The Chronology of Israel in Egypt

According to what the Bible really says, the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology later shown in this chapter, these are the truly pure biblical cornerstone years of Israel in Egypt providing the chronological framework for over 100 examples of archeological evidence for the time of Israel in Egypt:

1830 BC  

Joseph is enthroned by Pharaohs Senwosret III and his son Amenemhet II as Vizierking Senwosret-Ankh/Amenemhet-Ankh Khnumhotep above all Egyptians except Pharaoh.

1821 BC ('1820-1800 BC') 

Israel's arrival and ensettlement in Egypt
Bietak Avaris Excavations & Beni Hassan: Archeological Evidence of Semitic ensettlement in Egypt matches the biblical account 

1798 BC ('1795' BC) 

Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.
Joseph becomes Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhoteph (later melted together into) Monthhoteph above selected yearly rotating Pharaohs: Their descendants of the 16th/17th Dynasty are called by ancient Historian Manetho "Hebrew Shepherd Kings".

1729 BC ('1649 BC' or 'around 1720 BC')

Avaris: Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion & Enslavement of Israel

Jubilees46:14: "After having defeated the Egyptian King, the King of Canaan
makes the plan to oppress the Israelites and executes his plan."

Exodus1,8: "A Foreign Ruler (=Hyksos) who did not know Joseph rose up in enmity against Egypt":
Enslavement of Israel. Archeological Evidence of Canaanite fortification city walls in LeOntopolis match enslaved Israel building the fortified city of On in Heliopolis (5th century Latin Jubilees46:14 & Exodus1:11). The archeologically evidenced Semitic slave town Lahun in Fayum matches Pythom confirmed by middle ages rabbinical writings.

1606 BC ('1531 BC')

The Ten Plagues and the Exodus of Israel of Genesis13:17 evidenced in the time of the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos' in most relating ancient writings, Geological (Radiocarbon: 1620-1600 BC) and Archeological Evidence of the Santorini Eruption & the Ten Plagues in Egypt match the biblical account. Ra-amezes/Avaris and Pythom/Lahun are archeologically evidenced abruptly abandoned by its population in the time of the 'Hyksos Expulsion' and the Exodus of Israel (Chapter Moses).


Leading Biblical Archeology still insists on
that the Exodus had never happened
and at the same time had to have happened in the 13th century
which allegedly proves the Exodus being an ancient political lie.

In this work, the reader can find and check both sides of evidence evaluation results. Thus he becomes empowered 
to find and choose on his own the right path to the truth.

The question is none less than does archeological evidence really prove the Bible is a compendium of political lies 
or does the archeologically confirmed Bible reveal 
leading science's claims to be a compendium of errors? 


If You want to examine directly the Chronology of Israel in Egypt jump to the last part of this chapter by scrolling down until the timetable occurs. In the first two parts the most known late and early date theories are critically 

When watching Youtube documentaries linked in this work simply choose Your language as a subtitle. When no special source is mentioned when citing in quotation marks without a source Wikipedia is the referred source to make it easier for all readers to roughly check things; In the relating Wikipedia articles, You find further sources referred to.


Before You can prove that the Bible - regarding the time of Israel in Egypt - is confirmed by over 100 examples of archeological evidence You first have to prove what the Bible really says regarding the times WHEN what happened. Falsifying the Word has been the fundament of disproving the Word since it's very beginning (see Genesis3:2.4.5). Falsifying what the Bible really says about WHEN what happened has been the very fundament of "Biblical" Archeology from its very beginning onwards as we will see in this work.

In the 20th century, biblical time figures often were dismissed as false without ever having been disproven. The 13th century BC Ramesses Time Paradigm for the Exodus does not build literally and solely on the comprehensive amount of the pure biblical time figures but does ignore, change and add time figures and thus changes what the Bible literally says by over three centuries. These changes are often based on the Bible external Second Century Rabba Seder Olam which is also cited in the Jewish Talmud: The Seder Olam ads Bible Tanakh external time estimations into its chronology and does change the meaning of biblical time figures by reinterpretation based on rabbinical Bible external traditions to make its Chronology work. These Bible figures changing time estimations and reinterpretations have been misused up until today by leading 'Biblical' Archeology to prove the Bible/Tanakh being a compendium of politically motivated lies of the first millennium BC based on "contemporary reflections" (

The resulting Ramesses Time Paradigm is an outdated Egyptology and Biblical Archeology still dominating dogma that a never happened Exodus the same time must have happened in the 13th century and cannot have happened at any other time. It is also based on picking out and isolating one single word out of hundreds of ignored biblical sentences; one single unproven reinterpreted town name is up until today the by Leading 'Biblical' Archeology only permitted proving evidence for the time of the Exodus: The town name Piramesses - confused with the biblical town name Ra'amezez in the Book of Exodus - as shown now:


Leading 'Biblical' Archeology claims the biblical town name Ra'amezez would prove the mid 13th century as the only possible time for the Exodus in spite of the Bible saying it took place 1606 BC as later explained. Already if You ignore all other time data of the Bible and only pick out one isolated sentence like 1Kings6:1 the Bible would already clearly date the Exodus more than two centuries earlier. But if You for the first time take into account the complete amount of unmanipulated biblical time data and the knowledge of nearly all relating ancient scriptures as explained later You know for sure the Bible unambiguously states 1606 BC is clearly the year of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt.

But let us first inspect more accurately the by leading scientists isolated used town name originally written Ra'amezez in the Bible. According to excavator Manfred Bietak Avaris was a huge town ensettled by Semites estimated circa 1840-1800 BC (1). Strictly biblically exactly in the year 1830 BC, Joseph's rulership over Egypt began and precisely 1821 BC Israel's family clan arrived in Egypt. Kim Ryholt estimates '1531 BC' as the year of the Hyksos Expulsion. The Hyksos Expulsion is confirmed by nearly all ancient scriptures as also being the time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt in the biblical year 1606 BC; The time difference is explained later in the full Chronology of Israel in Egypt in this Chapter. To replace the name of the older town beneath Avaris of the 18th century BC with the name of the later town above Piramesses of the 13th century would be a quick plausible assumption if You assume the ancient biblical copying process to be a typical neglectful ancient scripture copying process - three easy to understand examples to understand:


When You read in an Encyclopedia that the town New York was founded by the Dutch or the town York was founded by the Romans You get the understanding of the function of an updated town name: It is generating directly contemporary understanding by the reader. As a matter of fact, New Amsterdam instead of New York was founded by the Dutch, and Eboracum instead of York was founded by the Romans. But in our time nearly nobody knows these two old town names and their locations anymore. But nearly everybody knows New York and York as locations; Thus the updated town names are generating a common understanding of the location, the writer wants to talk about. The same case could be easily the biblically town name Ra'amezez, often misleadingly written Ramesses in English. PiRamesses was founded in the 13th and abandoned in the 11th century BC. The forgotten unknown town name Avaris would stand for the older town underneath. Avaris was founded archeologically evidenced in the 19th century BC and also according to Exodus47:11. It largely grew in the 18th century BC according to Exodus1:11 and finally was abandoned at the end of the Second Intermediate Period 1606 BC according to Exodus12:37. All three times are confirmed by biblical figures of the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strictly Biblical Chronology, by the Book of Jubilees, by the resulting Chronology of Israel in Egypt in this work, by Manfred Bietak's excavation results in Avaris, and by their resulting Chronology of the 'Hyksos' at the beginning of Chapter Hyksos. Avaris is the original town of the Israelites from Canaan coming to Goshen in Egypt confused by Manfred Bietak with unproven allegedly early previous Canaanite 'Hyksos' not distinguished from the 'Hyksos' Invasion Canaanites as later confirmed by several patterns of evidence. Since the Hyksos Invasion - as documented in ancient writings - it was the summer residence of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaos of Egypt and their Canaanite and Egyptian staff (2)

A second example shows that updating town names in order to generate a common understanding is even a common biblical practice: Tel Dan is the modern Israeli name of the old city Dan of the tribe of Dan near the river Jordan at the northeastern end of Israel; Joshua19:47 In the time the tribe Dan occupies the city, Dan's former town name Leshem is additionally mentioned, the same later in Jesaya10:30 as Layish. But centuries before the eponym giving person Dan was born as the great-grandson of Abraham, Abraham himself biblically travels "to Dan" to rescue his nephew Lot in Genesis14:14. Thus a later copier obviously generated a common understanding of the location by the reader in his time while writing about a time, centuries before the name-giver of the city was born. Dan. Same with Bethel. Same with Ramesses? This would be already sufficient plausible evidence for an updated town name for Avaris. But there is even additionally a second expert evaluation result leading into another direction:

To equate the biblical town name Ra'amezez 
with the 13th century name Piramesses 
is scientifically a weak affair.

According to Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, Professor Hans Goedicke believes that the biblical city Ra'amezez is incorrectly equated with the Piramesses of Pharaoh Ramesses' 13th century. Hershel Shanks writing about Goedicke's view states ".. the fact is that the store city of Ra'amezez can not be identified with Piramesses, the Residence of the Ramessides. This identification is impossible phonetically, as has been demonstrated conclusively more than 15 years ago by D.B.Redford in 'Exodus I, II' (Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 13, pp. 408-413, 1963)." And Exodus1:11 would have had to call it the "the new residence" or "the new capital city" of Ramesses instead of the store city of Ra'amezez. Moreover, the residence of the Ramessides is not denoted in Egyptian sources by the use of the royal name Ramesses alone. When the residence of the Ramessides is referred to, the royal name is always connected with the Egyptian word Pr (Pi), meaning house or residence: the reference is always in the form 'PerRamesses' (BAR, September/October 1981, p. 44). Long before PerRamesses .. was Avaris, the later capital of the Hyksos kings .. was written in hieroglyphics transliteration .. R3-mtny (Khatana) which is today called Tell el-Daba and is being excavated by Manfred Bietak. The hieroglyphic R3-mtny can be projected back into Semitic transcription as Ramesen (better Ra'amezez). Therefore Hershel Shanks concludes "Biblical Ra'amezez can therefore almost certainly be identified with Tell el-Daba, the old town Avaris beyond the later town PerRamesses." (3)

Today's Town Tell el-Daba,
the hieroglyphic 18th & 17th century BC Avaris,
was contemporary written Ra'amezez in old Hebrew.

Another this research result supporting theory is that Avaris second name was Ra-meses from the very beginning on already in the 19th century BC meaning Ra is born honoring the sun deity Ra.

However, a single town name reinterpretation is the very fundament of Egyptology and Leading 'Biblical' Archeology to ignore the comprehensive biblical chronological data and still claim the mid 13th century, the time of Pharao Ramesses, as undisputable Exodus time AND as indisputable proof that Israel in Egypt, the Exodus and the Conquest of Canaan never happened. Further on it is their fundament to avoid any other chronological date and so with also the real biblical date of the Exodus in the leading scientific discussion with the blocking sentence "Chronology does not permit us to make such conclusions .." (38th minute of Bietak's lecture against the biblical Exodus: which is the official language for the Ramesses Time Paradigm does not permit the real true biblical times to be used for matches with any contemporary archeological evidence. This paradigm is disproven by themselves detecting the missing of any confirming archeological evidence.

In contrast, the Bible always said the Exodus took place 1606 BC. Nearly all relating ancient writings back then understood and confirmed the biblical time of the Exodus as the time of the contemporary Hyksos Expulsion in the same year (see the start of Chapter Moses).

"Without dating it's impossible to do anything ...
Dates and Chronology are fundamental to everything,
because without knowing the chronology ... you can't progress."

Israel Finkelstein, 2013, Archeology & the Bible, Interview 

Israel Finkelstein's world-known book 
The Bible Unearthed builds on the fundament of 
the self disproved Bible falsifying Ramesses Time Paradigm



The Ramesses Time Paradigm Chronology does ignore and change many biblical time figures. It reinterprets and manipulates biblical time figures to make them fit into its time estimation of 1260 BC. It changes them by predating, postdating, and so-called dual dating when not understanding different ancient counting methods between Israel and Judah. This way it does falsify what the Bible really says by over three centuries. 

Ignoring or changing one single biblical time figure 
can already falsify what the Bible really says by over 100 years.

One chronological ancient fundament of the Ramesses Time Paradigm is eg. the 3rd-century Seder Olam Chronology. It "also determine(s) certain dates which are not indicated in the Bible." It compresses its Chronology by over 300 years by assigning the shortest possible time to events and by adopting always the lesser of two possible numbers. It also squeezes the Bible external time of the evidenced centuries-long rulership of the Persians into less than one century. And the time of Judges is squeezed together by a not biblical congruent understanding of the 300 years of Jephta in Judges11:26 as we'll see later. The result is an Exodus allegedly happened in 1312 BC, three centuries earlier than the full amount of unfalsified time data of the Tanakh Bible does document it. Neither the 480 years between the building of the Temple and the Exodus in 1Kings6:1 nor the 300 years in Judges11:26 allow an Exodus around 1300 BC.

The so-called Early Date Estimation into 1446 BC does ignore and change even more biblical time figures by predating, postdating and dualdating. This is based on invented nonbiblical parallelized ruling times of different rulers to make them fit into their early date estimation and it contradicts harshly Acts13:17-22 that states the time of the judges counts 450 years confirmed a second time by the addition of all single reign times of the Judges in Judges3:8,3:11,3:14,3:30,4:3,5:31,6:1,8:28,9:22,10:2,10:3,10:8,12:7,12:9,12:11,12:14,13:1,1Samuel4:18,7:2.

Also the 300 years in Judges11:26 describing the time of Israel having been fully settled in Gilead from the conquest 1567 to 1267 BC the rulership of the Judge Jair in Judges10:3 before the conflict with the Ammonites started is misunderstood by the relating Chronologists of the so-called late and early date estimations, we will see how they have to be understood in the later calculation of the Exodus.

The rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology is the first and only externally independent Bible Chronology that uncompromisingly integrates the complete amount of all unfalsified biblical figures and they all open up and work. And it reveals as a pure biblical fact, that the Exodus took place 1606 BC in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion, additionally confirmed by nearly all Bible relating ancient writings (see Start Chapter Moses). Not one single previous 'Biblical' Chronology succeeded in taking the complete amount of biblical figures into consideration, everyone dismissed or changed bible figures to make the calculations fit in dependency on bible external dates. Thus they all simply do not tell what the Bible says, their date estimations are not pure biblical dates but instead more or less their own creations. Find Dr. Roger Liebi's first explanation of the Strict Bible Chronology together with first proving archeological evidence (30th minute) on If You want to examine the Chronology deeper together with precisely explained solved open issues and wipeouts of wrong compromises in the previous mentioned Bible Chronologisations study Dr. Roger Liebi's lecture on

Let us now examine the example the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC:

It is calculated by taking seriously into account the complete amount of all biblical time figures parallelly on two different paths: First the seemingly easy light direct path and second the long path by foot; The second long path 'by foot' is counting up all biographical time data, reign times and other time data of the complete Tanakh/ Old Testament. The result is the Bible says the Exodus took place 1606 BC. To check the whole way 'by foot' study the PDF Both ways are also explained in the last linked video lecture above - here are the cornerstones of the "easy light direct" way still quite complex: 

586 BC:       
Bible external synchronicity with the Bible externally safest historical date; 2Kings25:8 says the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in2Chronicles36 took place in the 19th reign year of Nebukadnezar which is according to contemporary astronomical data exactly 586 BC.

586-976 BC:   
Hesekiel4:4-5 confirms 390 years between Jerusalem's destruction and the Division into the Northern and Southern Kingdom.

976-1096 BC: 
120 years between the Division and the Beginning of Monarchy
= 40 years of Saul in Acts13:21 + 40 years of David in 2Kings2:11 + 40 years of Salomon in 2Chron9:30

1096-1546 BC:
450 years as the Time of the Judges in Acts13:18 and additionally confirmed by the sum of all biblical reign times in the Book of Judges:

1546-1560 BC:
14 years between the Time of the Judges & the Conquest of the Promised Land can be calculated in 2 different ways:

1.) First Way: 

1606-1012 BC is the time between the first temple built and the Exodus =
480 years of G'd ruling Israel in 1Kings6:1 + 114 not counted g'dless years of Israel's idolatry under foreign rulership in Judges3:8,3:14,4:3,6:1,9:22,10:8,13:1  = 594 years
594 years - 4 years Salomon - 40 years David - 40 years Saul - 450 years Judges - 6 years of Conquest - 40 years of Israel in the Desert = 14 years!

2.) Second Way:

From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You add all the time figures until the first year of Jair when the problems with the Ammonites began = 1267 BC
Jephta states that for 300 years (Judges11:26) the Ammonites did not complain since the conquest of the eastern land of Jordan in the 39th year (Numbers21) of the wandering in the desert: 1267 BC + 300 = 1567 BC - 1 = 1566 BC the first year of the Conquest - 6 years of Conquest = 1560 BC
From the 2nd Temple destruction 586 BC, You sump up all the time figures until the beginning of the time of the judges = 1546 BC
The time between the Judges & the Conquest End = 1560 - 1546 = 14 years!

1560-1566 BC:
6 years of Conquest Joshua14:7-10 Numbers9:1 Kaleb was 79 years old in the 40th year in the Desert and 85 years old when the Conquest was done.

1566-1606 BC:
40 years of Israel in the Desert Acts13:18

1606 BC:     
Exodus of Israel out of Egypt

You see the 'easy light direct' way is revealed as by no means so obvious, easy, and light as it seemed to be to biblical scholars; They ignored or even discarded nearly all never disproved relating ancient writings and they predated, postdated, dual dated, ignored dates, manipulated dates, parallelized dates whenever they wanted because many biblical dates needed to be changed to make their (late or early dating) theory work.


The end of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt is unveiled in this work as the biblical and the historical time of the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt and the Expulsion of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' out of Egypt (See Start Chapter Moses). The dissolving of so-called contradictory chronological figures (eg. the 594 and 480 years between building the Temple and Exodus) in the Bible is realized by understanding the scriptures not only as never disproved trustworthy eyewitness reports but also as the self-claimed from G'ds view inspired truth; And from G'ds view certainly, only HIS ruling time over Israel from the Exodus to the time of the Kings does chronologically count. This means atheistically translated: Only the years of Israel's theocracy do chronologically count in a biblical time summary of the history of a self-called People of G'd. Thus the 594 years between King Salomos 4th reign year of building the Temple and the Exodus (see calculation in chronology above) do not contradict the famous 480 years in 1Kings6:1 as soon as one realizes that from the LORD's view and from HIS people's view the 114 years of g'dless foreign idolatrous domination over Israel in Judges3:8,3:14,4:3,6:1,9:22,10:8,13:1 logically do not count. Ancient relating writings do confirm and prove this ancient contemporary common knowledge and chronological understanding of the biblical time figures (See Start Chapter Moses).

In contrast to this Jackson and Lake (1979, p. 151) claim that in the first century the Jewish historian Josephus would indeed have count the foreign idolatrous oppression times in the Book of Judges; Josephus could be called a 'modernistic' Jewish historian of his time because his target readers were mainly non believing pagan idolatrous Romans and these certainly would have been confused by the principle of not counting any existing years for any reasons, so Josephus who evidenced trusted in the Bible as a fully trustworthy compendium of eyewitness reports and inspired scripture left out the 480 g'dfearing years avoiding any Roman irritation. 

The Bible and nearly all ancient relating writings eg. old church father Eusebius did not count the ruling time of godless oppressors, as it was custom knowledge in this time(check Stephen C. Meyer's dissertation The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers at the Start of Chapter Moses). And in Egyptian ancient historians' writings of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt the deletion or ignorance of foreign rulership times was also usus: The Hyksos ignored most Egyptian deities. In both the Abydos list and the Sakkara list the foreign oppressors, the Hyksos, are left out (Gardiner 1961, 440). This leads to the question of why should Israel even want to include foreign pagan rulerships in their 480 years of history as G'd state count if even the pagan nations of these times did not do it. To finally sum it up, chronologically ignoring foreign rulership times was common practice in the iron and bronce age and commonly known and understood in ancient times.


Also that the 430 years in foreign lands are counting the years in Canaan AND in Egypt is proved by nearly all ancient relating and confirming writings (See Start Chapter Moses). The only possible 215 years are biblically clearly proved by the four generations in Genesis15:16 given as time frame of Israel in Egypt: The four generations are evidenced by Jacob's son Levi in Ex6:16, who died 137 years old, Levi's son Kahat in Ex6:18 who died 133 years old, Kahat's son Amram in Ex6:20 who died 137 years old, and Amram's son Moses in Ex12:40, who was 80 years old in the year of the Exodus. This forbids a time frame of 430 years of Israel in Egypt and the resulting half of 215 years in Egypt is derived by Genesis12:4,21:5,25:7,21:5,35:28,47:28,30:23,50:26,41:46,41:53.
How to understand the 430 years in Exodus12:40 is also explained by first-century Rabbi Gamaliel's student Pharisee Shaul (Paul) in Galatiens3:16,17: As the time from Abraham to Moses in Foreign Lands. The greek Septuaginta the Greek Old Testament of Alexandria clearly states: "The time of living of the sons of Israel, who lived in Egypt and Canaan was 430 years." This has also always (30-1800 AD) been the evidenced Jewish and Christian understanding  of the time of Israel in Egypt. The same way meant are the 400 years from Isaac as heir of the covenant until the Exodus in Genesis15:13 explained in Acts7:6,7 - You can prove everthing deeper in the last linked lecture of Dr. Roger Liebi.

The exact precise matching of the complete amount of all biblical time figures taking all this into account is no wonder, no mysterious coincidence and no hypothesis: It is just simple, logical, and most plausible Mathematics. All alternative Exodus dating attempts and all other self-called "Biblical" Chronologies have dismissed and manipulated many biblical time figures for reasons of externally oriented small trust or open mistrust in the credibility of the bible and they simply do not take into account what the Bible always said; It is externally evidence-based since Qumran 200 BC and it is internally content based since 1606 BC what the Bible always said :  

The Bible always said the Exodus took place 1606 BC.
This was commonly known in ancient times 
which is confirmed by nearly all ancient relating writings.



The 114 by G'd not counted g'dless years are not an exemption invented by Dr. Roger Liebe but instead evidenced ancient common practice and knowledge (Start Chapter Moses) and there is a method to it in the Biblical Prophecy; The Biblical Prophecy divides the time of Israel with G'd into 4 phases of 70 Year Weeks (1 Year Week are 7 years) which are 490 Years:

1. The First 70 Year Weeks are the time between Abraham's birth and the Exodus 2111-1606 BC = 505 Years. Here the
time of Abraham not believing enough G'd's Word and marrying Hagar to have Ishmael as firstborn son is not counted in HIS eyes; In these 15 years from his marriage with Hagar to the 5 years old Isaac becoming the heir G'd even didn't talk with Abraham for 13 years. 505 - 15 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.

2. The Second 70 Year Weeks are the time between the Exodus and Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall 1606-1002 BC = 604 Years. Here the already examined
114 Years of foreign rule and idolatry are not counted in HIS eyes. 604 - 114 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.

3. The Third 70 Year Weeks are the time between Salomo's 14th reign year before the downfall and the Building up of Jerusalem in Nehemia1 1002-445 BC. The time of the
67 years in Babylonian Captivity of Israel in Dan1:1,Hes1:1-2,2Chr36,Jer52:30 as a time of atonement of sins and missing rulership/theocracy is not counted in HIS eyes. 557 - 67 = 490 = 70 Year Weeks.

4. In Daniel 9:2-27 the 70 Year Weeks between the Building up of Jerusalem and the 1000 years of the reign of the Messiah at the end of time are interrupted after 69 Year Weeks by the Messiah being killed and the Temple being destroyed and Jerusalem would be under war until the end of time and
Israel would be dispersed throughout the complete world until the end of time. At the end of time, Israel is brought back to its promised land, and the seven last years until the kingdom of the Messiah start with a 7-year peace contract and an alliance between Israel and the Roman Empire (Europe) all described in John's Revelation. The two millennia of Israel living in Exile as their time of atonement is not counted within the 70 Year Weeks.

5. The author discovered a fifth g'dless phase probably not counted in the eyes of the Almighty:
One approximate century plus-minus at least a third Jubilees4:33-5:1,5:22-25 of g'dless idolatrous evil domination - this time over complete mankind - is the century before 2463 BC before the biblical world's biggest natural disaster, the flood. This probably not by G'd counted time does not touch today's Christian chronology back to 2463 BC but it touches the Jewish calendar counting from the day of creation on with zero. And it is relevant for believers who take Psalm 90,4 seriously that says 1000 years in the eyes of the Lord being like one day. According to the Strict Biblical Chronology and in case taking that century out of account then exactly in our generation (4119 BC - 2021 AD) 6 days are done in the eyes of the G'd of Israel and the Sabbath Millenium of peaceful reign of the Messiah would be knocking at the door now 2Petrus3:8 Revelation20:4 Jubilees4:29. In the first century Jesus' disciple Barnabas, the greek apostolic father Holy Papias, and Jesus' disciple John inscriptively evidenced preached the Sabbath Millenium after the end of the world.


Last but not least an opposite example that the living G'd of the Bible is counting the years seriously and precisely and therefore time figures have to be taken seriously as Word of G'd and from HIS view: 

The prophecized coming of the Messiah in Daniel 9:25-26

 "seven weeks (of years) will elapse 
between the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim 
until the Moshiach, the prince comes ... 
Then after sixty-two weeks, the Moshiach will be (exterminated) cut off 
but not for himself. 
The people of a prince yet to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary,
but its end will come with a flood, 
and desolations are decreed until the war is over."
(Complete and Orthodox Jewish Bible)

  • One week of days counts seven days = One week of years counts seven years. 
  • According to all unfalsified biblical time figures/ according to the Strict Bible Chronology 445 BC, King Artaxerxes issued the decree to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim in the month of Nisan.
  • According to Daniel 11, a prophesized year counts 360 days because 
    "42 months count 1260 days".
  • Thus the time until the coming of the Messiah counts 
    69 weeks of years times 7 days times 360 days = 173.880 days.
  • If You take the leap days into accounts You reach exactly the month Nisan in the year AD 32.
  • According to Luke3 John, the Baptist baptized at the river Jordan
    in the 15th year of Caesar Tiberius.
    Tiberius' reign started AD 14 thus it was the year AD 29. 
  • According to Luke13:3-9 Jesus prayed from then on for three years until he entered Yerushalayim. He was celebrated like a prince and as the Messiah and Son of David. He entered Yerushalayim exactly in the month Nisan in the year AD 32. Later he was crucified/exterminated/cut off not for himself but for all of us. 
  • In AD 70 the Romans destroyed the city and the sanctuary which is not yet built up again until today. 
  • Desolations followed for Yerushalayim in AD 135, AD 614, AD 629, AD 638, AD 1071, AD 1099, AD 1189, AD 1244, AD 1517, AD 1917, AD 1948, and AD 1967. Since then Yerushalayim and the Temple Mount are back in Jewish hands.  

The oldest copy of Daniel's prophecies has been found in Qumran. Handwriting style, grammar, and unique words date his prophecy into the 6th to 7th century. According to Scripture Daniel went into Exile to Babylon 606 BC. This fulfilled prophecy is called the fatal blow for atheism and the other religions and the proving evidence for the living G'd of Israel being above space and time.



1260 BC:  Ramesses II


- mainly based on one single word in the Bible: Rameses Genesis47:11, Exodus12:37

- no archeological evidence

- contradicting the 480 years of 1Kings6:1, 300 years of Judges11,26 and the 450 years of Acts13:18 as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges

predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates,  parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work. 

-- Jericho was uninhabited in 1220 BC: No Conquest possible

- In 1210 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom. 

- No evidence at all for any Ten Plagues 

- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: no unnatural death of Ramesses II's firstborn son 

- Pharaoh Ramesses II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.

- Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Ramesses II predecessors ruled 12, 2, and 14 to 27 years.

+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela clearly disprove the 1260 BC theory.

+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC: Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.
430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC contradicts Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC. Complete abundance of Avaris & Lahun in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion.

- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC disprove as evidence the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1690-1260 BC and the 215 years in Egypt Theory 1475-1260 BC.

- No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt 1475-1260 BC (215 years Israel in Egypt) or 1690-1260 BC (430 years Israel in Egypt) 

- No proving evidence for any ancient historian confirming Ramesses II as Exodus Pharoh.

1446 BC:  Amenhotep II 


+/- mainly based on one single sentence in the Bible: the 480 years in 1Kings6:1

+ some archeological evidence

+ confirming the 480 years of 1Kings6:1 and the 300 years of Judges11,26
- contradicting the 450 years of Acts13:18 as also the sum of all reign times of the Judges

predatings, postdatings, dual datings, ignoring dates, manipulating dates,  parallelizing dates: many biblical dates need to be changed to make the theory work.

-/+ No destruction layers in 1406 BC: No Conquest possible. Redating attempts of Jericho's destruction are weaker evidenced than undisputed circa 1550 BC.

- In 1406 BC Canaan was a province and part of the Egyptian Empire: A flight to Canaan would not make sense as an escape out of Egypt into freedom. 

- Radio Carbon redating attempts from c. 1606 BC into c. 1446 BC of the Ten Plagues indicating Santorini Eruption impacts on Egypt turn out to be a weak affair and attempts to throw enough doubts on c. 1606 BC fail in the light of additional confirming pottery evidence of Cyprus. 

+/- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: unnatural death of Amenhotep II's firstborn son possible without proving evidence

- Pharaoh Amenhotep II: Unnatural death in the Gulf of Acaba disproved by tomb skeleton. No evidence for a lost army.

+ Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Amenhotep II predecessor ruled 54 years. 

+ The Amarna Letters, the Soleb Inscriptions, the Berlin Pedestal, and the Merneptha Stela disprove the 1260 BC theory and support the 1446 BC theory.

+/- 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC and 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC contradict both Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlement 1820-1800 BC & complete abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion. But Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire, Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC.

+/- The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the 430 years in Egypt Theory 1876-1446 BC and disproves as evidence the biblically correct 215 years in Egypt Theory 1660-1446 BC 

+/- Joseph as Vizierking for the 430 years Israel in Egypt theory (1876-1446 BC) confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC.
No evidence for Joseph as King of Egypt in 1660-1446 BC thus no evidence for the biblically correct 215 years Israel in Egypt 

- No proving evidence for any ancient historian confirming Amenhotep II as Exodus Pharoh.

1606 BC:  Ahmose I 
under Hyksos King Khamudi


+ based on the entire complete amount of unchanged biblical data: The Strict Bible Chronology

++ archeological evidence revealing the complete history of Israel in Egypt

++ confirming ALL time figures in the Bible

++ no predating, no postdatings, no dual datings, no ignoring dates, no manipulating dates, no reinterpretation and parallelizing of dates. Maths proves ALL biblical dates work out fine and must not be changed.

++ 1566 BC: Jericho of Joshua6+11 archeologically proved only for the biblical numbers not for the early or late date theory; Jericho's city walls destroyed by 'earthquake' & the city by fire. The same: Hazor massively devastated.

+ In 1566 BC Canaan is not part of the Egyptian Empire: Only in this case Canaan is an escape out of Egypt into freedom.

+ Bietak confirms the ashes of Santorini in Northern Egypt. Ahmose I Storm Stele documents an environmental disaster with biblical Plagues, Storms, destroyed Temples, and Darkness. Radiocarbon results prove necessary correction of Ahmose's reign time from '1531' BC to the Santorini Eruption around 1606 BC.

- Tenth Plague Death of all Firstborn: Southern Vassall Pharaoh Ahmose lost his firstborn son Sapair who died young at the time of the Santorini Eruption

+ King of Egypt Pharao Khamudi: No evidence of any tomb or skeleton supports his death in the Red Sea.
Archeological Hyksos Expulsion evidence + Manetho documentation speaks for a missing army.

+ Ex4:11 & Ex2:23 demand a 30 to 40 years long Pharaoh rulership before the Exodus Pharaoh reaching: Pharaoh Khamudi's predecessor ruled 41 years

++ a) Amarna Letters, b) Soleb Inscriptions, c) Berlin Pedestal, and d) Merneptha Stela confirm more differentiated and precisely the Strict Biblical Chronology a) 1560-1330 BC b) 1480-1400 BC: Judges3:30 c) 1480-1340 BC: Judges4:3,3:31,3:30-5:31 d) 1227-1196 BC: Judges12:7,9,11,14

++ 430 years theories disproved by the Strict Bible Chronology and all ancient relating writings. Biblically proven 215 years in Egypt 1821-1606 BC archeologically match Bietak's Avaris excavation results: First Semitic Ensettlements 1820-1800 BC. Complete Semitic abundance of Avaris in the time of the Hyksos Expulsion 1606 BC (‘1531’BC).

++ The Brooklyn Papyrus archeologically confirms Hebrew slaves with biblical names around 1720 BC matching the biblical account. Midwife Shipra and Joseph's grandson Shutelah (Resseneb) identified.

++ Joseph as Vizierking confirmed by Avaris sculpture of Semitic Highest Official in a Pyramid tomb dated at earliest 1802 BC. All 5 Viziernames in the time of Joseph's biblical Vizierkingship 1830-1750 BC show archeological evidence for being the same person and for biblical attributes of Joseph.

++ 6 ancient historians Manetho, Africanus, Josephus, Tatian, Clemens, and Eusebius confirm Ahmose I as Pharaoh of the Exodus.

++ New archeological evidence of Father Jacob, Joseph's slavemaster Potiphar, his wife Asenath, his father Jacob, his brothers Benjamin and Levi, his sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons confirming the Strict Bible Chronology

++ 2034 BC: Abraham's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II archeologically evidenced collected many wives and five of them died young matching the biblical account.

+++ 1729 BC: The Book of Jubilees Jub46:14 & Exodus1:8 reveal the Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion as the reason for "the new foreign King (=Hyksos) who arose in enmity against Egypt" not knowing Joseph: Sharek was the first Canaanite Foreign King (='Hyksos') who arose as an enemy over Egypt.

++ The Ipuwer Papyrus archeologically confirms the Ten Plagues written at the beginning of the 18th Dynasty after Pharaoh Ahmose's death.

++ The Tenth Plague of death of all male firstborn is archeologically confirmed by mass graves in the time of Israel's Exodus & the 'Hyksos' Expulsion under Ahmose I. Ahmose's Pyramid and all his huge mud-brick production-based building projects suddenly broke off c. 1606 BC.  

+++ New archeological evidence confirming Moses and all by the ancient historian Manetho identified Hebrew Shepherd Kings of the 13th, 16th and 17th Dynasty


The following Chronology unveils two contrary different groups of Semitic 'Rulers of Foreign Lands' or 'Hyksos' in Egypt. It is mainly based on books, documentaries, or lectures of Israel Finkelstein, Manfred Bietak and Kim Ryholt, and Dr. Roger Liebi but first of all on the Chronologies of two Qumran Books - Scriptures of the Second Temple Period seen as holy by the essentially large groups of the jewish population: The Torah/ Five Books of Moses and the Book of the Divisions of Time - known as Book of Jubilees:

1. Dr. Liebi, Chronology of the Old Testament, 2016, plain PDF Printout on You can order and buy a glossy brochure on

2. Prof. Dr. Dillmann Dr. Hermann Rönsch, The Book of Jubilees, Leipzig 1874
Prof. Dr. Klaus Berger, The Book of Jubilees, Gütersloh 1981
Prof. Dr. James VanderKams, Translation of all known Books of Jubilees 1989 
You can listen to the full younger Ethiopian translation in English on

All Tanakh Old Testament books (except the book of Esther) and at least 14 different exemplars of the Books of Jubilees of the Second Century BC were found as Scrolls or in fragments in the Qumran Caves. Their yet unidentified fragments are essentially relevant sources for future even deeper verification of the findings in Chapter Hyksos. 

The Bible says Joseph ruled over Egypt for 80 years 1830-1750 BC.
How could his glorious peaceful foreign rulership
stay hidden for millennials?

The leftover history of this time would have to be a dark intermediate period of helpless guesswork within endless uncertainties between tattered apart puzzle pieces: 

The complete self-called "Dark" Second Intermediate Period 
- enlightened by the Bible and all relating ancient writings -
turns out to be the Time of Israel Egypt.



(in brackets according to actual 
egyptologists' highly speculative estimations) 

All chronological years in this work are Bible corresponding years. The 'Years' in brackets () are dominant scientific date speculations, ignoring all time biblical data AND nearly all relating ancient writings and adding by helpless guesswork finally around 75 non-existing non-evidenced years into the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Ryholt 1803-1550 BC versus Bible 1785-1625 BC);

This has been proven scientifically by the Radio Carbon Dating of the Santorini Eruption environmental disaster consequences somewhen in the timeframe 1620-1600 BC (footnotes 6,7,8). Radio Carbon Dating has been established in Archeology of this time by Israel Finkelstein considered to be the safest dating method after scriptural concrete dating evidence. This biggest volcanic eruption in the history of mankind is archeologically evidenced confirmed by the Ipuwer Papyrus and the Ahmose's I Storm Stele initiated in his 11th to 22nd reign year describing exactly Santorini impacts and simultaneously describing exactly the biblical impacts of the Ten Plagues. In 2014 Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter identified Pharaoh Ahmose’s Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini. Their conclusion is a reign time of Ahmose I closer to the Santorini Eruption 1620-1600 correcting the reign time of Ahmose I estimated by leading Egyptologists into '1531' BC closer to the Santorini Eruption around 1606 BC by eliminating 75 non-existing non-evidenced years (9). Leading Archeologists like Manfred Bietak and Leading Radio Carbon Experts agree on Ahmose I being the Pharaoh of the Santorini Eruption Time. The Storm Stela confirms together with the Ipuwer Papyrus exactly and precisely most essential unique biblical details of the Ten Plagues (See The Ten Plagues in Chapter Moses) and most details of all plausible Santorini Eruption impacts in Egypt.

The so-called "dark period of uncertain time estimates with high degrees of speculation" (German/English Wikipedia) counts around 75 Pharaohs within only two centuries. This is an extraordinary high number leading egyptology has never been able to explain and thus has expanded non evidenced estimated reign times. This is veiling the fact that the only lifelong rulership (= Kingship) in this time was the rulership of Viziers above obviously selected quickly rotating Pharaohs (precisely evidenced and explained in Chapter Joseph and already assumed as leadership behind the scenes by several Egyptologists).

Scientific evidence and indications are written in cursive and deeper documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses:

2036 BC

Haran: The LORD ADONAI tells Abraham "Go to the land that I will show you." Genesis12:1
Canaan/Sichem: G'd promises the Land, HAM’s son Canaan had robbed from SEM‘s son ARFAKSA in Juileesb10, to SEM‘s seed ABRAHAM Genesis11:10-26. Thus according to the Bible as a matter of fact Canaanites are not Semites but Hamites which won’t be corrected in this work. Start of the 430years in Exodus12:40.41 and Galatians3:16.17 from promise to law and return of Israel to the promised land in their 4th generation. 

2034 BC 

Genesis15:16 ABRAHAM, driven by famine, moves 2 years later Jubilees13:10.11 to Egypt for 5 years.
Thebes: Pharaoh Mentuhotep II (2060-2010 BC) archeologically evidenced "collecting many wifes" robs ABRAHAM's wife SARA. After archeologically evidenced at least "five of his concubines died very young" (4) of heavy plagues he releases SARA, ABRAHAM, and LOT with many treasures as a rich clan returning to Canaan Genesis12:15-13:2 Jubilees13:14 

2006 BC

Canaan/Gerar: ISAAC becomes ABRAHAM's official heir. Start of the 400 Years of ABRAHAM's seed in foreign lands Genesis15:13,21:5.12 Acts7:6.7
ISAAC, driven by famine, starts to move to Egypt but is stopped by the LORD ADONAI:
"Go not down into Egypt!" Genesis26:2 

2060-2010 BC: ABRAHAM's Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

1881 BC ('1895/1859'BC) 

Young Nomarch POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II as one of the highest officials at the royal palace starts his career young in reign year 19 of Amenemhet II. As Priest of Horus/Re he is Priest of On/Heliopolis,
as Highest of Court/Law Enforcement, he is also Chief of Prison. He becomes the "sole friend" of Pharaoh Senusret II (5).
1843 BC he will buy JOSEPH as a slave and will set him over his complete house.
1833 BC he has to arrest JOSEPH and sets him over his prison Jubilees46:3.
1830 BC he becomes JOSEPH's father-in-law and adoptive father 
1819 BC he dies. (see Chapter Joseph)

1859 BC ('1870/1878'BC)

Death of the last Nomarch supporting Pharaoh Senwosret II in his 6th official and sole reign year. According to Jürgen von Beckerath the temple documents of Lahun often mention the Festival of "Going Forth to Heaven" on IV Peret Day 14 as the plausible date of death of Senusret II (see 1819 BC).

1842 BC ('1842'BC)
(Collier: '1842'BC)
(Parker: '1860'BC)
(Krauss: '1818'BC)

Pharaoh Amenemhet III starts his 20 years Coregency with his father Senwosret III. 1822-1801 sole reign.
1801-1798 Co-reign with Amenemhet IV (Collier, Quirke, UCE Lahun Papyri) 
Here You can already see a gap of 
42 non-existing years between leading egyptologists estimations.

1839 BC

Nile level increasing (in Semna/Kumma from 12 to 18 meters). Pharaoh Amenemhet's III first pyramid is unusably damaged in his 3rd reign year. Harvest Decreasing. 
1827 BC in his 15th reign year his new Pyramide is built.

1830 BC

Memphis/Thebes: Genesis41:46 JOSEPH becomes Egyptian Grand Vizier and travels through complete Egypt to prepare the country against future famine. JOSEPH's built canal up to today called Bar Yusuph supports 7 years of plenty. Joseph's  first Vizier name Gen41:45 Zafenat Pa'Aneah orDjedu en ef pa'Ankh is archeologically evidenced as Senowsret-Ankh and Amenemhet-Ankh. In Pharaoh Amenemhet's III 9th reign year JOSEPH's second royal Vizier name Zamonth is found in Lower Nubia rock inscriptions. His adoptive noble nomarch name is Khnumhotep. (compare Franke in Quirke 1991 p.51)

1822 BC

Death of Pharaoh Senwosret III in the 20th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III. In the 17th to 20th reign year of Amenemhet III the Nile level increases in Semna/Kumma from 18m to 21m in 3 years, dams are flooded - complete loss of the harvest: Start of the 7 years of famine. Engraved 20th reign year and 21 meters.
Sinai Desert Copper Mine: Contemporary oldest Alphabet discovered by Flinders Petrie with uniquely distinctive Hebrew letters and words, biblical names, and events according to Douglas Petrovic. Donald Redford calls them hallmarks of the 'Early Hyksos'. One of them dates into the 20th reign year of Amenemhet when Joseph biblically was travelling around taking care against the famine.

1821 BC: Israel's Arrival and Ensettlement in Egypt

1821 BC ('1840-1800'BC)

BerSheva: The LORD ADONAI sends JACOB to Egypt Genesis46:3 "go down to Egypt .. I go down with You .. I will also bring you back .."
Avaris/Goshen: 21st year of the reign of Amenemhet III, end of 2nd year of famine. Israel, Father Jacobs Clan, arrives in Egypt. Settlement in Avaris. Jacob's sons are made the 'King's Shepherds' of Egypt by Pharaoh Genesis47:6 - Avaris excavator Manfred Bietak 2006 estimates the settlement of the 'Early Hyksos' into 1840-1800 BC and calls them first Proto Israelites, later "for convenience sake" Canaanites. He identifies the earliest Stratum H building, a large villa, as Northern Syrian Style, the style of Jacob's ancestors. David Rohl identifies it as Father JACOB's House. Scarabs with the name Retjenu for Eastern Semites ('Asiatics') dating to the 12th Dynasty are excavated.

1819 BC ('1859-1829'BC)

Death of Nomarch POTIPHAR Khnumhotep II, adoptive father-in-law of JOSEPH Khnumhotep III. POTIPHAR is buried in his famous tomb in Beni Hassan with a picture of JOSEPH's family on the Going Forth to Heaven Festival, the 50th anniversary feast of his friend and Pharaoh Senusret's II death in his 6th reign year 1859 BC. Kessler and Rabehl propose anniversary festival celebration related tomb wall pictures (see Chapter Joseph)

1816 BC 

End of 7 years of famine in the 27th reign year of Amenemhet III after the extension of JOSEPH's Canal. Joseph's fourth Vizier name Kethi/Chety is engraved near the Bar Yusuph at his office in the 29th reign year of Amenemhet.
Near Thebes: In today's Wadi El-Hol Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. They date into reign year 26 of Pharaoh Amenemhet III.

1813 BC 

Phitom/ Lahun in Fayum: Workers Town with an increasing number of Semitic inhabitants found by Flinders Petrie. Fayum is identified as Phitom in rabbinical scriptures of the middle ages as knowledge from ancient traditions. For the 29th reign year of Pharaoh Amenemhet III Hebrew Alphabetical inscriptions are excavated. In complete Egypt and Sinai 5 oldest Alphabetical inscriptions in an at least 11-year time window have been excavated. Petrovic identified uniquely hebrew words and uniquely biblical names and events. Joseph's wife's Hebrew name ASENATH was identified. 

1804 BC 

Avaris: Death of Father JACOB
EPHRAIM receives beforehand greater prophesied blessings from his grandfather than firstborn twin brother MANASSE, being fulfilled by his three generations Vizier Dynasty of 1. EPHRAIM Ankhu 2. SHUTELAH Resseneb 3. BERIAH Iymeru Aya 4. REFACH Neferkare-Iymeru/ Ayameru II. JACOB's house in Avaris is replaced by a Stratum G4 palace fronted by a portico of twelve (12 tribes) wooden columns with twelve Semitic leader graves in the garden and two identical twin suites (for EPHRAIM & MANASSE) excavated by Manfred Bietak and identified by David Rohl as JOSEPH's Palace. Emmerich and Josephus confirm the relocation of Joseph's 11 brothers in Heliopolis after Father JACOB's death.

1798 BC ('1795'BC)
(Collier: '1795'BC)
(Parker: '1815'BC)
(Krauss: '1773'BC)

Biblical Year of the Death of Pharaoh Amenemhat III according to the contemporary narrative "Joseph & Asenath". He is followed by his adopted son-in-law and husband of his daughter Nofruptah Amenemhat IV 1801-1789 BC who is identified by Ryholt as Ankhu's EPHRAIM's uncle and thus Zamonth's JOSEPH's brother BENJAMIN. Next Pharaoh is Amenemhet's III daughter Nofrosobek 1789-1785 BC. 1842-1795 BC is the biblical and scientific nearly conjoint reign time of Amenemhet (Collier, Quirke 2006 p. 325). From here on egyptologists of the "dark period of uncertain speculative estimates" add 75 non-evidenced and non-existing years into Egyptian history rejecting the evidenced fact that the only Vizier with a King's beard Zamonth JOSEPH and his son Vizier Ankhu Senwosret EPHRAIM both archeologically evidenced as Kings were the obviously only lifelong rulers in this century and selected their closed relatives as rotating Pharaohs (see Chapter Joseph).

1785 BC ('1803'BC)

By Egyptology defined Start of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I. (Parker/Ryholt)

1750 BC

Genesis50,26 Death of JOSEPH Vizierking ZaMonth Khnumhotep Monthotep after 80 years of rulership and after the first battle of Egypt against the Canaanites in the valley of Assur where his son Pharaoh Sobekhotep III was killed. Canaanite Ruler Makamaron of Assur chased after the Egyptian army but was stopped in front of Hermeapolis Jubilees46:7 by MANASSE's son AVIEZER the next Pharaoh Wegaf. Manfred Bietak confirms the region of Assur as the original home of the Canaanite 'Hyksos' based on excavated religious practice relicts. Pharaoh Sobekhotep III of '1749' (Kim Ryholt 1997 Tab.88) was a Military Commander & Warrior (Chapter Joseph headline Wepwauthotep).

   1729 BC: Canaanite 'Hyksos' Invasion & Enslavement of Israel

Nubian and Semitic Slaves (light hair, light skin) building mud bricks "the Egyptians were cruel to the people of Israel and forced them to make bricks and to mix mortar" Exodus1,13 One of many "well-preserved scenes of daily life during the New Kingdom". The New Kingdom took place from the biblical year 1625 BC ('1553 BC') the first reign year of Pharaoh Ahmose I (see Page chronology) until 1077 BC under Pharaoh Amenhotep. The Semitic slaves are depicted in the Tomb of Rekhmire. He was Vizier under Pharaoh Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC who ruled his first 22 years together with his stepmother Hatshepsut.

1729 BC ('1720','1648','1630' BC)

Canaan/Avaris: Second Egyptian attack against Canaan. 'Invasion of the Hyksos'. Canaanite 'Hyksos' Ruler Scharek/Salitis

defeats Pharaoh Dedumose/Tiatimaos, occupies Avaris, and brings Northern Egypt under his 15 years of reign, bringing destroying, massacres, and Enslavement according to Manetho, Jubilees 46: and Exodus1:8-11. The violent invasion is confirmed by Ryholt and Redford (Kim Ryholt 1997 302/303 + Ftnt. 1057). Egyptologists assume "the Hyksos .. around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (Wikipedia: List of Pharaohs)"
1729 BC (c.'1649' BC): Avaris Palace District Conflagrations excavated.
JOSEPH's son EPHRAIM flees with his 13th Dynasty Clan to his brother MANASSE Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw, Mayor of Thebes, and proceeds his rulership in the 16th Southern Dynasty of Thebes (growing increase in courtyard residences and office inscriptions of Vizier Ankhu in Thebes) The 16th and 17th Dynasties are by Africanus cited Manetho identified as Hyksos and Hebrew Shepherd Kings (until the Ahmosides Dynasty). The evidenced biggest Hebrew towns Avaris/ Ra-amezes, Lahun/ Phitom Exodus1:11, and On/ LeONtopolis Jubilees46:14d) 5th century version were built up as fortified cities with walls by the enslaved Israelites.
Lahun in Fayum as Phitom is confirmed by middle ages rabbinical scriptures and by an excavated Semitic walled workers ghetto with many burried newborn sceletons. LeOntopolis in Heliopolis/On - today called Tell el Yehudiye = Jewish Mound - is confirmed by an excavated Hyksos fortification. Avaris/ Ra-amezes is confirmed as excavated huge Semitic town.

1715 BC ('1633'BC)

New Northern Canaanite Hyksos Pharaoh Sheshi/Beon arises. At the latest he commanded Hebrew midwives to kill all male newborn Israelites. The command was bypassed - the midwives got saved: Exodus1:16 Contemporary "rescue" list of JOSEPH's grandson SHUTELAH Vizier Resseneb for 45 Hebrew slaves into the Southern Thebes Palace including the biblical midwife name SHIPRA in the Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446 (see Chapter Moses). 
Around '1700' BC acc. to Bietak a temple district to Canaanite deity Ashera and Egyptian deity Hathor was built in the eastern part of Avaris.

1686 BC ('1605'BC)

Hyksos Pharaoh Apaknas initiates 7 months of murdering 1000 male newborn Israelites. Exodus1:16-22 Jubilees 47.48:14
Tremendous increase of newborn skeletons in Lahun and Avaris, Manfred Bietak confirms extremely high mortality of newborns in Avaris, excavated contemporary male bone percentage in Avaris sinks from 50% to 40%. MOSES is born Exodus2:2 after seven months of male newborn mass-murdering, hidden for 3 months at home, then for a week at the Nile until he is found by Pharaoh's daughter Meris. Pharaoh Apaknas dies. The new 4th Canaanite Pharaoh Khayan, Meris' father, reigns for  28 years. 

1666 BC

Avaris: MOSES grew up in his family in Northern Egypt, left to his adoptive mother Meris, and became an Egyptian Prince Exodus2:10 Jubilees47:9 Ancient historian Artapanus identifies Meris' husband Pharao Sobekhotep IV as Thebes Southern Vassall Pharaoh. He achieved by this marriage the co-rulership over reunited Egypt with his father-in-law 'Hyksos' Pharao Khayan. 50 sealings of both rulers together from a secure and sealed excavation location confirm the same time rulership according to Moeller, Marouard, and Ayers. His Vizier is called Neferkare-Iymeru REFACH, JOSEPH's great-grandson and the last Vizier of EPHRAIM's lineage: Shift back from Vizier Kingship to Pharaoh Kingship.

1658 BC ('1590', '1575' BC)

Memphis/Avaris: Canaanite Pharaoh Ippi/Apophis reigns for about 40years. In later years conflicts with Southern Egyptian tributary Pharaos of Thebes increase and lead to battles with the Egyptian Ahmoside Pharaohs Sequenre and Kamose, who are defeated/ killed by Apophis. The Semitic population of Avaris grows tremendously, Manfred Bietak confirms the city grows to 250 ha around 1650 BC and believes that Avaris became the largest city in the world.

1646 BC

Fayum/Lahun: according to Gardiner some stelae and papyri confirm Semitic slave workers carefully guarded by a village wall and a ghetto wall separating from the wealthy part (see 1821 & 1606) excavated by Flinders Petri. MOSES kills an Egyptian slave driver and has to flee to Midian in Arabia onto the other side of the Gulf of Aqaba to avoid being killed by Canaanite Pharaoh Apophis. Exodus2:11-15 Jubilees47 Contemporary Alphabet with Hebrew and biblical words discovered in Fayum/Lahun (See Chapter Moses). Fayum is evidenced back to the middle ages by rabbinical traditions identified as Phytom.

1636 BC ('1561'BC)

Egyptian Senakhtenre and his son Sequenre Tao marry themselves into the Hebrew 17th Dynasty of Southern Egypt and become the first Egyptian Pharaohs since the 12th Dynasty. Their wives are the daughter of Meris/Tjan called Tetisheri and the Hebrew second named Sadjehuti. (See Ahmosides in Chapter Moses)

1625 BC ('1550'BC)

By Egyptology defined End of the Second Intermediate Period of Egyptian History between Pharaoh Nofrusobek and Ahmose I (Kim Ryholt) counting '253' non evidenced estimated years instead of since 1785 BC in total 160 evidenced years. The difference of 93 nonexisting years is melting down until 1636 BC into 75 neither archeologically nor biblically evidenced years. See their existence disproving evidence in 1606 BC: The Santorini Eruption and The Ten Plagues

1618 BC ('1543'BC)

Khamudi becomes the 6th and last Canaanite 'Hyksos' Pharaoh of Egypt. Exodus4:19 Kamose's young brother Ahmose I is Southern Pharao of Thebes and in his 7th Year of Reign.

1606 BC: Exodus of Israel out of Egypt

1606 BC ('1620-1600'BC, c.'1600'BC)

The Aegean Sea Santorini Island Vulcano Mega Eruption has eruptive consequences on Egypt including environmental disasters like Earthquake Storms and an ash cloud producing a „darkness so thick it can be felt“ Exodus10:21. Bietak confirms the ashes of Santorini in Northern Egypt. Radiocarbon results lead to the time 1620-1600 BC and Cypriot Pottery findings lead to date estimations around 1600 BC (10).

1606 BC ('1531'BC)
(Graf: '1530-1516'BC)
(Helck: '1516-1505'BC)

The Ten Plagues - Southern Pharaoh Ahmose I initiates in his 11th to 22nd reign year a Storm Stele documenting an environmental disaster with the biblical Plagues, Storms, destroyed Temples, and Darkness. 2014: Nadine Moeller and Robert Ritter identified the Storm Stela text as the description of the Egyptian impacts of the massive volcano Explosion of Santorini and according to the Radiocarbon results attest a necessary correction of the reign time of Ahmose I ('1531 BC') into the time of the Santorini Eruption between 1620 and 1600 (9). Israel Finkelstein confirms Radiocarbon results as the most reliable dating proof apart from scriptural proof: 

This unveils 75 non-existing years in Egyptian History and proves all pure biblical time data of this Chronology of Israel in Egypt being 100% correct.

1606 BC ('1790-1539'/'1710-1630'BC)

Southern Egypt:
The Ten Plagues in the Ipuwer Papyrus
is documenting environmental disaster with a storm, darkness, plagues, and biblical people impacts (eg the poor plunder the rich, compare Exodus12:35) The first three plagues combined with the Nile have their biblical impact on all people while the fourth to tenth plague have no impact on the people of Israel living mainly in the northern part of Egypt.

1606 BC ('1531'BC)

1606 BC ('1250' BC: no evidence)

Avaris/Memphis: Moses Comeback Genesis4-15  
Southern Egypt/Thebes: The 10th Plague. Death of all male firstborn in Egypt. Manfred Bietak excavates mass graves at Avaris Numbers33:4 and estimates them into the time of the Expulsion of the 'Hyksos', Avaris (Bietak) and Lahun at Fayum (Rosalie David) are suddenly abandoned by the complete population;
The Exodus of Israel out of Egypt: Nearly all ancient writings date the time of Israel's Exodus into the time of the Hyksos Expulsion. Ahmose's Pyramid and all other huge building projects evidenced had to be broken off abruptly. 'Hyksos' Pharao Khamudi and his army chase after Israel through the Sinai desert and finally sink in the floods of the Gulf of Aqaba (Chapter Moses)

The Egyptian Southern Vasall Pharaoh of the Ten Plagues Ahmose I
under the Canaanite Northern Pharaoh and King of Egypt Khamudi
only wearing the Upper Egypt Crown

1606 BC ('1531'BC)

Southern Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I of Thebes takes Heliopolis, Sile, and Avaris in his 19th and Khamudi's 12th year of reign. He chases after and searches for the Canaanites in Canaan and takes the Canaanite town Scharuhen after 3 years of siege; The 'Hyksos' Expulsion ends. Ahmose I becomes the first Egyptian Pharaoh of the New Kingdom Period. The highest deity is changed to the hidden invisible semi-monotheistic deity Amun; This Semi-monotheism had been initiated by JOSEPH's son MANASSE Senebefni as the High priest of Amun two centuries earlier (Chapter Joseph). Celebrating the godlikeness of following Pharaohs abruptly stopped after the Ten Plagues had disproved and humiliated the divine power of Pharaoh.

1606-1566 BC 

Fourty biblical years of Israel wandering through the desert until the Conquest of the promised land. Contemporary Desert Settlement places of large populations with rock sanctuaries, water sources, and Hebrew indications found at Hashem El Tarif in Sinai and at Jebel El Lawz in Midian, Arabia (Chapter Moses).

1566-1560 BC (c.'1550' BC)

Israel's Conquest of the Promised Land Canaan: The most important leading Archeologist verifying the Conquest of Jericho in the unfalsified strictly biblical time 1566 BC is the self-called Canaanite Israel Finkelstein in his famous book „The Bible unearthed“:
a) Joshua6: around 1550 BC
destroying 1. city walls by
  'earthquake' & 2. city by fire
b) Joshua11:
Hazor's mid 16th century BC
Further proving archeological evidence:
c) Joshua19:
Dan's excavated destruction
   level of the mid 16th century BC (11)
d) Joshua24:
Shechem's destroying around
   1540 BC (11) and Joshua's24:26 covenant
   stone archeologically evidenced by
   Ernst Sellin, withdrawn from his
   excavations because of his
   questioning the Ramesses Time Paradigm
e) Joshua18:
Shilo was destroyed by major 
   fire in the 16th century BC (11) 
   identified excavated place of the 
   tabernacle with the exact biblical 
   metrics of 57,25m 

1566-1360 BC ('1566-1360' BC)

The Amarna Letters in Akkadian Cuneiform adressed to Pharaoh Amenhotep III & II in 1360-1332 BC confirm the Hebrews called Habirus having entered Canaan fighting and taking over different cities and the King of Shechem giving his land to the Habirus as evidence for the Conquest of Canaan: "The King of Gezer pleads with the Pharaoh 'Save his land from the power of the Habiru', the war 'is severe'" or "The Habiru are stronger than we" or "The King admits that his own brother 'has pledged himself to the Habiru'" (compare Smith, Homer W. 1952. Man and His Gods. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 89.) The Akkadian word Apiru (Habiru) is derived from dust meaning dusty ones or street people. The word Hebrew = iwri is derived from awar = run over, meaning homeless migrants. The Hebrews were runaway slaves from Egypt.

1480-1400 BC ('1480-1400' BC)

The Soleb Inscription:

The Bible says in Judges3:30 the Israelites conquered the complete land of Moab and occupied Moab for 80 years 1480-1400 BC. Kennedy and Kramer reexamined the famous Soleb inscription of c. 1400 BC in a temple for Pharaoh Amenhotep III in contemporary Southern Egypt: A list of allegedly dominated eastern peoples mentions the (semi-) nomadic People of Yahweh "Ta Shasu Yahweh" - meaning they worshipped Yahweh - and contextually places them in the land of Edom and Moab as new direct neighbors to Egypt; As to be admitted by every Egyptologist and Archeologist Israel is the only people in ancient history ever having worshipped JAHWHE. It is the earliest inscription mentioning Yahweh and proves the historicity of Judges3:30 in the Bible. Donald Redford in his book Egypt, Israel & Canaan admits „For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here … the name of the Israelite God YAHWEH … the passage constitutes … the whereabouts during the late 15th century BC of an enclave revering this god.“

1427-1351 BC ('1427-1351' BC)

The Berlin Pedestal
resembles the spelling of the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep II or III who claims to have dominated Canaan, Ashkelon (the Philistines), and Israel as the three contemporary most relevant peoples in that region; Görg, Van der Veen, and Theis conclude that the incomplete hieroglyphic name is best translated I-3-SR-I-L becoming clearly the oldest evidence for Israel. This is archeological evidence confirming the Bible's claim Canaan in Judges4:3, the Philistines in Judges3:31, and Israel in Judges3:30-5:31 to be the three most relevant peoples in that region in the Strict Biblical Time 1480-1340 BC.

1213-1203 BC ('1213-1203' BC)

The Merneptah Stele:
Pharaoh Merneptah claims to have destroyed Canaan, Ashkelon (the Philistines), and Israel, he says he "laid waste to Israel and their seed is no more": Israel is here mentioned a second time as one of the three same key players in the region which is archeological evidence fitting to the Bible's claim in Judges12:7,9,11,14 that Israel dominated Canaan in the Strict Biblical Time 1227-1196 BC after the Ammonites and before the Philistines dominated their land.

The time figures of this complete Chronology are the pure bibilical time figures of the rediscovered first and only strictly biblical Chronology in accordance with nearly all ancient writings.
(The time figures in brackets and in cursive are according to actual leading egyptologists' estimations.)

Scientific evidence and indications are written in cursive and documented and explained in Chapter Joseph and Moses as far as they are related to the time of Israel in Egypt.



There is no evidence
proving the Semites in Egypt
of the 12th/13th/16th/17th Dynasty being Canaanites.
There is no evidence

disproving the Semites in Egypt 
of the 12th/13th/16th/17th Dynasty being Israelites.

This work delivers over 100 exemplars of archeological evidence 
revealing the opposite is the case.

Radiocarbon Results of the Storm Stela and the Ypuwer Papyrus evidenced Santorini Vulcano Eruption Impact on Egypt 
prove the Hyksos Expulsion and Ahmose's I reign 
took place 75 years earlier.

Egyptology does not deliver the necessary archeological evidence
to prove the Second Intermediate Period counting
'254' years '1803-1549' BC (Kim Ryholt).

This work delivers the archeological evidence 
revealing the Second Intermediate Period counting 
160 biblical years 1785-1625 BC.



Israel's Genealogy in Egypt according to the rediscovered first and only unfalsified Strict Bible Chronology - You find the archeological evidence background explanation in Chapter Chronology, Joseph and Moses.



*2111-1936+ BC


& Wife SARAH
& Maid HAGAR



Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


*2011-1831+ BC




*1951-1804+ BC

& Wife LEAH

Brother ESAU

Senusret II 
Amenemhet II

Grandvizier ZaMonth KhnumHotep

*1860-1750+ BC
1830-1750 BC

  • God Sealer
  • Gate of Foreign Lands
  • Pharaoh's 
    "Real Friend"
  • Overseer of Fields & of the Hunters
  • Arm of Month
  • Mayor
  • Mouth of Nekhen


  • ZaMonth
  • KhnumHotep
  • Kethi/Chety
  • Senewosret Ankh
  • Mon(t)hotep

& Wife ASENATH, ESENUT Ahenut, Henutsen, Henut

Daughter of POTIPHERA Khnumhotep II

  • Priestess
  • Queenmother 
  • "Mother of Gods"

Mother of 10 Kingdaughters:
Seneb, ..
2 Viziers:
Senebefni Ibiaw
2 Kingsons:
Sonb, Khakau
4 Pharaohs:

Intef, Meribre,
Wepwauthotep Sobekhotep III 

12 Brothers &

Leah's sons:
Rachel's sons:
Bilhah's sons:
Zilpah's sons:

Amenemhet III 

Amenemhet's blood son died in a revolte against his father and JOSEPH

Amenemhet's III children: 

  • later Pharaoh Nofrusobek
  • BENJAMIN's Amenemhet's IV wife Nofruptha 
  • EPHRAIM's Ankhu's wife Mereret
  • Amenemhet's adopted son in law BENJAMIN Amenemhet IV

Vizier Ankhu  Senwosret

c. *1828-1728+ BC

Co-Rulership with his father
c. 1798-1750 BC

Vizier Ankhu

Vizier Senwosret Speaker of Vizier Zamonth

Mayor of Lahun Senwosret under Vizier Chety

& Wife Mereret

Senowsret's III or more probably Pharaoh Amenemhat's III Daughter

Mother of
Vizier Resseneb Sonbhenaf
BERIAH 1Chr7:23

Vizier Iymerew Aya


2 Sons died in a fight against descendants of DAN & GAD:

ESER Nebankh &

ELEAD 1Chr7,21

Vizier Senebefni Ibiaw

also deciphered as (Dedu-Month) Senebtefi

Thebes' Mayor, Vizier, Royal Sealer & Highpriest of Amun

Legitimate sons Jos17 1Chron7
of Egyptian mother: 

1. AVIEZER Pharaoh Wegaf
2. HELEQ Pharaoh Khendjer
3. ASRIEL Pharaoh Ibiaw  
4. HEPHER Vizier Senebhenef
Sobekhotep VIII
5. SHEMIDA Pharaoh Sobekhemsaf I

Illegitimate son 1Chr7,14 of an aramean concubine
6. MACHIR Nehy

Month Khnum-
hotep Monthotep 

  • KING of Egypt
  • First Shepherdking & Ruler of Foreign Lands Hekashasut = First 'Hyksos'
  • Archeologically evidenced 

   King Khnumhotep,
   King Zamonth and 
   King Monthotep

  • Father of the Land
  • Father of G'ds
  • Worshipped as Khnum, Month & Osiris  
  • Brother of the first hebrew Pharaoh BENJAMIN Amenemhat IV

Vizier Resseneb 

c. *1800-1710+ BC


Assistance of his Grandfather
JOSEPH as Mayor of Lahun
under Vizier Chety

Co-Rulership as Vizier with his father
EPHRAIM and brother BERIAH
c. 1750-1729 BC

c. 1725-1700 BC

& Wife Senebtisi

  • Lady of the House
  • Later Widow and wife of MANASSE's/ 

  MACHIR/ Nehy

Brother BERIAH
Vizier Iymeru Aya

c. *1800-1690+ BC


Co-Rulership with brother SHUTELAH:
c. 1750-1710 BC

c. 1710-1690 BC

Sisters: Aya, Senebhenas
Wife: ZatJan
REPHA 1Chr7,25  
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru Ayamerew II
c. *1760-1650+ BC

ing Ankhu Senwosret

1750-c.1729 BC

  • Archeologically evidenced

   Senwosret King 
   of Pharaoh Wegaf


c. *1790-1700+ BC


Son of SHUTELAH's  Resseneb's widow Senebtisi and MANASSE's Senebefni Ibiaw's biblically illegitimate son MACHIR Nehy 1Chr7,14 
Claimed by his sons as 

  • "Royal Sealer"
  • "Father of Gods" & King as Father of "Kingsons" 


HUPPIM's Gen46,21 sister, granddaughter of BENJAMIN

"King's Daughter" of
BENJAMIN's son IR 1Chron7,12 Pharaoh Awibre Hor I

died early in the second reign year of her eldest son Pharaoh Neferhotep

Cousin REPHA
Vizier Neferkare Iymeru  Ayameru II 

c. *1760-1650+ BC

Son and successor of Vizierking BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Iymeru Aya

Co-Rulership with father Iymeru Aya:
c. 1710-1690 BC

c. 1690-1666 BC

Reduced to Vizier:
1666-1650 BC 

Sharek, Salitis =
First Canaanite 'Hyksos'  Pharaoh

1729 BC:
Self-appointed King of Foreign Lands = 'HYKSOS' of Egypt

Thebes Rulership:
1. SHUTELAH 1Chr7:20 Vizier Resseneb
2. BERIAH 1Chr7:23 Vizier Iymerew Aya
3. REFACH 1Chr7:25 Vizier Neferkare Iymerew Ayamerew II 

ULAM Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV

c. *1730-1656+ BC

Son of PERESH/ Haankhef 1Chr7:16

Husband of Hyksos Pharaoh's daughter Meris/Tjan

Co-Rulership with Hyksos Pharaoh Khayan over complete Egypt:
1666-1658 BC

Father of BEDAN Sobekhotep V &
Sobekhotep VI
as the last Hebrew Pharaohs and Shepherd Kings

Stepfather of
Mio Sobekhotep =


1. Wife Nubhotepi
2. Wife Meris,Tjan

1. Nubhotepi: Hebrew mother of BEDAN 1Chr7:17 Sobekhotep V

2. Meris/Tjan:

Pharaoh's Daughter of canaanite 'Hyksos' Khayan

Canaanite mother of Sobekhotep VI

Adoptive Stepmother of Mio Sobekhotep =


Brother REKEM
Pharaoh Neferhotep

3 self-called "Kingsons":

1.REKEM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Neferhotep
father of

2.Pharaoh Sihathor
(no reign time)
nephew of

3.ULAM 1Chr7:16 Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV

Pharaohs Khayan & Sobekhotep IV

1666-1658 BC: Co-Rulership of canaanite father and hebrew son in law over reunited Egypt

Switch back from Vizier Dynasty to Pharaoh Dynasty leading into the

Downfall of the Kingdom of Hebrew Shepherd Kings

Notes and References

  1. c. Bietak, M.Tell el-Daba Retriever30 November 2019
  2. c. Manfred Bietak 1996 Avaris, the cpaital of th Hyksos: recent excavations at Tell el-Daba & David Rohl 2010 The Lords of Avaris
  4. According to german Wikipedia his concubines Kawit, Henhenet, Kemsit, Sadeh and Aschait died very young; & Dodson, Aidan Marc 2004; Hilton, Dyan 2010 London, The complete royal families of ancient Egypt 
  5. Wolfram Grajetzki, Court of Officials of the Egyptian Mittel Kingdom 2009 London & Janice Karmin, The Cosmos of Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan 1999 London
  6. Eruption around 1600 BC: Hardy DA (1989) "Thera and the Aegean World III", Volume III - Chronology. Retriever 2008-03-16
  7. Stanley, DJ & Zheng, H (1986). "Volcanic Charts from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt". Nature. 320, 1986 (6064): 733-35.
  8. Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, B, Friedrich, M, Heinemeier, J, Pfeiffer, T, and Talamo, S (2006) "Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Daten to 1627-1600 BC" Science. American Association for the Avancement of Science. 312 (5773): 565-69.
  9. Ritner, Robert K.; Nadine Moeller (April 2014). "The Ahmose 'Tempest Stela', Thera and Comparative Chronology". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 73 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1086/675069.) in the conventional but disputed Egyptian chronology he ruled from c. 1539–1514 BC. (Ancient stormy weather: World's oldest weather report could revise bronze age chronology., April 2014). Additional scientific research published in 2018 also suggests a correlation between the Ahmose Storm Stela and the Santorini Eruption: (Pearson, Charlotte L.; et al. (2018). "Annual radiocarbon record indicates 16th century BCE date for the Thera eruption". Science Advances. 4 (8): eaar8241. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8241P. 
  10. Cypriot White Slip pottery .. provides no convincing argumetn against an eruption date of around 1600 BC: Höflmayer, Felix (2012). "The Date of the Minoan Santorini Eruption .." Radiocarbon. 54(3-4):444.
  11. Shilo was destroyed by a major fire in the 15th century (Stern, S.1367 Vol.4). Sichem was destroyed around 1540 BC and remained abandoned for a century (Stern, S.1347,1350 Vol.4). Tel Dan was destroyed around 1550 BC (Stern, S.326, Vol.1)