:
ESER Nebankh &
Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw
also deciphered as Dedwen-/ Dedu-Month Senebtefi
Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun
Illegitimate son (1Chr7:14) of an Aramean concubine:
1. MACHIR Nehy
Legitimate sons (Jos17,1Chron7)
of Egyptian mother Nebetka:
2. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
3. HELEQ Vizier Senebhenef
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL Pharaoh name lost
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER Pharaoh Khendjer
- First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
- Archeologically evidenced
King Zamonth and
- Father of the Land
- Father of G'ds
- Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris
- Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV
c. *1794-1714+ BC
Assistance of his Grandfather JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
over Southern Egypt:
(Gen46:21) granddaughter of BENJAMIN
"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR (1Chron7:12) Pharaoh Hor
„Lady of the House“
Former Widow of MANASSE's/ Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR/ Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
Vizier Iymeru Aya
c. *1786-1698+ BC
Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father EPHRAIM and brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1726 BC
Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Wifes: ZatJan, Redinetes
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
16th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
13th Dynasty Vizierking
over complete Egypt:
- Archeologically evidenced
of Pharaoh Wegaf
c. *1752-1658+ BC
Son of SHUTELAH's Resseneb's wife and former widow MAACHAH Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy (1Chr7:14) who died with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death
PERESH Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne.
He died early before his sons reaching their kinghship.
He was proclaimed by his sons as
- "Royal Sealer"
- "Father of Gods"
- King as Father of "Kingsons"
& Wife Kemi
died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep
Mother of 2 self-called "Kingsons":
1.REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
2.ULAM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayameru II
c. *1752-1646+ BC
Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH (1Chr7:23) Iymeru Aya
Co-Rulership with father Vizierking Iymeru Aya:
c. 1716-1698 BC
17th Dynasty Vizierking
over Southern Egypt
Reduced to Vizier
First Canaanite Hyksos' Pharaoh
First 15th Dynasty self announced HYKSOS = Foreign King who arose in enmity over Egypt (Exodus1:8 in literal old hebrew)
Hebrew Shepherd Kings:
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:20) Vizierking Resseneb
2. BERIAH 16th Dynasty
(1Chr7:23) Vizierking Ayamerew
3. REFACH 17th Dynasty
(1Chr7:25) Vizierking Ayamerew II
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep'IV'
c. *1720-1626+ BC
Son of PERESH/ Haankhef (1Chr7:16)
Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan
Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
Sobekhotep Mio =
1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan
1. Canaanite wife
Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite Hyksos Khayan,
Sobekhotep/ Djadja later Pharaoh Sobehotep V and
however first of all
Adoptive Mother of Sobekhotep Mio =
2. Hebrew wife Tjan:
Son Amenhotep later named Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI
Daughter Nebtiunet later Queen Tetisheri, wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose
REKEM (1Chr7:16) Pharaoh Neferhotep'I'
no reign time due to early death
nephew of Sobekhotep IV
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep'IV'
Co-Rulership as hebrew son in law together with canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC
Thebes: 1666 BC
Switch back from Vizierking Dynasty to Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the
downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover of the Ahmosides 1627 BC
Notes and References
Barkay, Gabriel et al., "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context", Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 66, No. 4 (December 2003), pp. 162–171 (at JSTOR) Archived 16 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
Bible and Science https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/exodus.html
Bietak, M., Tell el-Daba http://www.auaris.at/htmle/history_en.html. Retriever30 November 2019
Bietak, Manfred, 1996 Avaris, the cpaital of th Hyksos: recent excavations at Tell el-Daba & David Rohl 2010 The Lords of Avaris
Bietak, Manfred. 1987. "Comments on the Exodus." Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.
....... 1988. "Contra Bimson, Bietak Says Late Bronze Age Cannot Begin as Late as 1400 BC" Biblical Archaeology Review 15:4 (July/August).
....... 1991. "Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age." Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 281.
Bimson, John J. 1980. "Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs." Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives.ed. by Millard and Wiseman. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
....... 1981. Redating the Exodus and Conquest. 2nd ed.Sheffield: The Almond Press.
Bimson and Livingston. 1987. "Redating the Exodus." Biblical Archaeology Review 13:5 (September/October).
Charlesworth, James. 1983. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. Garden City: Doubleday & Comapny.
....... 1985. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 2. Garden City: Doubleday & Comapny.
Dodson, Aidan Marc 2004 & https://www.ancient-egypt.org; Hilton, Dyan 2010 London. The complete royal families of ancient Egypt. According to german Wikipedia his concubines Kawit, Henhenet, Kemsit, Sadeh and Aschait died very young.
Eusebius, Pamphilus. 1955. The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus. Translation by Christian Cruse.Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
....... 1956. Eusebius Werke: Die Chronik Des Hieronymus. Ed. by Rudolf Helm. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
....... 1981. Preparation of the Gospel. Translation by Edwin Gifford. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.
Gardiner, Alan H. 1916. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. rpt.Recueil de travaux ..., Vols. 32-36, Paris.
....... 1947. Ancient Egyptian Onomastica. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
....... 1961. Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grajetzki, Wolfram, Court of Officials of the Egyptian Mittel Kingdom 2009 London & Janice Karmin, The Cosmos of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan 1999 London
Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16. The Eruption took place around 1600 BC.
Herodotus. 1920. Herodotus: Books I-II. Translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.
(Cypriot White Slip pottery .. provides no convincing argument against an eruption date of around 1600 BC)
Josephus, Flavius. 1830. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translation by William Whiston. Baltimore: Armstrong and Plaskitt.
....... 1926. Josephus. Translation by H. ST. J. Thackeray. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kitchen, K.A. 1965. "Theban Topographical lists, Old and New."Orientalia 34.
....... 1967. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago:Inter-Varsity Press
Manetho. 1940. Manetho. Translation by W. G. Waddell. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mooere, Megan B.; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cambridge, UK. and Rainey, Anson F. (1995). "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society". In Wright, David Pearson; Freedman, David Noel; Hurvitz, Avi (eds.). Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Eisenbrauns.
Redford, Donald. 1970. A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph.Leiden: E.J. Brill.
....... 1979. "A Gate Inscription From Karnak and Egyptian Involement in Western Asia During the Early 18th Dynasty." Journal of the American Oriental Society 99:2.
....... 1982. "A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89-101 of Thutmose III's List of Asiatic Toponyms)."Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12:55-74.
....... 1987. "Perspective on the Exodus." Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.
....... 1992. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology. sciencedaily.com, April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241.
Rohl, David M. 1995. Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest.New York: Crown Publishers.
Roux, Georges. 1964. Ancient Iraq. 3rd ed. New York: Penguin Books.
Septuagint Version of the Old Testament, with an English Translation. 1970. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Septuaginta. 1935. Ed. by Alfred Rahlfs. Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft Stuttgart.
Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.
Stern, P. 1347.1367 Vol.4 and P. 326, Vol.1). Sichem was destroyed around 1540 BC and remained abandoned for a century. Tel Dan was destroyed around 1550 BC.
Tacitus. 1925. Histories and Annals. 4 Vols. Translated by C. H. Moore and J. Jackson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
....... 1964. The Histories. Translation by Kenneth Wellesley. London: Penguin Books.
Thiele, Edwin. 1983. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Van Seters, John. 1966. The Hyksos. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Yadin, Yigael. 1963. The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands.London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.