The Chronology of Israel in Egypt
Following biblical cornerstone years of Israel in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology shall be a foretaste of the complete Chronology Israel in Egypt. They provide a chronological framework for over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence matching the biblical story of Israel in Egypt:
JOSEPH IS ANNOUNCED (Genesis 41:46) by Pharaoh Senwosret III and his son Amenemhet II AS VIZIERKING ABOVE ALL EGYPTIANS EXCEPT PHARAOH. His first Viziernames are Senwosret Ankh and Amenemhet Ankh. Ankh means Enlivement; Joseph is serving as enlivement of his Pharaohs, his family and complete Egypt in the time of the great famine. His second Viziername found at Joseph's Canal up until today called Bar Yusuf is Khety. As adoptive son-in-law of his former slavemaster POTIPHAR/ Khnumhotep II his third Viziername becomes Khnumhotep. His fourth and fifth Viziername are ZaMonth and Month(u)hotep. He rules over Egypt and it’s Pharaohs for 80 years (Genesis 50:22).
1821 BC (1820-1800 BC)
ISRAEL’S ARRIVAL AND ENSETTLEMENT IN EGYPT (Genesis 41:46, 41:53, 42:1, 43:1): Manfred Bietak's Avaris Excavations and Khnumhotep's II tomb in Beni Hasan reveal archeological evidence for a Semitic ensettlement in Egypt c. 1820-1800 BC matching the biblical time of Israel‘s ensettlement. There is additional scriptive evidence of contemporary Semitic settlements around the Middle Kingdom royal residence tj-t3wy from texts in the Illahun archives, especially from the reign of Amenemhat III.
1798 BC (1795 BC)
Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III: JOSEPH arises as Vizierking named ZaMonth Khnumhoteph (these two names later melted together into Monthhotep) over selected yearly rotating Pharaohs of his family. Their descendants in the 16th and 17th Dynasty are called HEBREW SHEPHERD KINGS by ancient historians Josephus and Africanus.
1729 BC (1649 BC/ 1720 BC)
Canaanite Hyksos Invasion:
Jubilees 46:14 originally says "After having defeated the Egyptian King, the KING OF CANAAN makes the plan to OPPRESS THE ISRAELITES and executes his plan." Exodus 1:8 originally says "Then A FOREIGN RULER (Greek: HYKSOS), who did NOT ACKNOWLEDGE Joseph, ROSE UP IN ENMITY AGAINST EGYPT … they put SLAVE masters over Israel to OPPRESS them with forced labor." Leading historical scholarship up until its change from a believing to an unbelieving majority in the 1960s is proven right by the time data of the Bible and the Book of Jubilees: The conquest of Egypt by the Canaanite Hyksos took place c. 1730 BC (Haag 1956 Hurriter p. 739).
ENSLAVEMENT OF ISRAEL:
Archeological Evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeOntopolis are corroborating enslaved Israel building the fortified city of biblical ON in Heliopolis according to 5th century Latin Jubilees 46:14 & Exodus 1:11. The archeologically evidenced Semitic enwalled slave town Lahun in Fayum matches biblical PITHOM. Pithom was approved as Fayum by middle ages local traditions and it is up until today confirmed as such in the Hebrew language. Enwalled Semitic megacity Avaris matches biblical enwalled RAAMEZEZ. All three mentioned towns were fortified/ enwalled in the biblical time of Israel’s enslavement 1729-1606 BC (see Chapter Moses).
(1620-1600 or 1531 BC)
THE TEN PLAGUES AND THE EXODUS OF ISRAEL OUT OF EGYPT in Exodus 12:30 are dated into the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos by nearly all relating ancient writings;
This is verfied by archeological evidence and geological radiocarbon results of the Santorini/ Thera Eruption (Friedrich and Heinemeier estimate 1613 BC +/- 13) impacts on Egypt matching the biblical Ten Plagues. Raamezes/ Avaris and Pithom/ Lahun are archeologically evidenced abruptly abandoned by its Semitic population in the time of the Canaanite Hyksos Expulsion and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt (see Chapter Moses).
ACCORDING TO THE REDISCOVERED
STRIT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
THE BIBLE SAYS THE EXODUS TOOK PLACE IN 1606 BC.
Leading Biblical Archeology is still insisting on the paradox claim that the Exodus never happened and at the same time only could have happened in the 13th century BC. And therefore the lack of evidence in that time would prove the Book of the Exodus to be an ancient compendium of political lies.
In this work the reader can investigate and critically evaluate the quality evidence on both sides. Sowith he becomes enabled
to find and choose on his own the right path to the truth.
The question is none less than does archeological evidence really prove the Bible to be a compendium of political lies
or does the archeologically corrobareted Bible reveal modern Biblical Archeology's conclusions to be a compendium of errors?
THE TIME OF ISRAEL'S EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT
IS ALSO THE TIME OF THE CANAANITE HYKSOS EXPULSION
According to ancient historian Africanus referring on famous Manetho‘s chronology "The 18th Dynasty consisted of 16 Kings ... The first of these was Amôs (Ahmose), in whose reign Moses went forth from Egypt."
According to ancient historian Josephus, Manetho wrote: „After the departure of the tribe of the Shepherds from Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmôsis, the King who drove them out of Egypt, reigned for 25 years 4 months until his death …“. Josephus refers on Manetho’s description of the Hyksos and identifies Israel with the Shepherd Kings being expelled by Ahmose here called Tethmosis being a corrupted name form of Ahmose (Gardiner 1961, 444).
The name Ahmose is confirmed in connection with the Exodus dating by 10 ancient writers: Josephus, Africanus, Hippolytus, Clement, and Tatiana and the secular writers Apion, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, and Ptolemy of Medes.
Archeologist Kenneth Doig and other modern Archeologists even nowadays defend an Exodus under Pharaoh Ahmose. 2014 the Egyptologists Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritner (Moeller & Ritner 2014 p. 1-19) identified Ahmose's Storm Stela text as description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano explosion of Santorini. They concluded that the Radiocarbon results regarding the Santorini Eruption attest a necessary correction of the time of Ahmose who initiated the Storm Stela in his 11th to 22nd reign year (1530-1519 BC according to conventional resumption instead 1605-1594 BC according to the Strict Bible Chronology). Ahmose‘s 11th to 20th reign year sowith have to be corrected into the Radiocarbon dated time of the Santorini Eruption 1620-1600 BC according to many leading experts like Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Friedrich, Heinemeier, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutshcera, Higham, Steier, and Wild.
In The Antiquity of the Jews (1830, 166; Book 8.3.1) Josephus writes the Exodus occurred 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built. Based on the Strict Bible Chronology this results into 1012 BC. Sowith the Exodus according to Josephus would have taken place 1604 BC; The strictly biblical year of the Exodus is 1606 BC. According to Stephen C. Meyers 1 Kings 6:1 states that the Exodus took place 480 years before the Temple of Solomon was built. Yet Josephus clearly states in his book The Antiquity of the Jews that it took place 592 years before the Temple of Solomon was built:
"The difference seems to be in the way the rule of the Judges was calculated. Josephus seems to include the oppressions as well as the judges, whereas the writer of Kings excludes the rule of oppressors, as was customary at this time (Jackson and Lake 1979, 151). This amounts to about 111 years difference."
The „about 111 years“ are strictly biblically precisely 114 years as Dr. Roger Liebi will prove in the last part of this chapter by taking into account the complete amount of all unfalsified biblical time figures.
Further on, Josephus quotes Manetho who wrote a history book about Egypt. Josephus says
"Manetho has granted us one fact. He has admitted that our race (the Jews) was not of Egyptian origin, but came into Egypt from elsewhere, conquered it, and afterward left it" (1926, 267; Book 1.252).
Africanus, Eusebius, and Tatian cite Manetho saying Ahmose expelled the Hyksos. According to Josephus the entrance into Egypt was 215 years before the Exodus which would be 1823 BC. The strictly biblical year is 1821 BC.
Josephus discarded Manetho’s antisemitic and antibiblical „current talk about the Jews not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales“ about „a king Amenôphis, a fictitious person, for which reason he did not venture to define the length of his reign, although in the case of the other kings he adds their years precisely“ who allegedly expelled the Jews contaminated with leprosy and lead by an Egyptian priest who renamed himself Moses. Early Dater Scott Stripling claims this as serious evidence for Amenhotep being the Pharaoh of the Exodus. (Compare Youtube, Digging for Truth Episode 44, 24th minute: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpRUe6-tkzQ). Josephus evaluates Manetho’s comment as follows: „I think, that, so long as Manetho followed the ancient records, he did not stray far from the truth; but when he turned to unauthorized legends, he either combined them in an improbable form or else gave credence to certain prejudiced informants.“
In Dr. Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation and work "The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers" he examined all ancient Jewish writers, ancient secular writers, ancient Christian early church fathers, and the Tanakh/OT and New Testament/NT regarding the date of the Exodus. His result is:
“Most ancient writings date the Exodus of Israel
into the time of the Expulsion of the Hyksos under Pharaoh Ahmose.”
(They are written in bold letters.)
Examined Jewish ancient writers were:
Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah, Book of Jubilees, Pseudo-Philo, Demetrius, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Testament Of Moses, Targum Neofiti I, Babylonian Talmud, Genesis Rabbah, 1Qumran Genesis Apocryphon, 4Qumran559 Biblical Chronology and Midrash Abkhir.
Examined Secular ancient writers were:
Apion, Chaeremo, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Lysimachus, Manetho, Ptolemy of Medes and Tacitus. Tacitus was a Senator in Rome and the most famous historian of the first century. He acknowledges that there was a plague in Egypt, the Jews were expelled out of Egypt, Moses was their leader, and they conquered a new country. Tacitus gives us the contemporary secular viewpoint.
Examined Church Fathers' writings were:
Africanus, Eusebius, Hippolytus, Clement, Tatian, and Theophilus.
Meyer does not include Eusebius because he cites but does not agree with the secular writer Ptolemaeus, who identifies Ahmose I as the correct Pharaoh of the Exodus: "Now this Ptolemaeus ... says that the departure of the Jews out of Egypt under Moses as their leader took place in the time of Amosis king of Egypt".
Examined 3rd century Bible canonical books were:
The Old Testament/ The Tanakh & The New Testament.
The key verses in the Old Testament are Genesis 15:13, Exodus 12:40, and 1 Kings 6:1. The key verses for the New Testament are Acts 13:20 and Galatians 3:17.
Meyer mentions: “Eusebius in his ‘The Preparation for the Gospel’ quotes Clement on Ctesias saying: … the movement of Moses out of Egypt took place in the time of Amosis King of Egypt, (1981, 533) … then the Exodus would be about 1598 BC (Roux 1964, 504-5)“. This is only eight years away from the strictly biblical year of the Exodus 1606 BC.
THE TIME OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
WAS 215 YEARS INSTEAD OF 430 YEARS
The 430 and 400 years of ABRAHAM, ISAAC and ISRAEL in foreign lands in Exodus 12:40.41, Genesis 47:9 and Galatians3:16.17 and in Acts 7:6-7, Genesis 15:13,21:5.12,47:9 are clarified as the time of Abraham and his seed in Canaan and Egypt together.
Meyer writes: "One of the major stumbling blocks for the conservative is their understanding of the 480 years from the founding of the temple to the Exodus. This number does not include the one hundred and eleven years of oppression in the book of Judges that ancient writers included in their totals." This is a deciding result of Meyer's work explained even more precisely by Dr. Roger Liebi in the last passage of this Chapter.
Meyer also writes: "This paper has shown that most of the ancient writers equated the Exodus with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt... Most ancient writers put the Jews in Egypt for 215 years or less. According to most ancient writers, the 430 years in Egypt were taken to start with the promise to Abraham, and the 400 years from the birth of Isaac. Others begin these years with Abraham's entry into Canaan. All of the ancient Jewish and Christian writers considered in this paper took this 430 or 400 years to cover the time in Egypt AND Canaan. Biblical writers also agree with these ancient traditions, and the archaeological evidence reinforces these views." He also writes: "All took the 400 or 430 years to cover the time in Egypt AND Canaan. Most counted the 400 years from the birth of Isaac or Abraham's entry into the land of Canaan. NONE of the ancient writers including the apostle Paul said the Jews were in Egypt for 430 years." Josephus says in the Antiquities of the Jews 2.15.2 „They left Egypt… four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt.“
This follows the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Greek Septuagint (LXX) reading of Exodus 12:40 which says,
"And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of EGYPYT AND the land of CANAAN was four hundred and thirty years".
The same historical understanding of that time period was widespread for
1800 years in the Christian Church, among the great Bible and history scholars like Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Anselm, Luther, Calvin, Whitefield and Edwards. The Septuagint is the oldest and most important complete translation of the Hebrew Bible made by the Jews. Whiston in his notes on Josephus is puzzled by the Masoretic text (MT) that leaves out "Canaan when Masoretic chronology clearly shows that Israel only stayed HALF of the 430 years in Egypt (1830, 59)." In Judaism, it is common knowledge that Israel was in Egypt for 215 years. This is easier to understand, helpfully visualized and even more convincingly explained in this 12min video documentation on https://youtu.be/FF0F8YjT1og. Nevertheless all contemporary Bible translations show the incomplete sentence of Exodus 12:40.41 which is in incorrect and mathematically impossible, proven by the lifespan of Moses‘ ancestors in the Bible.
The reader can deeper explore Dr. Stephen C. Meyer's findings on https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/exodusdate.htm#BIBICAL%20WRITERS
LATE DATE THEORY - EARLY DATE THEORIE - STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
1260 BC: Ramesses II
THE LATE DATE THEORY
- mainly based on one single word in the Bible: Raamezes Genesis 47:11, Exodus 12:37
- no archeological evidence
+/- Identifying one Pharaoh of the time of Israel in Egypt matching the modified biblical account
- contradicting the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1, 300 years of Judges 11,26 and the 450 years of Acts 13:18 as well as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges
-/- predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates, parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work.
-- Jericho was uninhabited in 1220 BC: No Conquest possible
- In 1210 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
- No evidence at all for any Ten Plagues
- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: no unnatural death of Ramesses II's firstborn son
- Pharaoh Ramesses II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.
- Exodus 4:11 & 2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Ramesses II predecessors ruled 12, 2, and 14 to 27 years.
+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela clearly disprove the 1260 BC theory.
+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC: Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.
430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC contradicts Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC. Complete abundance of Avaris & Lahun in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.
- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC disprove as evidence the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC and the 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC.
- No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt 1475-1260 BC (215 years Israel in Egypt) or 1690-1260 BC (430 years Israel in Egypt)
- No evidence of any ancient historian confirming Ramesses II as Exodus Pharoh.
1446 BC: Amenhotep II
THE EARLY DATE THEORY
+/- mainly based on one single sentence in the Bible: the 480 years in 1 Kings 6:1
+ some archeological evidence
+ Identifying two Pharaohs: Amenemhet III & Amenhotep II of the time of Israel in Egypt archeologically matching the modified biblical account according to the non biblical 430 years in Egypt 1876-1446 BC Theory
+ confirming the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 and the 300 years of Judges 11,26
- contradicting the 450 years of Acts 13:18 as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges
-/- predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates, parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work.
-/+ No destruction layers in 1406 BC: No Conquest possible. Redating attempts of Jericho's destruction are weaker evidenced than undisputed circa 1550 BC.
- In 1406 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
- Radio Carbon redating attempts from c. 1606 BC into c. 1446 BC of the Ten Plagues indicating Santorini Eruption impacts on Egypt turn out to be a weak affair and attempts to throw enough doubts on c. 1606 BC fail in the light of additional confirming pottery evidence of Cyprus.
+/- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: unnatural death of Amenhotep II's firstborn son possible without proving evidence
- Pharaoh Amenhotep II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.
+ Exodus 4:11 & 2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Amenhotep II predecessor ruled 54 years.
+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela disprove the 1260 BC theory and support the 1446 BC theory.
+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC and 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC contradict both Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC & complete abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion. But Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.
+/- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC and disproves as evidence the biblically correct 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC
+/- Joseph as Vizierking for the 430 years Israel in Egypt theory (1876-1446 BC) confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC. No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt in 1660-1446 BC thus no evidence for the biblically correct 215 years Israel in Egypt
+/- Ancient historians: Josephus discarded Manetho’s antisemitic and antibiblical „current talk about the Jews not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales“ about „a king Amenôphis, a fictitious person, for which reason he did not venture to define the length of his reign, although in the case of the other kings he adds their years precisely“ who allegedly expelled the Jews contaminated with leprosy and lead by an Egyptian priest who renamed himself Moses. Early Dater Scott Stripling claims Manetho‘s reproduced rumors are serious evidence for Amenhotep being the Pharaoh of the Exodus, whereas Josephus states „his words are manifest lies and nonsense“.
1606 BC: Ahmose I
under Hyksos King Khamudi
THE STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
+ based on the entire complete amount of unchanged biblical data: The Strict Bible Chronology
++ archeological evidence revealing the complete history of Israel in Egypt
+++ Identifying 79 Pharaohs of the time of Israel in Egypt archeologically matching the original biblical account
++ confirming ALL time figures in the Bible
++ no predating, no postdatings, no dual datings, no ignoring dates, no manipulating dates, no reinterpretation and parallelizing of dates. Maths proves ALL biblical dates work out fine and must not be changed.
++ 1566 BC: Jericho of Joshua 6 & 11 archeologically proven only for the biblical numbers, not for the early or late date theory; Jericho's city walls were destroyed by an earthquake & the city by fire. The same: Hazor was massively devastated.
+ In 1566 BC Canaan is not part of the Egyptian Empire: Only in this case, Canaan is an escape out of Egypt into freedom.
+ Bietak confirms the ashes of Santorini in Northern Egypt. The Ahmose Storm Stele confirms an environmental disaster with biblical Plagues, Storms, destroyed Temples, and Darkness. Radiocarbon results prove necessary correction of Ahmose's reign time from 1531 BC to the Santorini Eruption around 1606 BC.
++ Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: Southern Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose lost his firstborn son Sapair who died young at the time of the Santorini Eruption.
+ King of Egypt Pharao Khamudi: The missing of any tomb or skeleton supports his death in the Red Sea. Archeological Hyksos Expulsion evidence + Manetho‘s documentation speaks for a missing army.
+ Exodus 4:11 & 2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Pharaoh Khamudi's predecessor ruled 41 years
++ a) The Amarna Letters,
b) the Soleb Inscriptions,
c) the Berlin Pedestal, and
d) the Merneptha Stela confirm more differentiated and precisely the Strict Biblical Chronology:
a) 1340-1333 BC: Judges 6:3
b) 1480-1400 BC: Judges 3:30
c) 1480-1340 BC: Judges 4:3, 3:31, 3:30-5:31
d) 1227-1196 BC: Judges 12:7, 9, 11, 14
++ 430 years theories disproved by the Strict Bible Chronology and all ancient relating writings. Biblically proven 215 years in Egypt 1821-1606 BC archeologically match Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlements 1820-1800 BC. Complete Semitic abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion 1606 BC (1531 BC).
++ The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the biblical account.
++ Joseph as Vizierking confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC. All 5 Viziernames in the time of Joseph's biblical Vizierkingship 1830-1750 BC show archeological evidence for being the same person and for biblical attributes of Joseph.
++ Over 10 ancient historians confirm Ahmose I as Pharaoh of the Exodus: Apion, Ctesias, Diodorus, Herodotus, Manetho, Ptolemy of Medes, Africanus, Hyppolytus, Clement, and Tatiana.
++ New archeological evidence of Father Jacob, Joseph's slavemaster Potiphar, his wife Asenath, his father Jacob, his brothers Benjamin and Levi, his sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons confirming the Strict Bible Chronology
++ 2034 BC: Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II archeologically evidenced collected many wives and five of them died young matching the biblical account.
+++ 1729 BC: The Book of Jubilees 46:14 & Exodus 1:8 reveal the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion as the reason for "the new foreign King (=Hyksos) who arose in enmity against Egypt" not acknowledging Joseph: Salitis/ Samuquenu was the first Canaanite Foreign King (= Hyksos) who arose as an enemy over Egypt.
++ The Ipuwer Papyrus archeologically confirms the Ten Plagues written at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty after Pharaoh Ahmose's death.
++ Israel's Exodus following sudden loss of the complete slaveworkforce in Egypt is evidenced by Ahmose's Pyramid and all his huge mud-brick production-based building projects being suddenly broken off around 1606 BC (1531 BC).
THE CHRONOLOGY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
- THE SOURCES -
The following Chronology unveils two contrary different groups of Semitic 'Rulers of Foreign Lands' or 'Hyksos' in Egypt. It is mainly based on books, documentaries, or lectures of Israel Finkelstein, Manfred Bietak and Kim Ryholt, and Dr. Roger Liebi but first of all on the Chronologies of two Qumran Books - Scriptures of the Second Temple Period seen as holy by the essentially large groups of the jewish population: The Torah/ Five Books of Moses and the Book of the Divisions of Time - known as Book of Jubilees:
1. Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 BC, Copenhagen 1997 (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20)
2. Dr. Roger Liebi, Chronology of the Old Testament, 2016,
PDF Printout on https://rogerliebi.ch/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Skript-Chronologie-des-AT-©-Roger-Liebi-Skript.pdf
You can order and buy a glossy brochure in english, french or german writing to firstname.lastname@example.org or on
3. Dillmann/ Herrmann Rönsch, The Book of Jubilees, Leipzig 1874
& Prof. Dr. Klaus Berger, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981
& James VanderKams, Translation of all known Books of Jubilees 1989
You can listen to the full Ethiopian translation of the Book of Jubilees in English on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVxJvSHUrjk
All Tanakh Old Testament books (except the book of Esther) and at least 14 different exemplars of the Books of Jubilees of the Second Century BC were found as Scrolls or in fragments in the Qumran Caves. Their yet unidentified fragments are essentially relevant sources for future even deeper verification of the findings in Chapter Hyksos.
The Bible says Joseph ruled over Egypt for 80 years 1830-1750 BC.
How could his glorious peaceful foreign rulership
stay hidden for millennia?
The leftover history of this time would have to be a dark intermediate period of helpless guesswork within endless uncertainties between tattered apart puzzle pieces:
The complete so-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period
- enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings -
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt.
THE CHRONOLOGY OF ISRAEL IN EGYPT
THE ARCHEOLOGICALLY EVIDENCED HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY OF
ISREAL IN EGYPT
ACCORDING TO THE REDISCOVERED FIRST AND ONLY UNFALSIFIED
STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
All chronological years in this work are Bible corresponding years. The Years in brackets () are scientific highly speculative dates dominating the field and ignoring all biblical time data and nearly all relating ancient writings and they are adding around 75 non-existing non-evidenced years into the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Ryholt 1803-1550 BC versus Bible 1785-1625 BC);
This has been confirmed by the Radio Carbon Dating of the Santorini/ Thera Eruption environmental disaster consequences (1613 BC +/- 13 acc. to Friedrich and Heinemeier, see also Hardy, Stanley and Höflmeier in the footnotes) in Egypt. Radio Carbon Dating has been established in Biblical Archeology by Israel Finkelstein. It is considered to be the safest dating method after scriptural concrete dating evidence. The Santorini/ Thera Eruption is the biggest volcanic eruption in the history of mankind. It is archeologically evidenced by the Ipuwer Papyrus and Pharaoh Ahmose's Storm Stela initiated in his 11th to 22nd reign year. They are describing the Santorini impacts on Egypt and the biblical impacts of the Ten Plagues. In 2014 Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter identified Pharaoh Ahmose’s Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini. They conclude a reign time of Ahmose I closer to the Santorini Eruption 1620-1600. This is correcting the reign time of Ahmose, estimated in Egyptology for 1531 BC into the time around the Santorini Eruption in the biblical year of the Ten Plagues 1606 BC and thereby eliminating 75 non-existing non-evidenced years (9). Leading Archeologists like Manfred Bietak and Leading Radio Carbon Experts agree that Ahmose I is the Pharaoh of the Santorini Eruption Time. The Storm Stela confirms together with the Ipuwer Papyrus exactly and precisely most biblical details of the Ten Plagues (see Chapter Moses) and most details of all Santorini Eruption impacts in Egypt.
The Second Intermediate Period as the "dark period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" (Wikipedia) counts around 75 Pharaohs within only two centuries. This is an extraordinary high number Egyptologists have not been able to explain up until today. Therefore they decided to estimate non evidenced reign times higher as necessary. This fact veiled that the only lifelong rulerships (= Kingship) of this time were the rulerships of Viziers over selected yearly rotating Pharaohs precisely evidenced and explained in Chapter Joseph and already assumed as leadership behind the scenes by many Egyptologists.
Scientific evidence and indications are written in CURSIVE and deeper documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses:
Haran: The LORD ADONAI tells Abraham "Go to the land that I will show you." in Genesis 12:1
Shechem: THE LORD PROMISES THE LAND, HAM’s son CANAAN HAD ROBBED from SEM‘s son ARFAKSAD TO SEM‘s seed ABRAHAM (Book of Jubilees 10:29, Genesis 11:10-26). Therefore according to the Bible as a matter of fact Canaanites are not Semites but Hamites which won’t be corrected in this work. This is the start of the 430 YEARS in Exodus 12:40.41, Genesis 47:9 and Galatians 3:16.17 FROM PROMISE in Shechem TO LAW on Mount Horeb and return of Israel to the Promised Land in their 4th generation.
(Genesis 15:16) ABRAHAM MOVES 2 years later, driven by a famine (Jubilees 13:10.11) TO EGYPT for 5 years. A harem of wifes collecting Pharaoh is informed by his elite about the beauty of SARA so he takes ABRAHAM's wife (Genesis 12:15). ABRAHAM is compensated with sheep, cattle, servants, handmaids, donkeys and camels. The Bible says that afterwards HEAVY PLAGUES COME UPON PHARAOHS HOUSE AND HAREM. Pharaoh releases SARA, ABRAHAM, and LOT with even more cattle, silver and gold treasures. As a very rich clan they return to Canaan (Genesis 12:15-13:2 Jubilees 13:14). So Egypt’s Pharaoh of Abraham’s strictly biblical time should at least evidence several wifes with at least one shorter lifespan than natural (due to the plague) to indicate we have found the correct Pharaoh:
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (2060-2010 BC) archeologically evidenced collected an extraordinary amount of wives - a harem unique in the history of the Middle Kingdom. Seven of his wifes are even namely evidenced in his shrines and there are further three destroyed unexamined harem shrines left. At least five of the seven wifes died an unnatural death in a very young age evidenced by their sceletons (Dodson 2004, Hilton 2010)
Gerar: ISAAC becomes ABRAHAM's official heir. Start of the 400 YEARS of ABRAHAM's seed IN FOREIGN LANDS according to Acts 7:6, Genesis 15:13, 21:5.12 & 47:9. ISAAC, driven by a famine, starts to move to Egypt but he is stopped by the LORD ADONAI: "Go not down into Egypt!" Genesis 26:2
2060-2010 BC: ABRAHAM's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
(1895 or 1859 BC)
Young Nomarch Khnumhotep II biblical POTIPHAR WAS ONE OF THE HIGHEST OFFICIALS AT THE ROYAL PALACE. He starts his career young in reign year 19 of Amenemhet II. He is Priest of Horus/ Re he is Priest of On/ Heliopolis and as Highest of Court/ Law Enforcement and therefore furthermore Chief of the Royal Prison. He becomes announced the "sole friend" of Pharaoh Senwosret II (Grajetzki 2009, Karmin 1999).
1843 BC HE WILL BUY JOSEPH AS SLAVE and will later set him over his complete house.
1833 BC HE HAS TO ARREST JOSEPH and sets him over his prison Jubilees 46:3.
1830 BC HE BECOMES JOSEPH's FATHER IN LAW and adoptive father.
1819 BC he dies.
(see Chapter Joseph)
Death of Senwosret II in his 6th official and sole reign year: He was the last nomarchs supporting Pharaoh. According to Beckerath, the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on IV Peret Day 14 as the plausible date of death of Senwosret II (see 1819 BC). According to Wegner he must have died at the beginning of Senwosret‘s III 19 years of sole reign.
(Collier: 1842 BC)
Pharaoh Amenemhet III starts his 20 years Coregency with his father Senwosret III.
1822-1801 BC: sole reign.
1801-1798 BC: Co-reign with Amenemhet IV
(Collier, Quirke, UCE Lahun Papyri)
Nile level increasing in Semna/ Kumma from 12 to 18 meters: Pharaoh Amenemhet's III first Pyramid is unusably damaged in his 3rd reign year. Harvest Decreasing.
1827 BC in his 15th reign year his new Pyramide is built.
Memphis/ Thebes: (Genesis 41:46) JOSEPH BECOMES GRANDVIZIER OVER EGYPT AND TRAVELS THROUGH THE COMPLETE LAND the complete land to prepare the country for the future famine. JOSEPH's canal up until today called Bar Yusuph enables 7 YEARS OF PLENTY. Joseph's biblical first Viziername in Genesis 41:45 is ZAFENAT PA'ANEAH which is said in original Egyptian „Djedu en ef Pa'Ankh“.His name is archeologically evidenced by his contemporary Viziernames Senwosret-Ankh and Amenemhet-Ankh. His second Viziername - ingraved near Joseph's Canal (Bar Yusuph) - is Khety. In Pharaoh Amenemhet's III 9th reign year JOSEPH's third Viziername Zamonth is discovered in Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. His adoptive name is Khnumhotep. (compare Franke in Quirke 1991 p.51 and see Chapter Joseph)
Death of Pharaoh Senwosret III in the 20th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III. In the 17th to 20th reign year of Amenemhet III the Nile level is increasing in Semna/ Kumma from 18m to 21m within 3 years; Dams are flooded and cause a complete loss of the harvest: Start of the 7 YEARS OF FAMINE (engraved 20th reign year and 21 metres).
Sinai Desert Copper Mine: Oldest Alphabet discovered by Flinders Petrie revealing uniquely distinctive Hebrew letters and words, and biblical names and events diciphered by Petrovic. Redford calls them hallmarks of the „Early Hyksos“. One of them dates into the 20th reign year of Amenemhet when Joseph was traveling around in Egypt taking care against the famine according to the Bible.
1821 BC: ISRAEL’S ARRIVAL AND ENSETTLEMENT IN EGYPT
BerSheva: THE LORD ADONAI SENDS JACOB TO EGYPT in Genesis 46:3 "go down to Egypt … I go down with You … I will also bring you back …"
Avaris/ Goshen 21st year of the reign of Amenemhet III, end of 2nd year of famine: Father Jacobs Clan ISRAEL ARRIVES IN EGYPT AND SETTLES IN AVARIS IN GOSHEN. Jacob's sons are made the King's Shepherds of Egypt by Pharaoh in Genesis 47:6. Avaris excavator Bietak estimates the first ensettlement of the “Early Hyksos” into 1840-1800 BC and calls them 2006 Proto Israelites, later he abruptly changes his mind and calls them "for convenience sake" Canaanites. He identifies the earliest Stratum H building, a large villa, as Northern Syrian Style. This is the style of Jacob's ancestors. Rohl identifies it as Father JACOB's House. Excavated scarabs with the name Retjenu = Eastern Semites from the land of Canaan are dating to the 12th Dynasty. There is additional scriptive evidence of specialised Semitic settlements around the Middle Kingdom royal residence tj-t3wy from texts in the Illahun archives, especially from the reign of Amenemhat III.
Death of Nomarch POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, adoptive father-in-law of JOSEPH Khnumhotep III. POTIPHAR is buried in his famous tomb in Beni Hassan with a picture of JOSEPH's family; It indicates the Going Forth to Heaven Festival in 1821 BC, the 40th-anniversary festival for his friend and Pharaoh Senwosret's II death in his 6th reign year 1861 BC. Kessler and Rabehl propose anniversary festival celebration related tomb wall pictures (see also 1861 BC and Chapter Joseph).
END OF 7 YEARS OF FAMINE in the 27th reign year of Amenemhet III after the extension of JOSEPH's Canal. Joseph's fourth Vizier name Khety is engraved near the Bar Yusuph at his office in the 29th reign year of Amenemhet.
Thebes: In today's Wadi El-Hol Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. They date into reign year 26 of Pharaoh Amenemhet III.
PHITOM/ Lahun in Fayum: Workers Town with an increasing number of Semitic inhabitants excavated by Flinders Petrie. Fayum is identified as Phitom in local rabbinical scriptures of the middle ages as knowledge from ancient traditions. For the 29th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. In complete Egypt and Sinai oldest Alphabetical inscriptions within an at least 11 years timeframe have been excavated: Petrovic identified uniquely hebrew words and uniquely biblical names and events. Joseph's wife's Hebrew name ASENATH is deciphered.
Avaris: DEATH OF FATHER JACOB
JACOB's house in Avaris is replaced by a Stratum G4 palace fronted by a portico of twelve wooden columns with twelve Semitic leader graves in the garden. It was excavated by Bietak and identified by Rohl as JOSEPH's Palace. Emmerich and Josephus confirm the relocation of Joseph's brothers in On/ Heliopolis after Father JACOB's death.
(Collier: 1795 BC)
(Parker: 1815 BC)
(Krauss: 1773 BC)
Strictly biblical year of the Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III derived from the contemporary narrative "Joseph & Asenath". He is succeeded by his adopted son-in-law, husband of his daughter Nubhetepti, Amenemhat IV 1801-1789 BC. He is identified by Ryholt as Ankhu's (EPHRAIM's) uncle and thus Zamonth's (JOSEPH's) brother (BENJAMIN). Next Pharaoh is Amenemhet's III daughter Nofrosobek 1789-1785 BC. 1842-1795 BC is the biblical and scientific almost conjoint reign time of Amenemhet (Collier, Quirke 2006 p. 325).
(Ryholt: 1803 BC)
In Egyptology defined Start of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Parker/ Ryholt). From here on egyptologists of the "dark period of uncertain speculative estimates" add 75 non-evidenced and non-existing years into Egyptian history rejecting the evidenced fact that the only Vizier with a King's beard Zamonth (JOSEPH) and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret (EPHRAIM) - both archeologically evidenced as Kings - must have been the only lifelong rulers of this century; They evidenced selected their close relatives as yearly rotating Pharaohs (see Chapter Joseph).
(Genesis 50:26) DEATH OF JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep (his later fifth name was Monthotep): After 80 years of rulership as Vizierking over Egypt in the first battle of Egypt against the Canaanites in the Valley of Assur his son Pharaoh Sobekhotep III was killed. Canaanite Ruler Makamaron of Assur chased after the Egyptian army but was stopped in front of Hermeapolis (Jubilees 46:7). Manfred Bietak confirms the region of Assur as the original home of the Canaanite Hyksos based on excavated religious practice relicts. Pharaoh Sobekhotep III (of 1749 BC acc. to Kim Ryholt 1997 Tab.88) and Pharaoh Wegaf are both evidenced as previous Chief of Army Commanders (see Chapter Joseph).
1729 BC: Canaanite Hyksos Invasion & ENSLAVEMENT OF ISRAEL
Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks: "the Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" (Exodus 1:13). This is one of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC (1553 BC) - the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I 19 years before the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt - until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Vizier Rekhmire (1479-1425 BC). Further archeological evidence for ISRAEL’S ENSLAVEMENT IN EGYPT is the famous Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 from Thebes. It is an Egyptian slavelist of the 18th century BC containing many Hebrew and exclusively biblical names and will be examined in Chapter Moses.
Avaris: Second war of Egypt against the Canaanites of Assur leading into the by Manetho confirmed Hyksos Invasion. Canaanite Warlord Samuqenu (greek: Salitis) defeats Pharaoh Dedumose (Tiatimaos), invades Egypt and occupies Avaris. He brings Northern Egypt under his 15 years of rulership as self announced Hyksos King of Egypt Exodus 1:8.15, bringing destroying, massacres, and ENSLAVEMENT according to Manetho, Jubilees 46:8 and Exodus1:8. This violent invasion is also confirmed by Ryholt and Redford (Ryholt 1997 p. 302 and ftnt. 1057). Bietak excavated a burned down palace and war mass graves in Avaris exactly matching Manetho‘s described destructions and massacres. Nevertheless he presumes these mass graves errounously as “epidemic” evidence because they seem to him around 75 years too early for Manetho‘s Hyksos Invasion (see 1606 BC Ten Plagues). Bietak admits „However, this is speculation as there is, as yet, no scientific evidence for such a plague.“ (Bietak 1996, p.34).
(JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM) Vizierking Ankhu flees with his 13th Dynasty Clan to his brother (MANASSE) Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw, Mayor of Thebes and proceeds his rulership in the 16th Southern Dynasty of Thebes (evidenced by contemporarily left from then on unused administration residence in Avaris, growing increase in courtyard residences and office inscriptions of Vizier Ankhu in Thebes). Manetho identified the 16th and 17th Dynasties as Hyksos Dynasties, Africanus confirms them as Hebrew Shepherd Kings. The evidenced Semitic towns Avaris/ Raamezes, Lahun/ Phitom, and LeONtopolis/ On (Exodus 1:11 Septuaginta & 5th century Jubilees 46:14d) were built up as fortified enwalled cities by the enslaved Israelites: Avaris/ Raamezes is confirmed as excavated huge Semitic town „rebuilt and fortified with massive walls“ by Salitis after his invasion according to Manetho. Lahun in Fayum is confirmed as Phitom by middle ages evidenced millenia old rabbinical tradition and by an excavated Semitic enwalled workers ghetto with many buried newborn sceletons. LeOntopolis in Heliopolis/ On is up until today called Tell el Yehudiye (Jewish Mound) and confirmed by an excavated Hyksos fortification.
From now on all occasions from the Hyksos Invasion until the Hyksos Expulsion are estimated around 75 years too late in Egyptology due to the ignorance of in this work evidenced lifelong Vizierkingships over quickly rotating Pharaohs (see Chapter Joseph). These 75 years derive from
a) over 20 non evidenced Pharaoh reign times having been estimated as too long
b) Ibiaw’s (MANASSE) and Aya‘s (BERIAH) rulership times as Viziers in the time of the 13th Dynasty having been confused with their participation in the yearly rotating Pharaoh reigns
c) Khayan‘s co-ruling Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV of the 17th Dynasty having been misplaced into the 13th Dynasty together with his brothers and sons (see 1666 BC and Chapter Moses).
Bietak’s erroneous dating of the 15th Dynasty of Avaris into 1640-1530 BC is not without controversy within Egyptology: “… when researchers tested grass seeds preserved at the site using radiocarbon dating techniques, the results were off by nearly a century … Ryholt says the dating remains an open question, and that not all Egyptologists share Bietak’s confidence.”(Curry 2018, in “Archeology”) These radiocarbon results corroborate the Strict Bible Chronology which reveals the biblical timeframe between the Enslavement and Exodus of Israel 1729-1606 BC being the timeframe of the 15th Dynasty of the Canaanite Hyksos in Egypt.
1729 BC, in the 13th Dynasty war against the Canaanites of Assur, THE SONS OF LEVI’s second son Kohath - AMRAM, Izhar, HEBRON, and Uzziel left Egypt and secretely BURRIED THE 11 TRIBEFATHERS NEXT TO ABRAHAM, ISAAC, AND JACOB IN CANAAN (Exodus 6:16-20, Book of Jubilees 46:9 & Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 2 p.199–201). The tombs of the 11 tribe fathers in JOSEPH‘s palace garden were found left empty by the invading Canaanite warriors; They used the graves for their own leaders evidenced by Canaanite warrior equipment excavated in these graves (see Chapter Joseph). These Levites remained after the burial in Canaan in the sorrounding hill country for forty years: HEBRON‘s clan settled in Kiriath-Arba and renamed it Hebron (c. Genesis 23:2, Joshua 14:15). Hebron and near Lachish archeologically congirmed flourished and developed in that timeframe. The Levites returned with their families to Egypt after 40 years 1689 BC (Jubilees 46:10; 47:1). Levi’s grandson AMRAM, father of MOSES, was one of them; As a Levite he knew reading and writing (compare Jubilees 45:16 & 47:9) the Alphabet invented by JOSEPH (see Chapter Joseph) and he taught scribing and scripture according to Jubilees 47:9 to his son MOSES (compare 1666 BC & 1646 BC) before MOSES lived as Prince in Pharaoh's palace. Nearby in sight of the hill country of Hebron at Lachish an ancient ivory comb was unearthed by Garfinkel, Hasel & Klingbeil in 2017. For there were no elephants in Canaan this ivory comb has to be a luxury item brought from near Egypt. According to Vainstub “the comb’s inscription is written in the style that characterized the very earliest stage of the alphabet’s development” otherwise exclusively evidenced in Egypt for that timeframe (1821-1606 BC). It is the earliest record of the word “tusk” until its use in Hebrew and it bears also the oldest example of the Hebrew letter ‘sin‘. It seems to be the oldest alphabetical inscription discovered outside of Egypt before Israel’s Exodus out of Egypt and the Conquest of Canaan (see 1566 BC). However the comb was found in the one millennium younger Babylonian destruction layer of Lachish.
Hyksos Pharaoh Aper-Anati (greek: Apakhnas) initiates 7 months of MURDERING 1000 MALE NEWBORN ISRAELITES (Exodus 1:16-22, Jubilees 47 & 48:14): Archeologically corroborated by tremendous increase of newborn skeletons in Lahun and Avaris. The contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40%. The 1686 BC Sinai349 Hebrew Inscription confirms Israel’s contemporary ongoing enslavement and the biblical infant mass murder.
MOSES IS BORN (Exodus 2:2) after seven months of male newborn mass murdering, hidden for 3 months at home and then for a week at the Nile (Jubilees 47:3) until he is FOUND BY the biblical PHARAOH’S DAUGHTER (MERIS). Pharaoh Apaknas dies. Khayan, MERIS'fatherbecomes the new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh. He reigns for 28 years.
MOSES grew up in his own family. 20 years old he was brought to his adoptive mother MERIS and BECAME AN EGYPTIAN PRINCE (Exodus 2:10, Jubilees 47:9). Ancient historian Artapanus identifies MERIS' husband Pharao Khanefere Sobekhotep IV: As Thebes Southern Vassall Pharaoh he achieved through this marriage the co-rulership over reunited Egypt with his father in law Hyksos Pharao Khayan. 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location confirm the same time rulership according to Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers. His Vizier is called Neferkare Iymeru (JOSEPH's great-grandson REFACH): This is the time of the shift back from Southern Egyptian Vizier Kingship to Pharaoh Kingship.
Memphis and Avaris: Canaanite Pharaoh Ippi/ Apophis reigns for 40 years. The Semitic population of Avaris grows tremendously; Bietak confirms the city grows to 250 ha around 1650 BC and sowith became the largest city in the world.
Lahun in Fayum wasexcavated by Flinders Petri: According to Gardiner stelae and papyri confirm Semitic slave workers carefully guarded by a village wall and a ghetto wall separating them from the wealthy part (see 1821 & 1606 BC).
MOSES KILLS AN EGYPTIAN SLAVE DRIVER AND HAS TO FLEE TO MIDIAN IN ARABIA onto the other side of the Gulf of Aqaba in order to aboid being killed by Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis (Exodus 2:11-15, Jubilees 47). Contemporary Alphabet with Hebrew and biblical words are discovered in Lahun/ Fayum (see Chapter Moses). Fayum is evidenced back to the middle ages by rabbinical millennia old traditions identified as Phitom.
The Egyptians Senakhtenre and his son Sequenre Tao marry themselves into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Southern Egypt and become the first Egyptian Pharaohs since the Middle Kingdom. Their wives are Tetisheri, the daughter of Pharaoh Sobekhotep’s wife Tjan, and Tetisheri‘s daughter Sadjehuti - Sadjehuti is a Hebrew name (see Ahmosides in Chapter Moses).
Northern Canaanite Hyksos King Apophis’ conflicts with Southern Egyptian tributary Pharaos of Thebes increase and lead to battles with the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs Sequenre and Kamose, who are defeated and killed by Apophis (see Ahmosides in Chapter Moses).
Egyptology defined the End of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I. Ryholt is counting 253 estimated years. In contrast only 160 years are safely archeologically evidenced since 1785 BC. The difference of 93 non evidenced non existing years in Ryholt’s chronology is melting down from (1803 BC) 1785 BC until (1550 BC) 1625 BC into around 75 neither archeologically nor biblically confirmed years. Their non existence is not only confirmed by the Radiocarbon evidence for around 1606 BC of the Santorini Eruption impact on Egypt and the Ten Plagues evidenced on the Ahmose Storm Stela (see 1606 BC The Ten Plagues); Furthermore the war mass graves of the Hyksos Invasion are exactly matching the by historian Manetho described massacres. And a burned down palace dated by Bietak into the time around 1729 BC and the Radiocarbon dating results of Avaris confirm 75 to 93 artificial non existing years in the highly speculative Chronology of the Second Intermediate Period. Bietak reveals by his confusion of the Hyksos Invasion with a speculated epidemic around 1729 BC that it is the 13th Dynasty hiding these around 75 non existing years:
They are mainly hidden
a) in over 20 non evidenced reign times and
b) in the abnormal long rulership times of Ibiaw (11 years) and Aya (24 years) which have to be explained with their Vizier rulership times in the 13th Dynasty after one year each as Pharaoh
c) in Canaanite Hyksos Khayan‘s archeologically evidenced co-rulership with Southern Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV belonging into the 17th Dynasty. Sobekhotep had been misplaced into the 13th Dynasty together with his brothers and sons (see 1666 BC). This resulted in 50 years not belonging to the 13th Dynasty.
Khamudi was the 6th and last Canaanite Hyksos "King of Egypt" (compare Exodus 4:19). Kamose's young brother Ahmose I becomes Southern Pharao of Thebes in Khamudi‘s 7th Year of Reign.
1606 BC: EXODUS OF ISRAEL OUT OF EGYPT
(1620-1600 BC or c.1600 BC)
The Aegean Sea Santorini Island Vulcano Mega Eruption has eruptive consequences on Egypt including environmental disasters like earthquake storms and an ash cloud producing a “DARKNESS SO THICK THAT IT COULD BE FELT” Exodus 10:21. Bietak confirms Santorini Pumice in the Palace District of Avaris above the layer of the Hyksos Expulsion: Radiocarbon results confirm a time between 1620-1600 BC and Cypriot Pottery findings confirm a time around 1600 BC (Höflmayer 2012 p. 444).
THE TEN PLAGUES - Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I initiates in his 11th to 22nd reign year a Storm Stele documenting an environmental disaster with biblical plagues, storms, destroyed temples, and darkness. 2014 Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter (9) identified the Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano explosion of Thera/ Santorini. According to Radiocarbon results they attest a necessary correction of the reign time of Ahmose I into the time of the Santorini Eruption (which would be 1613 BC +/- 13 according to Friedrich and Heinemeier). The results of Moeller and Rittner are confirmed by many experts (Hardy, Manning, Kromer, Pfeiffer, Talamo, Kutshcera, Higham, Steier, Wild). Finkelstein claims Radiocarbon results as the most reliable dating proof apart from scriptural proof: They unveil 75 non-evidenced and non-existing years in Egyptian History and confirms all pure biblical time data in the Strict Bible Chronology of Israel in Egypt as being correct. These 75 non evidenced and non existing years of the 13th Dynasty are falsifying ALL ancient Chronologies until 722 BC the end of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The reign times of King David and his son King Solomon are still dated 45 years later than the unfalsified Bible gives evidence. So nearly all Pharaoh and King reign times between 1729 BC and 722 BC have to be shifted into 75-45 years later.
(1790-1539/ 1710-1630 BC)
THE TEN PLAGUES:
The Ipuwer Papyrus is documenting an environmental disaster with a STORM, DARKNESS, PLAGUES, and biblical people impacts (eg THE POOR PLUNDER THE RICH in Exodus 12:35) The first three plagues combined with the Nile have their biblical impact on all people while the fourth to tenth plague have no impact on the people of Israel living mainly in the northern part of Egypt.
1606 BC EXODUS
(Late Daters: 1260 BC)
(Early Daters: 1446 BC)
MOSES COMEBACK Genesis 4-15 & THE 10TH PLAGUE: BIBLICAL DEATH OF ALL MALE FIRSTBORN IN EGYPT. 1606 BC Sinai361 Hebrew Inscription confirms ongoing enslaved Israel and the Hebrew name Moses, who “provoked astonishement”. Ahmose’s firstborn son Sapair dies evidenced young. THE EXODUS OF ISRAEL OUT OF EGYPT: Avaris/ Raamezes and Lahun/ Phitom are archeologically evidenced abruptly abandoned by its Semitic population. Nearly all ancient writings date the time of Israel's Exodus into the time of Ahmose’s Hyksos Expulsion. Ahmose's Pyramid and all other huge building projects evidenced had to be broken off abruptly. Canaanite Hyksos Pharao Khamudi and his army chase after Israel through the Sinai desert and finally sink in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba: In contrast to the Pharaohs Ramesses and Amenhotep there is no evidence of any sceleton or tomb of Pharaoh Khamudi.
The Egyptian Southern Vasall Pharaoh of the Ten Plagues Ahmose I
(only wearing the Upper Egypt Crown)
under the Canaanite Northern Pharaoh and King of Egypt Khamudi
After the Canaanite Hyksos army was destroyed in Red Sea Southern Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I easily takes Heliopolis, Sile, and after a siege Avaris. It was his 18th reign year after Northern Pharaoh Khamudi's 11th year of reign had abruptly ended. After the Canaanites had left into the land of Canaan Ahmose chased after them and took their town Sharuhen after a siege battle. The „Hyksos Expulsion“ ends. Ahmose I becomes the first Egyptian Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Period; The highest deity is exchanged - it’s now the hidden invisible deity Amun; This monolatry had been initiated by JOSEPH's son MANASSE/ Vizier Senebefni as High priest of Amun two centuries earlier (see Chapter Joseph). Worshipping of Pharaohs abruptly stopped after the Ten Plagues had humiliated and disproved the divine power of Pharaoh.
FOURTY BIBLICAL YEARS OF ISRAEL WANDERING THROUGH THE DESERT until the Conquest of the Promised Land. Contemporary desert settlement places of large populations with rock sanctuaries, water sources, and Hebrew indications found at Hashem El Tarif in the Sinai and at Jebel El Lawz in Midian, Arabia (see Chapter Moses).
(mid 16th century BC)
Image: Logos Bible Software
THE DESTRUCTION OF JERICHO
is archeologically proven for the correct biblical time according to the Strict Bible Chronology; Leading antibiblical/ minimalistic Archeologist Finkelstein delivers in his famous book „The Bible unearthed“ against his intention the hardest archeological evidence confirming the Bible/ the unfalsified strictly biblical time of Jericho’s destruction:
1. Jericho is heavily fortified at the time of the conquest confirming Joshua 2:5 & 2:15
2. Piles of brick from the base of the collapsed city wall verifies Joshua 6:20: “the wall fell beneath itself”
3. The earthen embankment required Israel to go “up into the city” in Joshua 6:20
4. Houses were built into the lower city wall and did not collapse verifying Rahab’s house location in Joshua 2:15
5. A layer of ash indicates the Israelites burned the whole city and everything in it AFTER the wall collapsed in Joshua 6:24
6. The destruction occurred recognized in Modern Biblical Archeology in the middle of the 16th century BC confirming the strictly biblical time of the conquest
7. A large amount of grain discovered at Jericho indicates
a) the harvest had just been taken like in Joshua 2:6; 3:15
b) the siege was short, only 7 days acc. to Joshua 6:15
c) the Israelites did NOT plunder the city Joshua 6:18
(Mid 16th century BC)
OF THE PROMISED LAND CANAAN:
1) Mid 16th century BC: Jericho was destroyed remaining nearly uninhabited without walls for centuries confirming the biblical account in Joshua 6:20,24
2) In Ay (today’s Kirbit El Makata) Wood excavated a fortress destroyed by fire (Joshua 7.8). According to Bimson it has to be dated into the 16th century. The biblical north side entry gate and geological location of Ay is archeologically confirmed.
3) Joshua 11:10: In the mid 16th century BC Hazor was massively devastated evidenced by the destroyed palace together with the evidenced subsequent rebuilding of Hazor confirming the biblical account. The biblical King name Jabin is confirmed by his name on a contemporary tablet.
4) Joshua 19: In the mid 16th century BC Dan was devastated evidenced by a contemporary layer of ash confirming the biblical account (11)
5) Joshua 24:26: In the mid 16th century BC Shechem was evidenced destroyed remaining uninhabited for a century confirming the strictly biblical account (11) and Joshua's biblical covenant stone was excavated by Sellin, who was then withdrawn from his excavations because his identification contradicted the Ramesses Time Paradigm.
6) Matching Joshua 18 in the 16th century BC Shilo was destroyed by a major fire (11) and the excavated place of the tabernacle with the exact biblical metrics was identified. Its second Bible matching destruction took place 1056 BC at King Saul‘s death and is also archeologically confirmed.
The 15th Century BC Berlin Pedestal resembles the spelling of the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep II or more likely his grandson Amenhotep III who claims to have dominated the Philistines (Ashkelon) Canaan, and Israel as the three contemporary obviously most relevant peoples in that region; Görg, Van der Veen, and Theis conclude that the incomplete hieroglyphic name is best translated I-3-SR-I-L becoming clearly the oldest evidence for the name of Israel. This is archeological evidence confirming the Bible's claim CANAAN in Judges 4:3, THE PHILISTINES in Judges 3:31, and ISRAEL in Judges 3:30-5:31 to be the three most relevant peoples in that region in the strictly biblical time 1480-1340 BC matching Amenhotep‘s III reign 1446-1409 BC = 1386-1349 BC plus 60 years: melted down from 75 years proven by Radiocarbon results of the Santorini Eruption impacts on Egypt around 1606 BC inscripted on the Ahmose Stela. This is the strictly biblical time of the JUDGE EHUD ruling over Israel and Moab.
In case Amenhotep II would have been the owner of this pedestal, we would have again a matching with the Bible, this time with Joshua 13:3; for 1560 BC onwards it is affirming that the main portions of the Promised Land were held by Israelites, Philistines, and by Canaanites (a second time the three peoples directly paralleled on these artifacts). According to the Santorini Eruption Radicarbon results together with the Ahmose I Stela Amenhotep‘s II 26 reign years have to be corrected into c. 1487-1461 BC (1427-1401 BC plus c. 60 years). This would have been the strictly biblical time of Eglon of Moab as foreign ruler over Israel which makes this option less likely.
Late 15th Century BC:
The Soleb Inscription:
The Bible says in Judges 3:30 THE ISRAELITES conquered the complete land of Moab and OCCUPIED MOAB for 80 years 1480-1400 BC. It’s the strictly biblical time of the JUDGE EHUD. Kennedy and Kramer reexamined the famous Soleb inscription estimated roughly into the end of the 15th century in a temple for Pharaoh Amenhotep III in contemporary Southern Egypt: A list of allegedly dominated eastern peoples mentions the People of Yahweh "Ta Shasu Yahweh" - meaning they worshipped Yahweh - and contextually places them in the land of Edom and Moab as new direct neighbors to Egypt; As to be admitted by every Egyptologist and Archeologist Israel is the only people in ancient history ever having worshipped YAHWHE. It is the earliest inscription mentioning Yahweh and proves the historicity of Judges 3:30 in the Bible. Donald Redford in his book Egypt, Israel & Canaan admits „For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here … the name of the Israelite God YAHWEH … the passage constitutes … the whereabouts during the late 15th century BC of an enclave revering this god.“ Amenhotep‘s III reign was 1446-1409 BC (1386-1349 BC plus 60 years melted down from 75 nonexisting years in 1729 BC)
The Canaanite Amarna Letters in Akkadian Cuneiform are addressed to Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, later called Akhenaten (1352-1336 BC plus 60 years melted down from 75 years since 1729 BC) ruling 1412-1396 BC: They ask him for help and complain about the so-called Habirus, who are plundering the land of Canaan. Following the Strict Bible Chronology (after the time of the Judges Barak and Deborah) the Bible identifies them in Judges 6:3 concretely as Midianites, Amalekites - and the Nomads of the Syrian Desert; this third group is biblically called "THE SONS OF THE EAST" and in the Amarna Letters they are also called the "Shutu" or the "Shasu". (compare Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 125 and Rainey 1995, p.483)(12). The Bible compares all of them with a „swarm of locusts“ ruining the whole land. JUDGE GIDEON AND THE ISRAELITES DEFEAT THEM IN 1333 BC. Many Early Exodus Dating (1446 BC) devotees identify the Habirus as Hebrews strengthening their dating theory.
1293/ 1290 BC
The Mount Ebal Curse Inscription and the Destruction of Shechem was announced in march 2022 by a team around Dr. Scott Stripling: A Hebrew Curse Inscription including the name of the G’d of Israel JHWH was found at Mount Ebal the biblical (Joshua 8:30) so-called Curse Mountain (Deutoronomy 27). It is dated to be from the time of change from bronze to iron age in the timeframe between 1400-1150 BC which is strictly biblically the time of the Judges. This discovered Curse Inscription has to be from the year 1293 or 1290 BC according to the unfalsified Bible and its Strict Chronology, rediscovered by Dr. Roger Liebi because the only essential Mount Ebal Curses described by the Bible in that archeologically relevant timeframe are
1. THE CURSE OF JOTAM 1293 BC AGAINST ABIMELECH AND THE TOWN SHECHEM near Mount Ebal (Judges 9:20) followed by an evil ghost sent by G‘d between Abimelech and Shechem and
2. THE CURSE OF GAAL, son of Ebed, AGAINST THE JUDGE ABIMELECH 1290 BC (Judges 8:26) near Shechem.
The discovered Mount Ebal Curse inscription says: „Cursed, cursed, cursed … cursed by God JHW. You will die, cursed, cursed, cursed, You will surely die. Cursed by JHW - cursed, cursed, cursed.“ And indeed according to Judges 9:45 and 9:54 the people of Shechem and Abimelech died in a battle against each other and Shechem - the second time - was destroyed archeologically evidenced for the strictly biblical correct time. The reasons for these curses were Israel’s idolatry (idol Baal-Berit) after Gideon‘s death (Judges 8:33) and Abimelech‘s killing of his 70 half brothers, the sons of the Judge Gideon. This Curse Inscription is also further evidence that the Bible was written at the time it literally claims to be written, and not half a millennium later as those claim who still hold to the outdated documentary hypothesis assert.
IN the strictly biblical year 1290 BC THE JUDGE ABIMELECH DESTROYED SHECHEM. Judges 9:46 „And when those living in the Fortress of Shechem had heard about it, they entered the Temple of their g‘d Berit.“ Abimelech „set it on fire“ and „1000 persons died“. The remains of the ancient Fortress and Temple were excavated and dated into the time between the 17th and 12th century BC.
The back inscription of the Merenptah Stele (front inscription: 1392-1353) was discovered by the father of Egyptology Flinders Petrie: Pharaoh Merenptah claims to have destroyed CANAAN, Ashkelon (THE PHILISTINES), AND ISRAEL. He says he "laid waste to Israel and their seed is no more": same as in the Berlin Pedestal, ISRAEL is here mentioned a second time as one of the three same key players in this region which is archeological evidenced fitting to the Bible revealing in Judges 12:7,9,11,14 that Israel dominated Canaan in the Strict Biblical Time of 1227-1196 BC after the Ammonites and before the Philistines dominated their land. It was the time of the Judges Yiftach, Ibtzan, Elon and Avdon.
around 1200 BC
The biblical CONQUEST OF ISRAEL BY THE PHILISTINES in the strictly biblical years after 1196 BC is archeologically evidenced by the contemporary second destruction of Hazor around 1200 BC. The repelled Invasion of the Philistines into Egypt in the first half of the 12th century BC is archeologically evidenced by Ramesses III wall inscriptions and pictures in Medinet Habu.
around 1200 BC
THE PHILISTINES RULED OVER ISRAEL IN the strictly biblical time of 1196-1156 BC including the last 20 years in which SAMSON was the Judge of Isreal (he never liberated Israel from the Philistines). Excavated Philistine Temples at Tel Quasile and Tel Miqne (biblical Ekron) reveal two roof holding only 67 feet apart PILLARS like the biblical Temple at Gaza that Samson brought down with his own hands in Judges 16:29.
12th Century BC
THE JUDGE GIDEON RULED IN the strictly biblical time 1333-1293 BC. His second name is archeologically evidenced for the Time of the Judges: An excavated Ostracon from Khirbet Er-Ral bears the inscripted very rare name JERUBAAL. The same nickname was given to the biblical Judge Gideon in Judges6:32. The inscription is estimated into the 12th century BC.
(12th Century BC)
Tel Dan: THE CONQUEST OF LAISH BY THE TRIBE OF DAN around 1116 BC - the strictly biblical year of change of Judges from Eli (1 Samuel 4:18) to Samuel (1 Samuel 7:2) - is archeologically evidenced by the destruction of Laish in the early 12th century. From then on Laish is named Dan.
Around 20 years later in 1096 BC the 450 years of the Judges come to its end. The time of the Kings begins with the reign of Saul, David and Solomon for 40 years each.
Bible: 1016-976 BC
(Thiele: 971-931 BC)
KING SOLOMON‘s Six-Chamber-Gates:
„And this is the reason of the levy which king SOLOMON raised; for to build THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, and HIS HOUSE, and (build up) the MILLO, and THE WALL of Jerusalem, and HAZOR, and MEGGIDO, and GEZER. For Pharaoh (Siamun) king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, Solomon's wife. And Solomon (re)built Gezer …“ (1 Kings 9:10.15-17) According to Kitchen Pharaoh Siamun commemorated his victory over Gezer and other places by depicting himself in a formal battle scene relief at the Temple in Tanis. The three contemporary huge Six-Chamber-Gates of the same building type in Hazor, Meggido and Gezer match this biblical account of Solomon’s building projects and mirror the wealth and power of his Kingdom. Dever excavated Gezer‘s Six-Chamber-Gate‘s destruction by fire during the campaigns of Pharao Shishak in the 5th year after Solomons death (2 Chron 12:2), which proves its construction in the strictly biblical time of Solomon. According to Kitchen Pharaoh Shishak/ Shoshenq in his Triumphal Relief is also referring to the defeated “hydebet dawit” Highlands of David: “This would give us a place name that commemorated David in the Negev barely 50 years after his death, within living memory of the man.” According to the unfalsified Bible it was only 5 years after his death 1021 BC. he built up Millo (Stepped Stone Structure), the City Wall and the foundations of the eastern wall of King David’s Palace, together with a fourth Six-Chamber-Gate were excavated by Mazar in the City of David. (The pottery of the Gate was dated to 1015-975 BC while Mazar tried to date the Gate later because of Thiele’s conventional dating of Solomons reign into 971-931 BC. The unfalsified strictly biblical time data reveals 1016-976 BC as Solomon’s reign time exactly approved by the pottery, so that way the Strict Bible Chronology is revisionizing the conventional Chronologies from 1729 - 722 BC. The 75 nonevidenced nonexistent years of the 13th Dynasty have melted down to 45 years now.)
„And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms … unto the land of the Philistines … they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life.“ (1 Kings 4:21) Archeological evidence corroborating that SOLOMON REIGNED OVER THE PHILISTINES is his contemporary Six-Chamber-Gate built in Ashdod. His Palace building type and his mighty Six-Chamber-Gates became so popular that they were copied by the Syrians and in Lachish even generations later.
The Kurkh Victory Stele of the Assyrian King Salmanassar III is the oldest definite evidence of a Northern King of Israel: It is „KING AHAB“ the son of King Omri.
Tel Dan Stela
On the famous Tel Dan Stela (picture) including the „House of David“ Inscription the Aramean King claims to have defeated the KING OF ISRAEL JORAM AND THE KING OF THE HOUSE OF DAVID (biblically often evidenced as designation): The stela recounts a campaign of Hazael of Damascus in which he allegedly defeated both Jehoram King of Israel and AHAZIAH KING OF JUDAH. According to 2 Chron 22:5-6 they both were only wounded by him. Instead they both were killed afterwards by Jehu, the next King of Israel. Ahaziah ruled only in the strictly biblical year 886 BC. Thus one of ancient Israel’s fiercest enemies more than a century after King David’s death still recognized David as the founder of the kingdom of Judah.
The Black Obelisk of the Assyrian King Salmanassar III states in its military report against Aram-Damaskus the tribute payments of THE KING OF ISRAEL JEHU, son of Joram, who is bowing down in front of Salmanassar in its picture.
The Mesha Stele/ Moabite Stone is a victory monument set up by the MOABITE KING MESHA, recording his rebellion against Israelite subjection (2 Kings 3). ISRAEL, the God JHWH and THE HOUSE OF DAVID are archeologically evidenced in Semitic Alphabetical writing. Langois, Lemaire and Delorme having used new imaging techniques unequivocally confirmed the House of David/ BET DAWID inscription: „The reading BT DWD is confirmed once and for all”.
The Egyptian Pharaoh of 1021 BC, the Aramean King of 886 BC, and the Moabite King of 880 BC all three confirm archeologically evidenced KING DAVID AS THE FOUNDER OF THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH.
Israel is no more
Assur conquers Samaria and the Northern Kingdom called Ephraim. The people of Israel is deported and exchanged with peoples of Assyria; An inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III boasts of making Hoshea king 10 years earlier after his predecessor had been overthrown: „Israel/ Omri-House … overthrew their KING PEKAH and I placed HOSHEA AS KING over them. I received from them … [tri]bute and brought them to Assyria.“
Hoshea later stopped his tribute payments. This lead to the fall of Samaria and Israel in 2 Kings 17,4-6.
722 BC is the year when finally the 75 nonevidenced and nonexisting years of the 13th Dynasty of Egypt are dissolved in the chronologies of the Kingdom of Israel since Hoshea and the Kingdom of Juda since Jotam; The fall of Israel 721 BC and the fall of Judah 586 BC are the fixed years of the unfalsified Bible finally matching with actual leading scientists estimations. The Good News for leading Chronology Revisionists like John Bimson are: The mysteries of the speculative unsecure Third Intermediate Period of Egyptian History - the biblical time of the Kings - are now ready to be resolved by the comprehensively approved first unfalsified Bible Chronology rediscovered by Roger Liebi.
7th Century BC
Photo Credit: Tamar Hayardeni/ Wikimedia Commons/ Public Domain
Oldest surviving Text Evidence of the Bible
The Ketef Hinnom Scrolls are the oldest surviving texts known from the Hebrew Bible. They are dated to the early 7th century BC. The text is written in the Paleo Hebrew script on unrolled silver scrolls. It contains the priestly blessings of THE BOOK OF NUMBERS 6:24-26 IN THE HEBREW BIBLE and is the oldest portion of scripture discovered to date (Barkay 2003, pp. 162–171).
The time figures of this complete Chronology are the pure bibilical time figures of the rediscovered first and only Strict Bible Chronology in accordance with nearly all ancient writings.
(The time figures in brackets and in cursive are actual leading egyptologists' speculative estimations.)
Scientific evidence and indications are written in cursive and documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses as far as they are related to the time of Israel in Egypt.
THE BIBLE FALSIFYING BY JERICHO SELF DISPROVED RAMESSES TIME PARADIGM
Before You can prove that the Bible - regarding the time of Israel in Egypt - is confirmed by over 100 examples of archeological evidence You first have to prove what the Bible really says regarding the times WHEN what happened. Falsifying the Word has been the fundament of disproving the Word since its very beginning (see Genesis 3:2.4.5). Falsifying what the Bible really says about WHEN what happened has been serving as fundament for "Biblical" Archeology from its very beginning onwards unveiled in this work.
In the 20th century, biblical time figures often were dismissed without ever having been disproven. The 13th century BC Ramesses Time Paradigm for the Exodus does not build literally and solely on the comprehensive amount of the pure biblical time figures. Instead it does ignore, change and add time figures and sowith changes what the Bible really says by over three centuries. The author was surprised to realize that several changes are even based on the Bible external Second Century Rabba Seder Olam which is also cited in the Jewish Talmud: The Seder Olam ads Bible Tanakh external time estimations into its chronology and does change the meaning of biblical time figures by reinterpretations based on rabbinical Bible external traditions to make its Chronology work. These Bible figures changing time estimations and reinterpretations are used since nearly a century and today by Modern “Biblical” Archeology in order to prove the Hebrew Bible being a compendium of politically motivated lies of the first millennium BC allegedly based on "contemporary reflections" (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ck4ZJFXYzaM).
The resulting Ramesses Time Paradigm is an outdated Egyptology and Biblical Archeology still dominating paradox dogma that a never happened Exodus at the same time must have happened in the 13th century and thus cannot have happened at any other time. It is based on picking out and isolating one single word out of hundreds other ignored biblical sentences; one single reinterpreted town name is up until today the by Leading "Biblical“ Archeology only permitted proving evidence for the time of the Exodus: The town name Piramesses confused with the biblical town name Raamezez in the Book of Exodus:
IS RAAMEZEZ AN UPDATED TOWN NAME FOR AVARIS?
Modern Biblical Archeology claims the biblical town name Raamezez would prove the mid 13th century to be the only possible time for the Exodus in spite of the Bible saying it took place 1606 BC instead of 1260 BC as later verified. Already if You ignore all other time data of the Bible and only pick out one isolated sentence like 1 Kings 6:1 the Bible would already clearly date the Exodus more than two centuries earlier than Pharaoh Ramesses‘ reign time. However if You take into account the complete amount of unmanipulated biblical time data and the knowledge of nearly all relating ancient scriptures You recognize the Bible unambiguously states 1606 BC is the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.
But let us first inspect more accurately the by leading scientists isolated used town name originally written Raamezez in the Bible; According to excavator Manfred Bietak, Avaris was a huge town firstly settled by Semites in the timeframe 1840-1800 BC (1). According to the Bible, Joseph's rulership over Egypt began exactly in the year 1830 BC, and precisely in 1821 BC, Israel's family clan arrived in Egypt.
Egyptology estimates 1531 BC as the year of the Hyksos Expulsion. As already authentificated at the beginning of this chapter the Hyksos Expulsion is confirmed by ancient relating writings as also being the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the biblical year 1606 BC; How this time difference of 75 years came into existence has already been revealed in the Chronology of Israel in Egypt in this chapter.
It appears plausible that the name of the older town beneath Avaris of the 18th century BC later was replaced with the name of the later town above called Piramesses in the 13th century if You assume the ancient biblical copying process was a typical neglectful ancient scripture copying process. Here are three easy to understand examples to better realize this:
When You read in an encyclopedia the town New York was founded by the Dutch or the town York was founded by the Romans You get the understanding of the function of an updated town name: It is generating directly contemporary understanding by the reader. As a matter of fact New Amsterdam instead of New York was founded by the Dutch, and Eboracum instead of York was founded by the Romans. But in our time nearly nobody knows these two old town names and their locations anymore. Nonetheless most people know New York and York as locations; Thus the updated town names are generating a common understanding of the location, the writer wants to talk about. The same case could be easily the biblical town name Raamezez, often misleadingly written Ramesses in English. Piramesses was founded in the 13th and abandoned in the 11th century BC. The forgotten unknown town name Avaris would stand for the older town underneath. Avaris was founded archeologically evidenced in the 19th century BC confirming Raamezes in Exodus 47:11. It largely grew in the 18th century BC according to Exodus 1:11 and finally was abandoned at the end of the Second Intermediate Period 1606 BC matching Exodus 12:37. All three times are confirmed by biblical time figures of the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology, by the Book of Jubilees, by the resulting Chronology of Israel in Egypt in this work, by Bietak's excavation results in Avaris, and by their resulting Chronology of the Canaanite Hyksos at the beginning of Chapter Hyksos. Avaris is the original town of the Israelites who came from Canaan to Goshen in Egypt. These Israelites are confused by Bietak with alleged previous „Canaanite Early Hyksos“ identified by him as ancient historian Manetho's Hyksos Invasion Canaanites as we will learn in Chapter Hyksos. After the Canaanite Hyksos Invasion Avaris was the summer residence of the Canaanite Hyksos Pharaos and their Canaanite and Egyptian staff (2).
A second example shows that updating town names generating a common understanding is also common biblical practice: Tel Dan is the modern Israeli name of the ancient city Dan of the tribe of Dan near the river Jordan at the northeastern end of Israel. In the time when the tribe of Dan occupies the city in Joshua 19:47 Dan's former town name Leshem is additionally mentioned. In Yesaya 10:30 it is called similarly Layish. However centuries before the eponym giving person Dan was born, the great grandson of Abraham, Abraham himself biblically travels "to Dan" to rescue his nephew Lot in Genesis 14:14. Hence a later copier appearently generated a common understanding of the location in his time while writing about a time, centuries before the name giver of the city was born: Dan. Same with Bethel. Same with Raamezes? This would already be sufficient plausible evidence for an updated town name for Avaris. Sowith Raamezez was a title used anachronistically in the Bible after all, this is secondly confirmed by the fact that the same name is used in Genesis 47:11, at the time of Jacob entering Egypt. Nevertheless there is an additional second expert evaluation result leading into another direction:
To equate the biblical town name Raamezez
with the 13th century name Piramesses
is scientifically a weak affair.
According to Stephen Meyer, Hans Goedicke believes that the biblical city Raamezez is incorrectly equated with the city Piramesses of the 13th century. Hershel Shanks writing about Goedicke's view states "…the fact is that the store city of Raamezez can not be identified with Piramesses, the Residence of the Ramessides. This identification is impossible phonetically, as has been demonstrated conclusively more than 15 years ago by D. B. Redford in 'Exodus I, II' (Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 13, pp. 408-413, 1963)." And Exodus 1:11 would have had to call it the "the new residence" or "the new capital city" of Ramesses instead of the fortified city of Raamezez. Moreover, the residence of the Ramessides called Piramesses is not denoted in Egyptian sources by the use of the royal name Ramesses alone. When the residence of the Ramessides is referred to, the royal name is connected with the Egyptian word Pr (Pi), meaning house or residence: „the reference is in the form 'PerRamesses' (BAR, September/October 1981, p. 44). Long before PerRamesses .. was Avaris, the later capital of the Hyksos kings .. (it) was written in hieroglyphics transliteration .. R3-mtny (Khatana) which is today called Tell el-Daba and is being excavated by Manfred Bietak. The hieroglyphic R3-mtny can be projected back into Semitic transcription as Ramesen (better Ra'amezez). Therefore Hershel Shanks concludes ‚Biblical Ra'amezez can therefore almost certainly be identified with Tell el-Daba, the old town Avaris beyond the later town PerRamesses.‘" (3)
Today's Town Tell el-Daba,
the hieroglyphic 18th and 17th century BC Avaris,
was contemporary written Ra'amezez in Old Hebrew.
Another this research result supporting theory is that Avaris' second name was Ra-meses from the very beginning on already in the 19th century BC meaning "Ra is born", honoring the sun deity Ra.
However, a single town name reinterpretation is the very fundament of Egyptology and Biblical Archeology to ignore the comprehensive biblical chronological data and nevertheless claim the mid 13th century as undisputable time of the Exodus AND as indisputable proof that Israel in Egypt, the Exodus and the Conquest of Canaan never happened. Further on it is their fundament to dismiss any other chronological date and sowith also the real biblical date of the Exodus in scientific discussions with the blocking sentence
"Chronology does not permit us to make such conclusions .." (see 38th minute of Bietak's lecture against the biblical Exodus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TfpRUj9qoEU).
This is the official language for the Ramesses Time Paradigm does not permit the real true biblical times to be used for matches with any contemporary archeological evidence. As a matter of fact the Ramesses Time Paradigm is disproven by the same leading experts of Biblical Archeology proclaiming the detected missing of any confirming archeological evidence for an Exodus or any Israel in Egypt in the Ramesses time. But instead of admitting their Ramesses Time Paradigm has been disproven by themselves, they claim to have disproven the Bible.
In contrast, the Bible always displayed the Exodus took place in 1606 BC. Nearly all relating ancient writings back then understood and confirmed the biblical time of the Exodus as the time of the contemporary Hyksos Expulsion substantiated at the start of this chapter.
"Without dating it's impossible to do anything ...
Dates and Chronology are fundamental to everything,
because without knowing the chronology ... you can't progress."
Israel Finkelstein, 2013, Archeology & the Bible, Interview on
Israel Finkelstein's world-known book
The Bible Unearthed builds on the fundament of
the by Jericho disproved Bible falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm.
- THE FACTS -
THE REDISCOVERD FIRST AND ONLY UNFALSIFIED STRICT BIBLE CHRONOLOGY
The Ramesses Time Paradigm based Chronology does ignore and change many biblical time figures. It reinterprets and manipulates biblical time figures to make them fit into its Exodus time estimation around 1260 BC. It changes them by predating, postdating, and so-called dual dating while not understanding different ancient counting methods between Israel and Judah. This way it does falsify what the Bible really says by over three centuries.
Ignoring or changing one single biblical time figure
can already falsify what the Bible really says by over 100 years.
One chronological ancient fundament of the Ramesses Time Paradigm is the third century Seder Olam Chronology of the Hebrew Bible. Suprisingly enough even the Seder Olam Chronology does "also determine certain dates which are not indicated in the Bible": It compresses the Tanakh‘s chronological data by over 300 years through assigning the shortest „choosable“ time to events and by adopting always the lesser of two „possible“ numbers. It also squeezes the Bible external time of the evidenced centuries long rulership of the Persians into less than one century. And the time of the Judges is squeezed together by a not Bible congruent understanding of the 300 years of Jephta in Judges 11:26 as we will see later. The result is an Exodus allegedly happening 1312 BC, three centuries earlier than the full amount of unfalsified time data of the Hebrew Bible does document. In contrast neither the 480 years of theocracy between the building of the Temple and the Exodus in 1 Kings 6:1 nor the 300 years in Judges 11:26 allow an Exodus around 1300 BC.
The so called Early Date Estimation into 1446 BC does ignore and change even more biblical time figures by predating, postdating, and dual dating: It is based on invented nonbiblical parallelized ruling times of different rulers to make them fit into the Early Date Estimation and it contradicts harshly Acts 13:17-22 that states the time of the judges counts 450 years confirmed a second time by the summation of all single reign times of the different judges in Judges 3:8, 3:11, 3:14, 3:30, 4:3, 5:31, 6:1, 8:28, 9:22, 10:2, 10:3, 10:8, 12:7, 12:9, 12:11, 12:14, 13:1, and 1 Samuel 4:18 & 7:2.
Furthermore the 300 years in Judges 11:26 are describing the time of Israel having been fully settled in Gilead from the conquest in 1567 BC to 1267 BC; The rulership of the Judge Jair in Judges 10:3 before the conflict with the Ammonites is misunderstood by late and early daters‘ estimations and we will see how they have to be understood in the later following calculation of the Exodus.
The rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology is the first and only externally independent Bible Chronology that uncompromisingly integrates the complete comprehensive amount of all unmodified biblical time figures and they all open up and work out fine. It reveals as pure biblical fact that the Exodus took place 1606 BC in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, additionally confirmed by nearly all Bible relating ancient writings as shown at the start of this chapter. Not even one single previous Biblical Chronology succeeded in taking the complete amount of biblical figures into consideration. Everyone dismissed or changed biblical time figures to make the calculations fit in dependency on bible external dates. Therefore they all simply do not tell what the Bible says: Their date estimations are not purely biblical dates but instead more or less their own creations. You are invited to study Dr. Roger Liebi's first explanation of the Strict Bible Chronology together with proving archeological evidence in the 30th minute on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZnEq1JC84. If You want to examine the Chronology deeper together with precisely explained solved open issues and wipeouts of wrong compromises in previously mentioned Bible Chronologisations You are invited to study Dr. Roger Liebi's lecture on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdLLr2C5Ihc&t=9s.
Let us now examine the example the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC:
The Exodus date 1606 BC is calculated by taking for the first time seriously into account the complete amount of all biblical time figures parallelly on two different paths:
First the seemingly easy light direct path and second the long path by foot; The second long path by foot is counting up all biographical time data, reign times and other time data of the complete Hebrew Bible. The result is the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC. To evaluate the complete comprehensive way by foot You are invited to study the PDF https://www.rogerliebi.ch/sites/default/files/downloads/chronologie_des_at.pdf. Both ways are also explained in the mentioned linked video lecture.
Here are the cornerstones of the "easy light direct" way:
Synchronicity with the Bible external safest historical date; M’lakhimBet/ 2 Kings 25:8 says the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Templein Divrei Ham Yamim Bet/ 2 Chronicles 36 took place in the 19th reign year of Nebukadnezar which is according to contemporary astronomical data exactly 586 BC.
Hesekiel 4:4 confirms 390 years between Jerusalem's destruction and the division into the Northern and Southern Kingdom.
120 years between the division and the beginning of the monarchy
= 40 years of Saul in Acts 13:21 + 40 years of David in 2 Kings 2:11 + 40 years of Salomon in 2 Chron 9:30
450 years - the Time of the Judges in Acts 13:18 - is additionally confirmed by the summation of all biblical reign times in the Book of Judges:
Judges 3:8, 3:11, 3:14, 3:30, 4:3, 5:31, 6:1, 8:28, 9:22, 10:2, 10:3, 10:8, 12:7, 12:9, 12:11, 12:14, 13:1 and 1 Samuel 4:18 & 7:2.
14 years between the Time of the Judges & the Conquest of the Promised Land can be calculated on 2 different ways:
1606-1012 BC is the time between the first temple built and the Exodus =
480 years of G'd ruling over Israel in 1 Kings 6:1 + 114 not counted g'dless years of Israel's idolatry under foreign rulership in Judges 3:8, 3:14, 4:3, 6:1, 9:22, 10:8, and 13:1 = 594 years
594 years - 4 years Salomon - 40 years David - 40 years Saul - 450 years Judges - 6 years of Conquest - 40 years of Israel in the Desert = 14 years
From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You add all the time figures until the first year of Jair when the problems with the Ammonites began = 1267 BC
Jephta states that for 300 years (Judges 11:26) the Ammonites did not complain since the conquest of the eastern land of Jordan in the 39th year (Numbers 21) of the wandering in the desert: 1267 BC + 300 = 1567 BC - 1 = 1566 BC the first year of the Conquest - 6 years of Conquest = 1560 BC
From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You sump up all the time figures until the beginning of the time of the judges = 1546 BC
The time between the Judges & the Conquest End = 1560 - 1546 = 14 years
6 years of Conquest Joshua 14:7-10 B’midbar/ Numbers 9:1 Kaleb was 79 years old in the 40th year in the Desert and 85 years old when the conquest was finished.
40 years of Israel in the Desert in Sh’mot/ Exodus 16:35, B’midbar/ Numbers 14:34, D’varim 2:7.8:4 and Acts 13:18
The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt
You see the easy light direct way is revealed as by no means so easy and light as it seemed to be to biblical scholars; They ignored or even discarded nearly all never disproved relating ancient writings and they predated, postdated, dual dated, ignored dates, manipulated dates, parallelized dates whenever they wanted because many biblical dates needed to be changed to make their (late or early dating) theory work.
THE EXODUS OF ISRAEL AND THE EXPULSION OF THE 'HYKSOS'
TOOK PLACE IN 1606 BC
The end of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt is unveiled in this work as the biblical and the historical time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite Hyksos out of Egypt. The dissolving of so called contradictory chronological figures (eg. the 594 and 480 years between building the Temple and Exodus) in the Bible is realized by understanding the scriptures not only as never disproved trustworthy eyewitness reports but also as the self claimed from G'ds view inspired truth; And from G'ds view certainly, only HIS ruling time over Israel from the Exodus to the time of the Kings does chronologically count. This means atheistically translated: Only the years of Israel's theocracy do chronologically count in a biblical time summary of the history of a self called People of G'd. Thus the 594 years between King Salomos 4th reign year of building the Temple and the Exodus (see calculation in the chronology above) do not contradict the famous 480 years in 1 Kings 6:1 as soon as one realizes that from the LORD's view and from HIS people's view the 114 years of g'dless foreign idolatrous domination over Israel in Judges 3:8, 3:14, 4:3, 6:1, 9:22, 10:8, and 13:1 logically do not count. Ancient relating writings do confirm and prove this ancient contemporary common knowledge and chronological understanding of the biblical time figures.
In contrast to this Jackson and Lake (1979, p. 151) claim that in the first century the Jewish historian Josephus would indeed have counted the foreign idolatrous oppression times in the Book of Judges; Josephus could be called a modern Jewish historian of his time because his target readers were mainly the nonbelieving pagan idolatrous Romans and these certainly would have been confused by the principle of not counting any existing years for any reasons, so Josephus who evidenced trusted in the Bible as a fully trustworthy compendium of eyewitness reports and inspired scripture did not mention the 480 g'dfearing years in order to avoid Roman irritations.
The Bible and nearly all ancient relating writings eg. old church father Eusebius did not count the ruling time of g'dless oppressors, as it was custom knowledge in this time (see Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers at the Start of this Chapter). And in Egyptian ancient historians' writings of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, the deletion or ignorance of foreign rulership times was also usus: The Hyksos ignored most Egyptian deities. In both the Abydos list and the Sakkara list the foreign oppressors, the Hyksos, are left out (Gardiner 1961, 440). This leads to the question of why should Israel even want to include foreign pagan rulership years in their 480 years of history as a nation of G'd count if even pagan nations of these times did not do it. To finally sum it up, chronologically ignoring foreign rulership times was common practice in the iron and bronze age and it was commonly known and understood in ancient times.
THE BIBLICAL 430 AND 400 YEARS OF ABRAHAM ISAAC AND ISRAEL IN FOREIGN LANDS
The 430 and 400 years of ABRAHAM's seed in foreign lands in Exodus 12:40.41, Genesis 47:9 and Galatians 3:16.17 and in Acts 7:6-7, Genesis 15:13, 21:5.12, 47:9 are clarified in the Bible as the time of Abraham and his seed in Canaan AND Egypt together. It is additionally proved by nearly all ancient relating and confirming writings that the 430 years of Israel in foreign lands are counting the years in Canaan AND in Egypt. The only mathematically possible 215 years in Egypt are biblically clearly proved by the four generations in Genesis 15:16 given as time frame for Israel in Egypt: The four generations are evidenced by Jacob's son Levi in Exodus 6:16, Levi's son Kahat in Exodus 6:18, Kahat's son Amram in Exodus 6:20, and Amram's son Moses in Exodus 12:40. Levi’s son Kahat was born in Canaan before they arrived in Egypt according to Jubilees 44:14. So the only two generations of Levi‘s family born in Egypt are Kahat‘s son Amram and Amran‘s son Moses. Thus a time frame of 430 years of Israel in Egypt would lack any plausibility in contrast to the 215 years because eg. Abraham, Jacob and Moses were older than 90 years when their last sons were born. The resulting half of 430 years = 215 years in Egypt is derived by Genesis 12:4, 21:5, 25:7, 21:5, 35:28, 47:28, 30:23, 50:26, 41:46, and 41:53. How to understand the 430 years in Exodus 12:40 is also explained by first-century Rabbi Gamaliel's former student and pharisee Shaul (roman citizen name Paul) in Galatiens 3:16,17 as the time from Abraham to Moses in Foreign Lands. The Greek Septuaginta - the Greek Old Testament of Alexandria - clearly explains: "The time of living of the sons of Israel, who lived in Egypt AND Canaan was 430 years." This has been evidenced the ancient understanding in early all writings and the Jewish and Christian understanding up until today. The 400 years from Isaac as heir of the covenant until the Exodus in Genesis 15:13 explained in Acts 7:6,7 are meant the same way - For more evidence reread the first passage of this Chapter Chronology and You can examine and prove everything even deeper in the linked lecture of Dr. Roger Liebi on
Because of lots of archeological evidence confirming the time of JOSEPH in the time of Amenemhet III, the Late Date (1446 BC) theory has to represent the understanding of the 430 years as only in Egypt to be able to incorporate all all the evidence. Like in the case of the already mentioned 480 years the so-called Early Date Theory is based on ignoring or altering all the many biblical time figures which disprove this kind of understanding (480 biblical years of theocracy + 114 biblically evidenced years of foreign rule and idolatry = 594 biblically evidenced years in total). Thus the understanding of the 430 years AND of the 480 years in both cases builds on picking a cite out of its bigger biblical context and interpreting it in strong contradiction to the biblical context. This method has proven to be highly effective for convincing huge masses for non biblical theories or ideologies to be biblical. It can even convince to represent as statement the Word of God in its literal meaning. It is historically evidenced as a confessional preference having changed the history of Christianity. The less You know the Bible the easier You are convinced and it is the chosen easy light broad way for seeking for the truth.
The exact precise matching of the complete amount of all biblical time figures taking all this into account is no wonder, no mysterious coincidence, and no hypothesis: It is merely simple, logical, and most plausible mathematics. Alternative Exodus dating attempts and all other self called "Biblical" Chronologies have dismissed and manipulated many biblical time figures for reasons of externally oriented small trust or open mistrust in the credibility of the Bible and they simply do not take into account what the Bible always said; It is externally evidence-based since Qumran 200 BC and it is internally content based since 1606 BC what the Bible always said:
The Bible always stated the Exodus took place 1606 BC.
This was commonly known in ancient times
which is confirmed by nearly all ancient relating writings.
ONLY FOR CHRISTIANS
THE BY G'D NOT COUNTED YEARS IN HISTORY
The 114 by G'd not counted g'dless years are not an exemption invented by Dr. Roger Liebi but instead evidenced ancient common practice and knowledge (see start of Chapter Moses) and there is a method to it in the Biblical Prophecy; The Biblical Prophecy divides the time of Israel with G'd into Four Phases of 70 Year Weeks (1 Year Week are 7 years) which are 490 Years:
1. The First 70 Year Weeks are the time between Abraham's birth and the Exodus 2111-1606 BC = 505 Years. Here the time of Abraham not believing enough the Word of G'd and marrying Hagar to have Ishmael as firstborn son is not counted in HIS eyes; In these 15 years from his marriage with Hagar to the 5 years old Isaac becoming the heir G'd even didn't talk with Abraham for 13 years. 505 - 15 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
2. The Second 70 Year Weeks are the time between the Exodus and Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall 1606-1002 BC = 604 Years. Here the already examined 114 Years of foreign rule and idolatry are not counted in HIS eyes. 604 - 114 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
3. The Third 70 Year Weeks are the time between Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall and the Building up of Jerusalem in Nehemia 1 1002-445 BC. The time of the 67 years in Babylonian Captivity of Israel in Daniel 1:1, Hesekiah 1:1-2, 2 Chronicles 36,Jeremiah 52:30 as a time of atonement of sins and missing rulership/ theocracy is not counted in HIS eyes. 557 - 67 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.
4. In Daniel 9:2-27 the 70 Year Weeks between the Building up of Jerusalem and the 1000 years of the reign of the Messiah at the end of time are interrupted after 69 Year Weeks by the Messiah being killed and the Temple being destroyed and Jerusalem would be under war until the end of time and Israel would be dispersed throughout the complete world until the end of time. At the end of time, Israel is brought back to its Promised Land, and the seven last years until the Kingdom of the Messiah start with a 7-year peace contract and an alliance between Israel and Europe, biblically called the islands. The two millennia of Israel living in Exile as their time of atonement and missing theocracy is not counted within the 70 Year Weeks.
[5. The author discovered a fifth g'dless phase probably not counted in the eyes of the Almighty: One approximate century plus-minus at least a third in Jubilees 4:33-5:1 and 5:22-25 of g'dless idolatrous evil domination - this time over complete mankind - is the century before 2463 BC before the world's biggest natural disaster, the flood. This probably not by G'd counted time does not touch today's Christian chronology back to 2463 BC but it touches the Jewish calendar counting from the day of creation on with zero. And it is relevant for believers who take Psalm 90,4 seriously that says 1000 years in the eyes of the Lord being like one day; According to the Strict Biblical Chronology and in case taking that century out of account then in our generation (4119 BC - 2021 AD) 6 days are done in the eyes of the G'd of Israel and the Sabbath Millenium of peaceful reign of the Messiah would be knocking at the door now. For the Christians: check 2Petrus3:8, Revelation20:4, Jubilees4:29 - in the first century AD Jesus' disciple Barnabas, the greek apostolic father Holy Papias, and Jesus' disciple John inscriptively evidenced preached the Sabbath Millenium after the end of the world.]
SIDENOTE OF THE SIDENOTE
THE BY G'D COUNTED YEARS IN PROPHECY
Last but not least an opposite example that the living G'd of the Bible is counting the years seriously and precisely and therefore every single biblical time figure MUST NOT be changed or ignored and MUST be taken seriously from HIS view as Word of G'd;
The prophecized coming of the Messiah in Daniel 9:25-26:
"seven weeks (of years) will elapse between the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim until the Moshiach, the Prince comes ... Then after sixty-two weeks, the Moshiach will be (exterminated) cut off but not for himself. The people of a prince yet to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary, but its end will come (like) with a flood, and desolations are decreed until the war is over."
(Complete and Orthodox Jewish Bible)
- One week of days counts seven days = One week of years counts seven years.
- According to all unfalsified biblical time figures/ according to the Strict Bible Chronology 445 BC, King Artaxerxes issued the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim in the month of Nisan.
- According to Daniel 11, a prophesized year counts 360 days because
"42 months count 1260 days".
- Thus the time until the coming of the Messiah counts
69 weeks of years times 7 days times 360 days = 173.880 days.
- If You take the leap days into accounts You reach exactly the month Nisan in the year AD 32.
- According to Luke3 John, the Baptist baptized at the river Jordan
in the 15th year of Caesar Tiberius.
Tiberius' reign started AD 14 thus it was the year AD 29.
- According to Luke 13:3-9 Jesus prayed from then on for three years until he entered Yerushalayim. He was celebrated like a prince and as the Messiah and Son of David. He entered Yerushalayim exactly in the month Nisan in the year AD 32. Later he was crucified/ exterminated/ cut off not for himself but for all of us.
- In AD 70 the Romans destroyed the city and the sanctuary which is not yet built up again until today.
- Desolations followed for Yerushalayim in AD 135, AD 614, AD 629, AD 638, AD 1071, AD 1099, AD 1189, AD 1244, AD 1517, AD 1917, AD 1948, and AD 1967. Since then Yerushalayim and the Temple Mount are back in Jewish hands.
The oldest copy of Daniel's prophecies has been found in Qumran. Handwriting style, grammar, and unique words date his prophecy into the 6th to 7th century. According to scripture, Daniel went into Exile to Babylon 606 BC. This fulfilled prophecy is called the fatal blow for atheism and the other religions and the proving evidence for the living G'd of Israel being above space and time.
There is no evidence
PROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th/ 13th/ 16th/ 17th Dynasty being CANAANITES.
There is no evidence
DISPROVING the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th/ 13th/ 16th/ 17th Dynasty being ISRAELITES.
This work delivers over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence
revealing the opposite is the case.
Radiocarbon Results of the Storm Stela and the Ypuwer Papyrus evidenced Santorini Vulcano Eruption Impact on Egypt
prove the Hyksos Expulsion and Ahmose's I reign
took place 75 years earlier.
Egyptology does not deliver the necessary archeological evidence
to prove the defined Second Intermediate Period counting
'254' years in '1803-1549' BC (Kim Ryholt).
This work delivers the archeological evidence
revealing same defined Second Intermediate Period is counting
160 biblical years in 1785-1625 BC.
FOR BELIEVERS IN THE HEBREW BIBLE - TANAKH -
BY CHRISTIANS CALLED OLD OR FIRST TESTAMENT
Until the end of World War II the oldest evidenced scriptures of the Hebrew Bible were only one millennium old. They revealed that every word and even letters were counted to ensure a 100% correct copying process without any changes. Nevertheless the „scientific neutral“ Bible Criticism proclaimed the Bible was falsified all over in the millenium before. This was disproved finally by the Qumran discoveries of the c. 2200 year old scriptures of the complete Tanakh. Nevertheless „scientific neutral“ Bible Criticism from then on proclaimed the written Bible is no older than around 2500 years and was falsified all over by oral traditions handed down in the up to 500 years before. Nevertheless the Word of G‘d always sayed Moses wrote his five books 1606-1566 BC; His first book is based on Henoch‘s, Noah’s, the Patriarchs‘, Levi’s and his other book’s are based Amram‘s, Moses‘ and at the end Joshua‘s eyewitness reports.
An ancient rabbinical warning to the copiers of the Bible says:
„If You change one single Word of the Bible
You are a destroyer of the World!“
This Chapter has unveiled that only three single biblical words changed in their meaning were enough to lead the world astray and ensure the destruction of its faith in the Word of G‘d. These three words are:
1. „JHWH“ in the book of Genesis allegedly disproving Moses‘ authorship of his books and allegedly proving instead many different authorships one millennium later than the Word does claim (and this in contrast to the history of alphabetical writing in Egypt at the start of Chapter Moses and tons of more Bible corroborating archeological evidence)
2. „Ra-amezes“ allegedly meaning Piramesses and proving a by 3 centuries falsified „Biblical“ Chronology and proving an extraordinary amount of biblical time figures wrong - and at the end allegedly revealing the Bible as a compendium of lies
3. The biblical „430 years“ of theocracy allegedly proving a (by 160 years falsified) Biblical Chronology based on the attempt to date the Exodus into the year 1446 BC and allegedly proving an even bigger amount of biblical time figures wrong - proving the Word of G’d wrong at many places for the sake of proving the Word of G‘d right in one selected unexamined misunderstood sentence - and by this in the end strengthening Leading Archeology’s and Egyptology‘s proclamation the Bible would allegedly by Jericho be proven as to be a compendium of political lies written around 500 BC; Jericho‘s destruction around 1550 BC will never be disproved for the simple reason that it is indeed the strictly biblically approved correct time.
What does that mean to Christian believers in the Word of G‘d?
It means that the Almighty in his perfect plan only needs to allow three of his Words to be interpreted in a misleading way to let HIS biblical end time prophecy regarding apostasy come to an essential part to its fullfillment; Paul relates in 1 Timothy 4:1 and 2 Thessalonians 2:3 on Jesus himself who prophezised the fall away (from faith) before his return in Matthew 24:10 confirmed by the New International Version Bible, the English Standard Version Bible, Hoffnung für alle, and the Catholic Bible, especially the comment of the Allioli Bible of the 19th century.
ISRAEL IN EGYPT
Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.
ABRAM > ABRAHAM
& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR
KINGS OF EGYPT
Pharaoh Mentuhotep II
& Wife REBECCA
JACOB > ISRAEL
& Wife LEAH
& Wife RACHEL
& Maid BILHAH
& Maid ZILPAH
Pharaoh Senwosret III
JOSEPH Grandvizier Senwosret-Ankh Khety Khnumhotep Zamonth
The Egyptians named him
God Sealer, Gate of Foreign Lands, Pharaoh's Real Friend, Overseer of the Fields & Hunters, Arm of Month, Mayor and Mouth of Nekhen.
His early Viziernames were
& Wife ASENATH or ESENUT
A-Henut or Henutsen
She was the daughter of POTIPHERA named Khnumhotep II. The Egyptians called her Priestess,
Mother of Gods.
She was mother of the two Viziers
EPHRAIM named Senwosret Ankhu and
MANASSE named Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw.
Furtheron she became mother of six Pharaohs:
Rensenebu named Imyrmashaw,
Wepwauthotep named Sobekhotep III,
Kingson Khakaw named Sewadjtew,
Kingson Sonb named Ined and 10 Kingdaughters two are evidenced called Seneb and Satamun.
12 Brothers &
Leah's sons are called
RUBEN, SIMEON, LEVI, JUDAH, ISSACHAR, and ZEBULON.
LEVI was Pharaoh Amenemhet V. Three of his sons became Pharaohs. His grandson became Pharaoh Amenemhet VI.
Pharaoh. LEVI is the father of KHAHAT, father of AMRAM, father of
Rachel's sons were called JOSEPH and BENJAMIN.
BENJAMIN became Pharaoh Amenemhet IV. All of his ten sons became Pharaohs. His great-grandson was Pharaoh Amenemhet VII.
Bilhah's sons were called AN and NAPHTALI.
Zilpah's sons were called AD and ASHER.
Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his own father and JOSEPH Therfore he was not memorized. Amenemhet's adopted son in law Amenemhet IV is biblical BENJAMIN.
His daughters: Nofrusobek became Pharaoh,
Nubheteptikhered became the wife of Amenemhet IV (BENJAMIN). His daughter Mereret became the wife of (EPHRAIM) Senwosret Ankhu.
Further daughters are Nofruptha, Hathorhotep, Sithathor and evidenced Kingdaughter Hatshepsut.
Vizier Senwosret Ankhu
He co-ruled together with his father JOSEPH
He was also named
Speaker of Vizier Zamonth
Senwosret Mayor of Lahun under Vizier Khety.
He ruled as Vizierking over Egypt 1750-1726 BC.
& Wife Mereret
She was Pharaoh Amenemhat's III daughter.
Furtheron she was the mother of SHUTELAH 1 Chr 7:20 named Vizier Senwosret Resseneb and
BERIAH 1 Chr 7:23 called Sonbhenaf and named Vizier Iymerew Aya.
Her daughters were called
Senebhenas and Aya.
Two of his sons died in an attack of the sons of DAN & GAD: They were called ELEAD 1 Chr 7,21 and ESER named Nebankh.
Vizier Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw
He is also deciphered as Dedwen- or Dedu Month Senebtefi.
Mayor of Thebes, Vizier,
Royal Sealer and
Highpriest of Amun.
His illegitimate first son
1 Chronicles 7:14 of an Aramean concubine was called
1. MACHIR and named Nehy
His legitimate sons in
Joshua 17, 1 Chronicles 7 of an Egyptian mother called Nebetka are
2. AVIEZER named
3. HELEQ called
Pharaoh Sobekhotep VIII
4. ASRIEL's name is lost
5. SHEMIDA named
Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I
6. HEPHER named
Vizierking Monthotep = (Za)Month + (Khnum)hotep
He was the First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands (Hekashasut = Hyksos).
He is archeologically evidenced as
King Zamonth and
The Egyptians named him
Father of the Land and Father of G'ds. They
worshipped him as
He was the brother of BENJAMIN the first Hebrew Pharaoh Amenemhat IV.
Vizier Senwosret Resseneb
1 Chronicles 7:20
He was the assistant of his grandfather JOSEPH and the entitled Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Khety.
He co-ruled as Vizier
with his father EPHRAIM
and his brother BERIAH
He ruled as 16th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1726-1714 BC.
She was HUPPIM's sister
Genesis 46:21 and granddaughter of BENJAMIN.
Furthermore she was the evidenced King's Daughter
of BENJAMIN's son IR
1 Chron 7:12 named
She was entitled as
„Lady of the House“.
She was the former widow of (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblical illegitimate son MACHIR
1 Chronicles 7:14 named Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first battle against the Canaanites in the year of JOSEPH‘s death.
Vizier Iymeru Aya
1 Chronicles 7:23
He co-ruled as Vizier together with his father EPHRAIM and his brother SHUTELAH 1750-1726 BC.
His sisters were called Aya and Senebhenas. His wifes were called ZatJan and Redinetes.
His son REFACH 1 Chronicles 7:25 was named Vizier Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II.
BERIAH rules as 16th Dynasty Vizierking Ayamerew over Southern Egypt 1714-1698 BC.
He rules as 13th Dynasty Vizierking over complete Egypt 1750-1726 BC.
He is archeologically evidenced named King Senwosret the King of Pharaoh Wegaf.
1 Chronicles 7:16
He was the son of (SHUTELAH's) Resseneb's wife and former widow (MAACHAH) Senebtisi and (MANASSE's) Senwosret Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son (MACHIR) 1 Chr 7:14 Nehy who died together with Sobekhotep III in the first war against the Canaanites before JOSEPH‘s death.
PERESH named Haankhef failed in his attempt to take over the throne and died early before his sons' kinghship. His sons proclaimed him as Royal Sealer, Father of Gods and Father of Kingsons.
& Wife Kemi
She died in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep. She was the mother of two self-called Kingsons:
1.REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I.
2.ULAM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV.
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru or Ayameru II
He was the son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1 Chronicles 7:23 named
His mother was called Redinetes.
He co-ruled together with his father Vizierking Iymeru Aya 1716-1698 BC.
He was 17th Dynasty Vizierking over Southern Egypt 1698-1666 BC.
Finally he was degraded to Vizier under Pharaohking Sobekhotep IV 1666-1646 BC.
First Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh
He was the first 15th Dynasty self announced HYKSOS = Foreign King who arose in enmity over Egypt Exodus 1:8.
Hebrew Shepherd Kings in his time were:
1. SHUTELA 16th Dynasty
1 Chronicles 7:20 named Vizierking Senwosret Resseneb
1 Chronicles 7:23 named Vizierking Iymeru Aya and Ayamerew.
1 Chronicles 7:25 named Vizierking Neferkare Iymeru and Ayamerew II.
ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV
He was the second son of PERESH 1 Chr 7:16 named Haankhef.
Furthermore he was the husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris.
This way he co-ruled together with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt
He was the stepfather of
Sobekhotep Mio =
1. Wife MERIS
2. Wife Tjan
1. His first wife was Canaanite and called
MERIS or Mereryt. She was Biblical Pharaoh's Daughter of Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan.
She became mother of Pharaoh Sobekhotep V (BN Sobekhotep Djadja) and Haankhef Iyhkarnofrat.
But beforehand and first of all she became the
adoptive Queenmother of
crownprince Sobekhotep Mio =
2. His Second wife was Hebrew and called Tjan:
Her son became Pharaoh Sobekhotep VI BN Amenhotep.
Her daughter Nebtiunet
became Queen Tetisheri, the wife of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose.
REKEM 1 Chronicles 7:16 was named Pharaoh Neferhotep I. He was the father of Pharaoh Sihathor who as a nephew of Sobekhotep IV had no reign time and suffered an early death.
Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV
He co-ruiled as Hebrew son in law together with Canaanite King Khayan over reunited Egypt until 1658 BC.
1666 BC was the year of the switch back from a Vizierking Dynasty to a Pharaohking Dynasty leading into the downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings until the Egyptian takeover by the Ahmosides 1627 BC.
Pharaoh Ahmose I
Ahmose built his temples and Pyramid with a huge Semitic slavework force. During the impacts of the Santorino mega vulcanic eruption on Egypt/ the biblical Ten Plagues Ahmose was the main pharaonic opponent of
His grandfather Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose had married into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty clan. His Hebrew mother in law was (ULAM’s) Pharaoh Sobekhotep’s IV Hebrew wife Tjan who’s daughter Nebtiunet became his Hebrew wife named Queen Tetisheri. Their son is Ahmose’s father Pharaoh Sequenenre Tao who ruled 1626-1621 BC. One of his sisterwife‘s was Queen Sadjehuti. Her birthname was the Hebrew name Satibu. She was Ahmose’s aunt so his female lineage was Hebrew.
Pharaoh Ahmose’s wifes
1. Ahmose Nefertari
2. Ahmose Sitkamose
3. Ahmose Henut Tamehu
Ahmose became father of at least eight children. His firstborn son was named Ahmose Sapair. He abruptly died as a young boy in the time around 1606 BC probably in the time of the impacts of the Santorini mega vulcano eruption on the Ten Plagues in Egypt.
Brother Pharaoh Kamose
Ahmose’s brother Pharaoh Kamose was the firstborn son of their father Sequenre Tao. He died in a battle against the Canaanite Northern Hyksos King Apophis.
Canaanite Hyksos King of Egypt Khamudi
Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Khamudi in greek called Archeles is the biblical King of Egypt: During the time of Israel’s flight through the desert of Sinai and the biblical Sea Miracle Khamudi is the pharaonic opponent of
Notes and References
Berger Klaus, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981
Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press
Emmerick Anna Katharina, Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Emmerick Anna Katharina, The life of Holy Virgin Mary, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Emmerick Anna Katharina 1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Volume 3, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Grajetzki Wolfram, Court Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, 2009 London, pp. 136-138, 160-161, 36, pl.3.
Haag Herbert, Bibel-Lexikon, Einsiedeln 1956.
Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.
Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.
Rohl, David M., Exodus: Myth or History? - St. Louis Park, MN: Thinking Man Media. 
Ryholt Kim, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 BC, Copenhagen 1997 (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20).
Barkay, Gabriel et al., "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context", Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 66, No. 4 (December 2003), pp. 162–171 (at JSTOR) Archived 16 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
Berger Klaus, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981.
Bible and Science https://www.bibleandscience.com/archaeology/exodus.html.
Bietak, M., Tell el-Daba http://www.auaris.at/htmle/history_en.html. Retriever30 November 2019.
Bietak, Manfred, 1996 Avaris, the cpaital of th Hyksos: recent excavations at Tell el-Daba & David Rohl 2010 The Lords of Avaris.
Bietak, Manfred. 1987. "Comments on the Exodus." Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.
....... 1988. "Contra Bimson, Bietak Says Late Bronze Age Cannot Begin as Late as 1400 BC" Biblical Archaeology Review 15:4 (July/August).
....... 1991. "Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age." Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 281.
Bimson, John J. 1980. "Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs." Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives.ed. by Millard and Wiseman. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
....... 1981. Redating the Exodus and Conquest. 2nd ed.Sheffield: The Almond Press.
Bimson and Livingston. 1987. "Redating the Exodus." Biblical Archaeology Review 13:5 (September/October).
Bohak, Gideon (1996). Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis. Atlanta: Scholars Press.
Charlesworth, James. 1983. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. Garden City: Doubleday & Comapny.
....... 1985. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 2. Garden City: Doubleday & Comapny.
Curry, Andrew, “The Rulers of Foreign Lands - Was a new regional power, once thought of as a bloodthirsty invading force, actually a catalyst for ancient Egypt’s most prosperous era?” in: Archeology, a publication of the Archeological Institute of America, September/ October 2018.
Dodson, Aidan Marc 2004 & https://www.ancient-egypt.org; Hilton, Dyan 2010 London. The complete royal families of ancient Egypt.
Pharaoh Mentuhotep’s concubines Kawit, Henhenet, Kemsit, Sadeh and Aschait died very young.
Emmerick Anna Katharina, Secrets of the Old and New Covenant, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Emmerick Anna Katharina, The life of Holy Virgin Mary, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Emmerick Anna Katharina 1820, The Life of Jesus Christ Volume 3, Kisslegg-Immenried 2018.
Eusebius, Pamphilus. 1955. The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius Pamphilus. Translation by Christian Cruse.Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
....... 1956. Eusebius Werke: Die Chronik Des Hieronymus. Ed. by Rudolf Helm. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
....... 1981. Preparation of the Gospel. Translation by Edwin Gifford. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.
Gardiner, Alan H. 1916. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. rpt.Recueil de travaux ..., Vols. 32-36, Paris.
....... 1947. Ancient Egyptian Onomastica. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
....... 1961. Egypt of the Pharaohs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grajetzki, Wolfram, Court of Officials of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom 2009 London & Janice Karmin, The Cosmos of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan 1999 London.
Haag Herbert, Bibel-Lexikon, Einsiedeln 1956.
Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16. The Eruption took place around 1600 BC.
Herodotus. 1920. Herodotus: Books I-II. Translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.
(Cypriot White Slip pottery .. provides no convincing argument against an eruption date of around 1600 BC).
Josephus, Flavius. 1830. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translation by William Whiston. Baltimore: Armstrong and Plaskitt.
....... 1926. Josephus. Translation by H. ST. J. Thackeray. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kitchen, K.A. 1965. "Theban Topographical lists, Old and New. "Orientalia 34.
....... 1967. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago:Inter-Varsity Press.
Liebi Roger, Chronology of the Old Testament, Düsseldorf 2016.
Manetho. 1940. Manetho. Translation by W. G. Waddell. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mooere, Megan B.; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cambridge, UK. and Rainey, Anson F. (1995). "Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society". In Wright, David Pearson; Freedman, David Noel; Hurvitz, Avi (eds.). Pomegranates and Golden Bells. Eisenbrauns.
Redford, Donald. 1970. A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph.Leiden: E.J. Brill.
....... 1979. "A Gate Inscription From Karnak and Egyptian Involement in Western Asia During the Early 18th Dynasty." Journal of the American Oriental Society 99:2.
....... 1982. "A Bronze Age Itinerary in Transjordan (Nos. 89-101 of Thutmose III's List of Asiatic Toponyms)."Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 12:55-74.
....... 1987. "Perspective on the Exodus." Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University.
....... 1992. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology. sciencedaily.com, April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241.
Rohl, David M. 1995. Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest.New York: Crown Publishers.
Roux, Georges. 1964. Ancient Iraq. 3rd ed. New York: Penguin Books.
Septuagint Version of the Old Testament, with an English Translation. 1970. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Septuaginta. 1935. Ed. by Alfred Rahlfs. Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft Stuttgart.
Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.
Stern, P. 1347.1367 Vol.4 and P. 326, Vol.1). Sichem was destroyed around 1540 BC and remained abandoned for a century. Tel Dan was destroyed around 1550 BC.
Tacitus. 1925. Histories and Annals. 4 Vols. Translated by C. H. Moore and J. Jackson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
....... 1964. The Histories. Translation by Kenneth Wellesley. London: Penguin Books.
Thiele, Edwin. 1983. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Van Seters, John. 1966. The Hyksos. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Yadin, Yigael. 1963. The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands.London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.